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fl?0K of the present century., by the creative genius of Peter ====the Great, who made his country known and formidable
to the rest of Europj. of Dtn- In Denmark and Sweden, during the reign of Charles mark and y reat revolutions happened in their constitutions, civil as well as ecclesiastical. In the former kingdom a tyrant being degraded from the throne, and expelled the country, a new prince was called by the voice of the people to assume the reins of government. In the latter, a fierce people, roused to arms by injuries and oppression, shock off the Danish yoke, and conferred the regal dignity on its deliverer, Gustavus Ericson, who had all the virtues of a hero and of a patriot. Denmark, exhausted by foreign wars, or weakened by the dissensions between the king and the nobles, became incapable of such efforts as were requisite in order to recover the ascendant which it had long possessed in the north of Europe. Sweden, as soon as it was freed from the dominion of strangers, began to recruit its strength, and acquired, in a short Cime, such internal vigour, that it became the first kingdom in the north. Early in the subsequent century, it rose to such a high rank among the powers of Europe, that it hail the chief merit in forming as well as conducting that powerful league, which protected, not only the Protestant religion, but the liberties of Germany, against the bigotry and ambition of the house oi Austria.
VIEW OF THE STATE OF EUROPE.
,A. FRICA, the shocking devastations made there by the Vandals, 454.
Alanus, his character of the clergy in his time, 476, 477.
Alfred the Great, his complaint of the ignorance of the clergy, 476.
Allodial possession of land, explained, 464. How such possession became
Allodium, the etymology of that word, 471.
Ammianu; his character of the Huns, 452, 458.
Amuralk, sultan, the body of janizaries formed by him, 160.
Anathema, form of that denounced against robbers during the middle
Arabia, the ancient Greek philosophy cultivated there, while lost in
Aragon, rise of the kingdom of, 124. Its union with Castile, ibid. 'The
Armies, standing, the rise of, traced, 79. By what means they became
Anna, the profession'of, the most honourable in uncivilized nations, 58.
Ass, an account of the ancient Komjsh feast of, 479.
Assemblies, legislative, how formed. 31.
'general, of France, their power under the first race of kings,
140 Under the second and third, ibid. At what period they lost their
Attila, king of the Huns, account of his reception of the Roman ambas-
Avila, an assembly of Castilian nobles there, solemnly try and depose
Austria, the house of, by whom founded, 150,
BaiBis, in the old French law, their office explained, 427.
Jialance of power, the first rise of in Europe, 94. The progress of, 9A.
Baltic, the first Source of wealth to the towns sitiatcd on that sea, 448.
Barons, their independence, and mutual hostilities, under the feudal
Bentjiees, under ihe feudal system, a history of, 466. When they be-
Bootes, an inquiry into the materials of the ancient ones, 476. The loss
Boroughs, representatives of. how introduced into national councils, 31.
Britons, ancient, their distress and dejection when deserted hy the •Ro-
Brotherhood of God, an account of that association for extinguishing
Bruges, how it became the chief mart for Italian commodities during
^Burgundy, Vary, heiress of, the importance with which her choice of
Cmsnr, his account of the ancient Germans, compared with that of Ta-
Calatrava, military order of, in Spain, zealous to employ their prowess
in defence of the honours of the Virgin Mary, 558. The vow used
by these knights, ibid.
54. The maxims of, more equitable than the civil courts of the
middle ages, ibid,
Castile, rise of the kingdom of, 124. Its union with Aragon, ibid. Its
king Henry IV. solemnly tried and deposed in an assembly of the
nobles, 127. The constitution and government of that kingdom, 130.
A history of the cortes of, and its privileges, ibid. The kingdom
originally elective, 555, NOTE XXXIII.
rights, against their king John II. of Aragon, 126.
they entered into, described, 502.
required from them, 542.
Charlemagne, his law to prevent private wars for redress of personal
injuries, 39, 507. State of Germany under his descendants, 146.
tytirle* V. emperor, an emulator of the heroic conduct of his rival,
——— VII. of France, the first who introduced standing armies in
VIII. of France, hi.s character, 91. How induced to invade Italy,
92. His resources and preparations for this enterprise, 92, 93. His
Charlci-oix, his account of the North American Indians, made use of in a
Charters, of immunity or franchise, an inquiry into the nature of those
Chivalry, the origin of, 59. Its beneficial effects on human manners,
Christianity, corrupted when first brought into Europe, 63 Its influence
Clicks of Germany, the occasion of their being formed, 152.
Cities, the ancient state of, under the feudal policy, 26. The freedom
Clergy, the progress of their usurpations, 54. Their plan of juris-
Ckrha, slave to Willa, widow of Duke Hugo, extract from the charter
Clermont, council of, resolves on the holy war, 20. Sec Peter tlte Hermit,
Clulaire I. instance of the small authority he had over his army, 561.
Clovis, the founder of the French monarchy, unable to retain a sacrct
Colleges, the first establishment of, in Europe, 538.
Combat, judicial, the prohibition of an improvement in the administra-
Commerce, the spirit of crusading how far favourable to, at that early pe-
The early cultivation of, in Italy, 543.
justice (llanville, 5*?3.
Composition for personal injuries, the motives for establishing, J>01. The
Compurgators, introduced as evidence in the jurisprudence of the middle
Condottieii, in the Italian policy, what, 113.
Conrad, count of Franconia, how he obtained election to the empire, 147.
Suahia, his unhappy fate, 117.
free cities of Italy, 483.
first taken by the Turks, 158. The crusaders how looked upon there,
484. The account given of this city by the Latin writers, ibid.
Cordova, Gonsalvo dc, secures the crown of Naples to Ferdinand of Ara-
Corporations, and bodies politic, the establishments of, how far favourable
jCorte* of Aragon, its constitution and privileges, 127, 552.
i of Castile, a history of, and an account of its constitution and pri-
Crusades, the first motives of undertaking, 19. The enthusiastic zeal with
iBebt, the first hint of attaching moveables for the recovery of, derived
from the canon law, 532.
Doctors in the different faculties, dispute precedence with knights, 538.
Ecclesiastical jurisprudence, more perfect in its plan than the civil courts