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Ecclesiastics, when, and by what degrees, they claimed exemption from civil jurisdiction, 529. Military talents cultivated and exercised by those of the middle ages, 535.
Edxard III. of England, his endeavours to introduce commerce into his kingdom, 69.
Electors of Germany, the rise of their privileges, 155.
MUiy St, his definition or description of a good Christian, 478, NOTE XI.
Emperors of Germany, an inquiry into their pow er, jurisdiction, and revenue, 573, NOT15 XLII. The ancient mode of electing them, 576.
England, a summary view of the contests between, and France, 75. The consequences of its losing its continental possessions, 77. The power of the crown, how extended, 87. See Henry VI I. Why so many marks of Saxon usages and language, in comparison with those of the Normans, to be found in, 152, NOTK IV. When corporations began to l>e established in, 497. nstances of the long continuance of personal servitude there, 503. Inquiry Into the Saxon laws for putting an end to private wars, 511. The causes of the speedy decline of private wars there, proposed to the researches of antiquarians, 512. The last instances of judicial combat recorded in the history of, 520. The territorial jurisdiction of the barons how abolished, 528. Cause of the slow progress of commerce there, 547. The first commercial treaty entered into by, 5iS.
Evidence, the imperfect nature of that admitted in law proceedings during the middle ages, 41. Rendered ineffectual by the judicial combat, 518.
Europe, the alterations in, by the conquest of the Romans, 2. The improvements the nations of, received in exchange for their liberties, ibid. Its disadvantages under this change of circumstances, Hid, Inquiry into the supposed populousness of the ancient northern nations, 4. The savage desolations exercised by the Goths, Vandals, and Huns, 8. The universal change occasioned by their irruptions and conquest, 9. The first rudiments of the present policy nf, to he deduced from this period, 10. Origin of the feudal system, 11. See Feudal System. The general barbarism introduced ivjth this policy, 15. At what time government and manners began to improve, 18. The causSs and events which contributed to this improvement, 19. See Crusades, Corporations, People. The miseries occasioned by private wars in, 38. Methods taken to suppress them, 39. Judicial combats prohibited, 40. The defects of judicial proceedings in the middle ages, 41. The influence of superstition in these proceedings, 43. The origin of the independent territrrial jurisdiction of the barons, 49. The bad consequences of their judicial power, ibid. The steps taken by princes to abolish their courts, 61- An inquiry into the canon law, 53. Revival of the Roman law, 56. Effects of the spirit of Chivalry, 52. How improved by the progress of science and cultivation of literature, 61. Christianity corrupted when lirst received in, 63. Scholastic theology the first object of learning in, 61. Low state of commerce in, during the middle ages, 66. Commerce revives in Italy, 67. Is promoted by the Hanscatic league, 68. Is cultivated in the Netherlands, 69. The effects of the progress of commerce on the polishing of manners, ibid. The effects of the marriage of the heiress of Hurgundy with the archduke Maximilian, on the state of, 91. By what means standing forces became general in, 95. Consequences of the league of Cambray to, 99. A view of the political constitution of the several states of, at the commencement of th sixteenth century, 105. Italy, ibid, The papacy, 106. Venice, 113. Florence, 11*. Naples, 116. Milan, 119. Spain', 122. tFiance, 139.
Germany. 140. Turtey, 138. Instances of rhe small intercourse
Feodum, the etymology of that word, 471.
Ferdinand, king of Aragon, unites the Spanish monarchy by his marriage
Feudal system, the origin of, deduced, 11. The primary object of this
Fiefo, under the feudal system, a history of, 4(57. When they became
Fitxtepben*, observations on his account of the state of London at the
time of Hcr.ry II. 497.
Florence, a view of the constitution of, at the commencement of the six-
France, by what means the towns in, first obtained charters of commu-
Francis I, of France, his character influenced by the spirit of chivalry,
Frederic liurbarossa, emperor, tlx; free cities of Italy unite against him,
Frcdum, in the ancient German usages, explained, 521.
/•'yeomen, how distinguished from vassals, under the feudal policy, 405,
Fulcherius Camotensis, his character of the city of Constantinople, 484-
Cavl, how allodial property of land was changed into feudal there, 4715".
Geffrey dc Vilkhardinun. his account of the magnificence of Constantinople
Hermans, ancient, an account of their usages and way of life, 458. Their
Germany, little interested in foreign concerns at the beginning of the
were finally abolished there, Ibid. Inquiry into the power, jurisdictioti, and revenue, of the emperors, 573, NOTE XLII. The ancient mode of electing the emperors, 576. Account of the diets, 578. 1 Ghibbellines. See Guelfi.
Ghiarradadda, the battle of, fatal to the Venetians, 101.
Glanvilk, lord-chief-justice, the first who compiled a body of common law in all Europe, 533.
Goths, Vandals, and Huns, over-run the Roman empire, and precipitate its downfal, 3. The state of the countries from whence they issued, 4. The motives of their first excursions, ibid. How they came to settle in the countries they conquered, 5. A comparison drawn between them and the Romans, at the period of their irruption, 6, 7. Compared with the native Americans. 8. The desolations they occasioned
• in Europe,ibid. The universal change made by them in the state of Europe, 9. The principles on which they made their settlements, 10. Origin of the feudal system, 11. See Feudal system. An inquiry into the administration of justice among, 36. Their private wars, 37. Destroy the monuments of the Roman arts, 62. Their contempt of the Romans, and hatred of their arts, 4-51, NOTE II. Their aversion toMiterature, 452. No authentic account of their origin or ancient history existing, ibid.
Government, how limited by the feudal policy, 13. The effects of the crusades on, 2i. How affected by the enfranchisement of cities, 29. Legislative assemblies, how formed, 31. Private wars destructive to the authority of, 39. Methods employed to abolish this hostile mode of redressing injuries, ibid. How affected by the supreme independent jurisdictions of the barons, 49. The steps towards abolishing them, 51. The origin and growth of royal courts of justice, 62. How influenced by the revival of science and literature, 65. A view of, at the beginning of the fifteenth century, 71. The power of monarch* then very limited, 72. Their revenues small, ibid. Their armies unfit for conquest, ibid. The princes hence incapable of extensive plans of operation, 74. The kingdoms very little connected with each other, 75. How the efforts of, from this period became more powerful and extensive, 76. The consequences of England losing its provinces in France, 77. The scheme of Louis XI. of France to extend the regal power, 83. See Louis XI. The power of the EngBsh crown enlarged, 87. Sec Henry VII. As also that of Spain, 88. How the use of standing armies became general, 96. A view of the political constitution of the several states of Europe, at the commencement of the sixteenth century, 105. In what respects the charters of communities granted by the kings of France tended to introduce a regular form of, 490.
Greece, the breeding of silk worms, when introduced there, 543.
Greek emperors, their magnificence at Constantinople, 484.
Gregory of Tours, remarks on the state of Europe during the period of which he wrote the history, 17.
the Great, pope, his reason for granting liberty to his slaves, 500.
VII. pope, the foundation of his contests with Henry IV. emperor of Germany, 149. The mean submission he extorted from Henry, ibid. His own account of this affair, 573.
Gudfs and Ghibellines, rise of those factions in Germany, 150.
Guicciardini, the historian, instance of his superstitious reverence for Pope Clement VII. 118, note.
Guntheras, a monk, his character of Constantinople, at the time when taken by the crusaders, 485.
llanseatic league, when formed, and its influence on the extension of
commerce, 66, 516.
tiiian nobles, 137.
—emperor of Germany, the humilitating state to which he was
reduced by Pope Gregory VII. J49, 573, NOTE XLI.
Enables his barons to break their entails and sell their estates, ibid.
Prohibits his barons keeping retainers, ibid. Encourages agriculture
and commerce, ibid.
Hermandad, Santa, account of that institution. 559.
History, the most calamitous period of, pointed out, 8.
Holy Brotherhood, an association in Spain under that name, on what oc-
— Land, the original inducements of the Christians to rescue it from
Honour, points of the ancient Swedish law for determining, 516.
Hospitality, enforced by statutes during the middle ages, 540.
Huns, instances of their enthusiastic passion for war, 452, NOTE III.
Janizaries, origin and formidable nature of those troops, 160, 161.
ancient Germans, 461.
by the Swiss, 97. National bodies of, established in Germany, ibid.
In France and Spain, 98.
their uncles, how decided in the tenth century, 516, 517.
Preposterously condemned by the churchmen of the middle ages, ibid.
The cause hence, of the exorbitant exactions of the Lombard bankers,
Italy, when the cities of, began to form themselves into bodies politic,