Ecclesiastics, when, and by what degrees, they claimed exemption from civil jurisdiction, 529. Military talents cultivated and exercised by those of the middle ages, 535.

Edxard III. of England, his endeavours to introduce commerce into his kingdom, 69.

Electors of Germany, the rise of their privileges, 155.

MUiy St, his definition or description of a good Christian, 478, NOTE XI.

Emperors of Germany, an inquiry into their pow er, jurisdiction, and revenue, 573, NOT15 XLII. The ancient mode of electing them, 576.

England, a summary view of the contests between, and France, 75. The consequences of its losing its continental possessions, 77. The power of the crown, how extended, 87. See Henry VI I. Why so many marks of Saxon usages and language, in comparison with those of the Normans, to be found in, 152, NOTK IV. When corporations began to l>e established in, 497. nstances of the long continuance of personal servitude there, 503. Inquiry Into the Saxon laws for putting an end to private wars, 511. The causes of the speedy decline of private wars there, proposed to the researches of antiquarians, 512. The last instances of judicial combat recorded in the history of, 520. The territorial jurisdiction of the barons how abolished, 528. Cause of the slow progress of commerce there, 547. The first commercial treaty entered into by, 5iS.

Evidence, the imperfect nature of that admitted in law proceedings during the middle ages, 41. Rendered ineffectual by the judicial combat, 518.

Europe, the alterations in, by the conquest of the Romans, 2. The improvements the nations of, received in exchange for their liberties, ibid. Its disadvantages under this change of circumstances, Hid, Inquiry into the supposed populousness of the ancient northern nations, 4. The savage desolations exercised by the Goths, Vandals, and Huns, 8. The universal change occasioned by their irruptions and conquest, 9. The first rudiments of the present policy nf, to he deduced from this period, 10. Origin of the feudal system, 11. See Feudal System. The general barbarism introduced ivjth this policy, 15. At what time government and manners began to improve, 18. The causSs and events which contributed to this improvement, 19. See Crusades, Corporations, People. The miseries occasioned by private wars in, 38. Methods taken to suppress them, 39. Judicial combats prohibited, 40. The defects of judicial proceedings in the middle ages, 41. The influence of superstition in these proceedings, 43. The origin of the independent territrrial jurisdiction of the barons, 49. The bad consequences of their judicial power, ibid. The steps taken by princes to abolish their courts, 61- An inquiry into the canon law, 53. Revival of the Roman law, 56. Effects of the spirit of Chivalry, 52. How improved by the progress of science and cultivation of literature, 61. Christianity corrupted when lirst received in, 63. Scholastic theology the first object of learning in, 61. Low state of commerce in, during the middle ages, 66. Commerce revives in Italy, 67. Is promoted by the Hanscatic league, 68. Is cultivated in the Netherlands, 69. The effects of the progress of commerce on the polishing of manners, ibid. The effects of the marriage of the heiress of Hurgundy with the archduke Maximilian, on the state of, 91. By what means standing forces became general in, 95. Consequences of the league of Cambray to, 99. A view of the political constitution of the several states of, at the commencement of th sixteenth century, 105. Italy, ibid, The papacy, 106. Venice, 113. Florence, 11*. Naples, 116. Milan, 119. Spain', 122. tFiance, 139.

Germany. 140. Turtey, 138. Instances of rhe small intercourse
among nations in the middle ages, 53!).


Feodum, the etymology of that word, 471.

Ferdinand, king of Aragon, unites the Spanish monarchy by his marriage
w ith Isabella of Castile, 121. Ilis schemes to exalt the regal power,
13.5. Resumes former grants of land from his barons, ibid. Unites to
the crown the grand masterships of the three military orders, 130.
Why he patronized the association called the Holy Brotherhood,
against the barons, 138.

Feudal system, the origin of, deduced, 11. The primary object of this
policy. 12. Its dcficienccs for inferior government, ibid. Tenures of
land, how established under, 13. The rise of intestine discords among
the barons under, ibid. The servile state of the people, J 4. The weak
authority of the king, ibid. Its influence on the external operations of
war, ibid. The general extinction of all aits and sciences effected by.
15. Its on religion. Hi. Its inlluence on the character of
the human mind, 17. At what time government and manners began
to be improved, 18. The causes and events which contributed to this
improvement, ibid. jSee Crusades. The ancient state of cities undeT(
26. The frame of national councils under this policy, 31. How al-
tered by the progress of civil liberty, 32. An inquiry into the admi-
nistration of justice under, 35. Private war, 37. Judicial combat,
40. The independent jurisdiction of the barons, 48. The distinction
between freemen and \ assals under, 4(i5. How strangers were con-
sidered and treated under, 540.

Fiefo, under the feudal system, a history of, 4(57. When they became
hereditary, 4(i8.

Fitxtepben*, observations on his account of the state of London at the

time of Hcr.ry II. 497.
Flanders. See Netherlands.

Florence, a view of the constitution of, at the commencement of the six-
teenth century, 115. The inlluence acquired by Cosmo di Medici in,

France, by what means the towns in, first obtained charters of commu-
nity, 26. Ordinances of Louis \. and his brother Philip in favour of
civil liberty, 34. Methods employed to suppress private wars, 39. ISt
Louis attempts to discountenance judicial combat, 47. A view of the
contests between, and England, 75. The consequences of its recover-
ing its provinces from England, 77. The monarchy of, how strength-
ened by this event, 78. The rise of standing forces in, 79. The regal
prerogative strengthened by this measure, 81. The extension of the
regal prerogative vigorously pursued by Louis XI. 82. See Louis, XI.
The effects of the invasion of Italy by Charles VIII. 92. See Charles
VIII. National infantry established in, 98. League of Cambray
formed against the Venetians, 99. Battle of Ghiarradadda, 101. An
Inquiry into its ancient government and law s, 139. '1 he power of the
general assemblies under the-first race of kin;;.!, 1+0. Under the; se-
cond and third, ibid. The regal power confined to the king's own do-
mains, 141. When the general assembly or statef-ge ieral lost their
legislative authority, ibid. When the kings began to assert their legis-
lative power, 142. When the government of, became purely monarchi-
cal, 143. The regal power nevertheless restrained by the privileges
of the nobility, ibid. An inquiry into the jurisdiction of its parlia-
ments, particularly that of Taxis, 114. How the allodial property of
hind there was altered into feudal. 476. The progress of lihertv in
that kingdom traced, 498, NOTE XIX. The attempts to establish
liberty there unsuccessful. 499. The last instance of judicial com-
bat recorded in the history of, 530. The present government of.
compared with that of ancient Gaul, 560, NOTE XXXVIII. The
states-general, when lirst assembled, 509.

Francis I, of France, his character influenced by the spirit of chivalry,
61. Is emulated by the emperor Charles V. ibid.

Frederic liurbarossa, emperor, tlx; free cities of Italy unite against him,
488. Treaty of Constance with them, ibid. Was the lirst w ho grant-
ed privileges to the cities in Germany, 495.

Frcdum, in the ancient German usages, explained, 521.

/•'yeomen, how distinguished from vassals, under the feudal policy, 405,
475. Why often induced to surrender their freedom, and become slaves,

Fulcherius Camotensis, his character of the city of Constantinople, 484-


Cavl, how allodial property of land was changed into feudal there, 4715".
The government of, compared with that of modern France, 5(>0, NOT!-.
XXXVIII. The small authority the kings of, enjoyed over their
armies, illustrated in an anecdote of Clotaire 1. 561. Account of the
popular assemblies of. Mil. The Salic laws how enacted, 562". Wero
not subject to taxation, 563. See France.

Geffrey dc Vilkhardinun. his account of the magnificence of Constantinople
at the time when taken by the crusaders, 485.

Hermans, ancient, an account of their usages and way of life, 458. Their
method of engaging in war, 459. A comparison between them and
the North American Indians, 461. Why they had no cities, 494,
NOTE XVII. The practice of compounding for personal injuries by
lines, deduced from their usages, 520.

Germany, little interested in foreign concerns at the beginning of the
fifteenth century, 76. National infuntry established in, 97. State ofr
under Charlemagne and his descendants, 146. Conrad, count of Fran-
conia, chosen emperor, 147. His successors in the imperial dignity,
ibid. How the nobility of, acquired independent sovereign authority,
ibid. The fatal effects of aggrandizing the clergy in, 148. The con-
test between the emperor Henry IV. and Pope Gregory V II., 149.
Rise of the factions of Guelfs and Gbibellines, 150. Decline of tho
imperial authority, Md. The house of Austria, by whom founded, Md.
A total change in the political constitution of the empire, Md. The
state of am.-i chy in which it continued to the time of Maximilian, the
immediate predecessor of Charles V. 151. Divided into circles, 152.
The imperial chamber instituted, ibid. The aulic council reformed,
Md. A view of its political constitution at the commencement of the
ensuing history, ibid. Its defects pointed out, 153. 'i he imperial dig-
nity and power compared, 154. Election of the emperors, 155. The
repugnant forms of civil policy, in the several states of, 156. The
opposition between the secular and ecclesiastical members of, ibid.
The united body hence incapable of acting with vigour, 157. When
cities lirst began to be built in, 494, NOTE XVII. When the cities
of, first acquired municipal privileges, 495. The artizans of, when
enfranchised, 496. Immediate cities, in the German jurisprudence,
what, Md. The great calamities occasioned there by private wars*
513. Origin of the league of the Rhine, £14. When private w,ws
VOL. IV. 3 X

were finally abolished there, Ibid. Inquiry into the power, jurisdictioti, and revenue, of the emperors, 573, NOTE XLII. The ancient mode of electing the emperors, 576. Account of the diets, 578. 1 Ghibbellines. See Guelfi.

Ghiarradadda, the battle of, fatal to the Venetians, 101.

Glanvilk, lord-chief-justice, the first who compiled a body of common law in all Europe, 533.

Goths, Vandals, and Huns, over-run the Roman empire, and precipitate its downfal, 3. The state of the countries from whence they issued, 4. The motives of their first excursions, ibid. How they came to settle in the countries they conquered, 5. A comparison drawn between them and the Romans, at the period of their irruption, 6, 7. Compared with the native Americans. 8. The desolations they occasioned

• in Europe,ibid. The universal change made by them in the state of Europe, 9. The principles on which they made their settlements, 10. Origin of the feudal system, 11. See Feudal system. An inquiry into the administration of justice among, 36. Their private wars, 37. Destroy the monuments of the Roman arts, 62. Their contempt of the Romans, and hatred of their arts, 4-51, NOTE II. Their aversion toMiterature, 452. No authentic account of their origin or ancient history existing, ibid.

Government, how limited by the feudal policy, 13. The effects of the crusades on, 2i. How affected by the enfranchisement of cities, 29. Legislative assemblies, how formed, 31. Private wars destructive to the authority of, 39. Methods employed to abolish this hostile mode of redressing injuries, ibid. How affected by the supreme independent jurisdictions of the barons, 49. The steps towards abolishing them, 51. The origin and growth of royal courts of justice, 62. How influenced by the revival of science and literature, 65. A view of, at the beginning of the fifteenth century, 71. The power of monarch* then very limited, 72. Their revenues small, ibid. Their armies unfit for conquest, ibid. The princes hence incapable of extensive plans of operation, 74. The kingdoms very little connected with each other, 75. How the efforts of, from this period became more powerful and extensive, 76. The consequences of England losing its provinces in France, 77. The scheme of Louis XI. of France to extend the regal power, 83. See Louis XI. The power of the EngBsh crown enlarged, 87. Sec Henry VII. As also that of Spain, 88. How the use of standing armies became general, 96. A view of the political constitution of the several states of Europe, at the commencement of the sixteenth century, 105. In what respects the charters of communities granted by the kings of France tended to introduce a regular form of, 490.

Greece, the breeding of silk worms, when introduced there, 543.

Greek emperors, their magnificence at Constantinople, 484.

Gregory of Tours, remarks on the state of Europe during the period of which he wrote the history, 17.

the Great, pope, his reason for granting liberty to his slaves, 500.

VII. pope, the foundation of his contests with Henry IV. emperor of Germany, 149. The mean submission he extorted from Henry, ibid. His own account of this affair, 573.

Gudfs and Ghibellines, rise of those factions in Germany, 150.

Guicciardini, the historian, instance of his superstitious reverence for Pope Clement VII. 118, note.

Guntheras, a monk, his character of Constantinople, at the time when taken by the crusaders, 485.

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llanseatic league, when formed, and its influence on the extension of

commerce, 66, 516.
Henry IV. of Castile, 'solemnly tried and deposed by an assembly of Cas-

tiiian nobles, 137.

—emperor of Germany, the humilitating state to which he was

reduced by Pope Gregory VII. J49, 573, NOTE XLI.
—— VII. of England, his situation at his accession to the crown, 87.

Enables his barons to break their entails and sell their estates, ibid.

Prohibits his barons keeping retainers, ibid. Encourages agriculture

and commerce, ibid.
Herebannum, the nature of this fine under tbarfcudal policy, explained,


Hermandad, Santa, account of that institution. 559.

History, the most calamitous period of, pointed out, 8.

Holy Brotherhood, an association in Spain under that name, on what oc-
casion formed, 138.

— Land, the original inducements of the Christians to rescue it from
the hands of the infidels, 19. See Crusades and Peter the Hermit.

Honour, points of the ancient Swedish law for determining, 516.

Hospitality, enforced by statutes during the middle ages, 540.

Huns, instances of their enthusiastic passion for war, 452, NOTE III.
some account of their policy and manners, 455, 459. Sec Goths.


Janizaries, origin and formidable nature of those troops, 160, 161.
Imperial chamber of Germany instituted, 152, The occasion of its in-
stitution, 514, 579.
Indians, North American, a comparison drawn between them and the

ancient Germans, 461.
Industry, the spirit of, how excited by the enfranchisement of cities, 30.
Infantry, the advantages of, beyond cavalry, taught to the rest of Europe

by the Swiss, 97. National bodies of, established in Germany, ibid.

In France and Spain, 98.
Inheritance, and right of representation, between orphan grandsons and

their uncles, how decided in the tenth century, 516, 517.
Interest of money, the necessity of admitting, in a commercial view, 544.

Preposterously condemned by the churchmen of the middle ages, ibid.

The cause hence, of the exorbitant exactions of the Lombard bankers,

ibid. 545.

Italy, when the cities of, began to form themselves into bodies politic,
87. Commerce first improved there, and the reasons of it, 67. The
revolutions in Europe occasioned by the invasion of, by Charles VIII.
of France, 91, 92. The state of, at the time of this invasion, 92. The
rapid success of Charles, 94. A combination of the states of, drives
Charles out of, and gives birth to the balance of power in Europe, ibid.
The political situation of, at the commencement of the sixteenth cen-
tury, 105. The papacy, 106. Venice, 113. Florence, 115. Naples,
116. Milan, 119. Evidences of the desolation made there by the
northern invaders of the Roman empire, 456. How the cities of, ob-
tained their municipal privileges, 486. NOTE XV. State of, under
Frederic I.-(ML Treaty of Constance between the free cities of, and"
the emperor Frederic Barbarassa, 488.

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