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fl?0K of the present century., by the creative genius of Peter ====the Great, who made his country known and formidable

to the rest of Europj. of Dtn- In Denmark and Sweden, during the reign of Charles mark and y reat revolutions happened in their constitutions, civil as well as ecclesiastical. In the former kingdom a tyrant being degraded from the throne, and expelled the country, a new prince was called by the voice of the people to assume the reins of government. In the latter, a fierce people, roused to arms by injuries and oppression, shock off the Danish yoke, and conferred the regal dignity on its deliverer, Gustavus Ericson, who had all the virtues of a hero and of a patriot. Denmark, exhausted by foreign wars, or weakened by the dissensions between the king and the nobles, became incapable of such efforts as were requisite in order to recover the ascendant which it had long possessed in the north of Europe. Sweden, as soon as it was freed from the dominion of strangers, began to recruit its strength, and acquired, in a short Cime, such internal vigour, that it became the first kingdom in the north. Early in the subsequent century, it rose to such a high rank among the powers of Europe, that it hail the chief merit in forming as well as conducting that powerful league, which protected, not only the Protestant religion, but the liberties of Germany, against the bigotry and ambition of the house oi Austria.

INDEX

TO 1MM

VIEW OF THE STATE OF EUROPE.

A'

,A. FRICA, the shocking devastations made there by the Vandals, 454.

Alanus, his character of the clergy in his time, 476, 477.

Alfred the Great, his complaint of the ignorance of the clergy, 476.

Allodial possession of land, explained, 464. How such possession became
subject to military service, ibid. Distinguished from beneficiary ter
nures, 465. How converted into feudal tenures, 469.

Allodium, the etymology of that word, 471.

Ammianu; his character of the Huns, 452, 458.

Amuralk, sultan, the body of janizaries formed by him, 160.

Anathema, form of that denounced against robbers during the middle
ages, 542.

Arabia, the ancient Greek philosophy cultivated there, while lost in
Europe, 536, NOTE XXVIII. The progress of philosophy from
thence to Europe, $38.

Aragon, rise of the kingdom of, 124. Its union with Castile, ibid. 'The
constitution and form of its government, 127. The privileges of its
cortes, 128. Office and jurisdiction of the jusnza, ibid. The regal
power very confined, 129. Form of the allegiance sworn to the kings
of, 180. The power of the nobility to controul the regal power, 552.
Their privilege of union taken away by Peter IV. ibid. The establish,
ment of the inquisition opposed there, 554.

Armies, standing, the rise of, traced, 79. By what means they became
more general in Europe, 96.

Anna, the profession'of, the most honourable in uncivilized nations, 58.

Ass, an account of the ancient Komjsh feast of, 479.

Assemblies, legislative, how formed. 31.

'general, of France, their power under the first race of kings,

140 Under the second and third, ibid. At what period they lost their
legislative authority, 141.

Attila, king of the Huns, account of his reception of the Roman ambas-
sadors, 452, NOTE III. Some account of his conquests, 456.

Avila, an assembly of Castilian nobles there, solemnly try and depose
Henry IV. their king, 127.

Austria, the house of, by whom founded, 150,

B

BaiBis, in the old French law, their office explained, 427.

Jialance of power, the first rise of in Europe, 94. The progress of, 9A.

Baltic, the first Source of wealth to the towns sitiatcd on that sea, 448.
Barelona, its trade, riches, mid privileges, at the close of the fit'teenth
century, 556.

Barons, their independence, and mutual hostilities, under the feudal
system, 14. How afl'ecte I hy the enfranchisement of cities, 29.
Acqui'-o a participation in legislative government, 31. Their private
wars fcr redress of personal injuries, 37. Methods employed to
abolish these contentions, 39. Origin of their supreme and inde-
pendent jurisdiction, 49. The had eflects resulting from these pri-
vileges, 50. The steps taken by princes to reduce their courts, 51.
How obliged to relinquish their judicial prerogatives, 58. Of Italy,
subjected to municipal laws, 480. Their right of territorial juris-
diction explained, 523. Their emoluments from causes decided in
their courts, 524.

Bentjiees, under ihe feudal system, a history of, 466. When they be-
came hereditary, 468.

Bootes, an inquiry into the materials of the ancient ones, 476. The loss
of old manuscripts accounted for, 477. The great prices they sold for
in ancient times, ibid

Boroughs, representatives of. how introduced into national councils, 31.

Britons, ancient, their distress and dejection when deserted hy the •Ro-
man1;, and harassed by the Picts and Caledonians, 451, NOTE I.

Brotherhood of God, an account of that association for extinguishing
private wars, 509.

Bruges, how it became the chief mart for Italian commodities during
the middle ages, 545.

^Burgundy, Vary, heiress of, the importance with which her choice of
a husband was considered by all Europe, 88. The treacherous views
of Louis XI. of France, towards her, 90. Is married to the archduke
Maximilian, 91. The influence of this match on the state of Eu-
rope, ibid.

C *

Cmsnr, his account of the ancient Germans, compared with that of Ta-
citus, 460.

Calatrava, military order of, in Spain, zealous to employ their prowess

in defence of the honours of the Virgin Mary, 558. The vow used

by these knights, ibid.
Cambray, treaty of, its object, 99. The confederacy dissolved, 101.
Canon law, an inquiry into, 53, Progress of ecclesiastical usurpations,

54. The maxims of, more equitable than the civil courts of the

middle ages, ibid,

Castile, rise of the kingdom of, 124. Its union with Aragon, ibid. Its

king Henry IV. solemnly tried and deposed in an assembly of the

nobles, 127. The constitution and government of that kingdom, 130.

A history of the cortes of, and its privileges, ibid. The kingdom

originally elective, 555, NOTE XXXIII.
Catulunia, the spirited behaviour of the people there in defence of their

rights, against their king John II. of Aragon, 126.
Censuulw, a species of the Oblati, or voluntary slaves, the obligations

they entered into, described, 502.
Centcnarii, or inferior judges in the middle ages, the extraordinary oath

required from them, 542.
Champs dc Mars, and de Mai, account of those assemblies of the ancient

Gauls, 561.

Charlemagne, his law to prevent private wars for redress of personal

injuries, 39, 507. State of Germany under his descendants, 146.
Chaiiet IV. emperor, dissipates the imperial domains, 575.

tytirle* V. emperor, an emulator of the heroic conduct of his rival,
Francis I. 61. His future grandeur founded on the marriage of the
archduke Maximilian with the heiress of Burgundy, 91.

——— VII. of France, the first who introduced standing armies in
F.urope, 79. His successful extension of the regal prerogative, 81.

VIII. of France, hi.s character, 91. How induced to invade Italy,

92. His resources and preparations for this enterprise, 92, 93. His
rapid success, 93. A combination of the Italian states formed against
him, 94. Is forced to return hack to France, 95. The distressed
state of his revenues by this expedition, 99.

Charlci-oix, his account of the North American Indians, made use of in a
comparison between them and the ancient Germans, -Mil.

Charters, of immunity or franchise, an inquiry into the nature of those
granted by the barons of France to the towns under their jurisdiction,
488, NOTE XVI. Of communities, granted by the kings of France,
how they tended to establish regular government, 28, 48S.

Chivalry, the origin of, 59. Its beneficial effects on human manners,
60. The enthusiasm of, distinguished from its salutary consequences*
61.

Christianity, corrupted when first brought into Europe, 63 Its influence
in freeing mankind from the bondage of the feudal policy, 500, XOTUi
XX.

Clicks of Germany, the occasion of their being formed, 152.

Cities, the ancient state of, under the feudal policy, 26. The freedom
of, where first established, 27. Charters of community, whj granted
in France by I.ouis le Gros, 28. Obtain the like all over Europe, 29.
Acquire political consideration, 31.

Clergy, the progress of their usurpations, 54. Their plan of juris-
prudence more perfect than that of the civil courts in the middle
ages, ibid. The great ignorance of, in the early feudal times of Eu-
rope, 476, NOTE X.

Ckrha, slave to Willa, widow of Duke Hugo, extract from the charter
of manumission gran'teel to her, 501.

Clermont, council of, resolves on the holy war, 20. Sec Peter tlte Hermit,
and Crusades,

Clulaire I. instance of the small authority he had over his army, 561.
Clotharius II. his account of the popular assemblies among the ancient
Gauls, 562.

Clovis, the founder of the French monarchy, unable to retain a sacrct
vase, taken by his army, fronr'being distributed by lot among the res;
of the plunder, 463, NOTE VII.

Colleges, the first establishment of, in Europe, 538.

Combat, judicial, the prohibition of an improvement in the administra-
tion of justice, AO. The foundation and universality of this mod:
of trial, 44. The pernicious effects of, 46. Various expedient!
for abolishing this practice, ibid. The ancient Swedish law of, fa'
words of reproach, 516. Positive evidence, or points of proof, ren-
dered ineffectual by it, 518. This mode of trial authorized by the
ecclesiastics, 519. The last instances of, in the histories of Franca
and England, 520.

Commerce, the spirit of crusading how far favourable to, at that early pe-
riod, 25. The lirst establishment of free corporations, 26. Charters
of community, why granted by Louis le Gros, 28. The like practice
obtains all over Europe, 5:9. The salutary effects of these institutions,
ibid. The low state of, during the middle ages, 66. Causes contributing
to its revival, ibid. Promoted by the Hanseatic league, 68. Is culti-
vated in the Netherlands, 69. Is introduced into England by Edward
IH, 69. The beneficial consequences resulting from the revival ot,&td.

The early cultivation of, in Italy, 543.
Common law, the first compilation of, made in England by Lord-chief^

justice (llanville, 5*?3.
CommuniUe-x. See dinners. Cities, Commerce, and Corporation*.
Comnena, .Anne, her character of the crusaders, 484.
Compass, mariners, when invented, and its influence on the extension of

commerce, 67.

Composition for personal injuries, the motives for establishing, J>01. The
custom of, deduced from the practice of the ancient Germans, 520.

Compurgators, introduced as evidence in the jurisprudence of the middle
ages, 12.

Condottieii, in the Italian policy, what, 113.

Conrad, count of Franconia, how he obtained election to the empire, 147.
Conradin, the last rightful heir to the crown of Naples of the house of

Suahia, his unhappy fate, 117.
Constance, treaty of, between the emperor Frederic Barbaressa and the

free cities of Italy, 483.
Constantinople, its flourishing state at the time of the crusades, 22. When

first taken by the Turks, 158. The crusaders how looked upon there,

484. The account given of this city by the Latin writers, ibid.
Constitutions, popular, how formed, 30.

Cordova, Gonsalvo dc, secures the crown of Naples to Ferdinand of Ara-
gon, 119.

Corporations, and bodies politic, the establishments of, how far favourable
to the improvement of manners, 26. The privileges of, how first claim-
ed, 27. Charters of community, why granted by Louis le Gros in France,
28. The institution of, obtains all over Kurope, i9. Their effects, ibid.

jCorte* of Aragon, its constitution and privileges, 127, 552.

i of Castile, a history of, and an account of its constitution and pri-
vileges, 130. The vigilance with which it guarded its privileges against
the encroachments of the regal power, 131.

Crusades, the first motives of undertaking, 19. The enthusiastic zeal with
which they were undertaken, ibid. First promoted by Peter the Hermit,
20. The success of them, 21. The consequence* resulting from them,
22. Their effects on manners, ibid. On property, 23. How advan-
tageous to the enlargement of the regal power of the European princes,
24. The commercial effects of, 24, 67. The universal frenzy for en-
gaging in these expeditions accounted for, 480, NOTE XIII. The
privileges granted to those who engaged in them, 481. Stephen earl
of Chartre* and Blois, his account of them, 482. The cxpencc of
conducting them, how raised, 483. Character given of the crusaders
•by the Greek writers, 484.

D

iBebt, the first hint of attaching moveables for the recovery of, derived

from the canon law, 532.
Debtors, how considered in the rude and simple state of society, 491.
Diet* of Germany, some account of, 578.

Doctors in the different faculties, dispute precedence with knights, 538.

E

Ecclesiastical jurisprudence, more perfect in its plan than the civil courts
of the middle ages, 54.

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