of those secondary ties, which rivet the ori- material in the constitution of our army, iş ginal bond more securely upon the human neglected; like hypocrites in religion, scru: mind.

pulously particular in the observance of exThe fundamental defect therefore of the ternal forms, but destilute of faith to ani. whole arrangement, the origin of all those máte them to good works. To arrange in absurdities and contrarieties into which its battalions troops of this description, which favourers have been driven in attempting to are but superficially assimilated to soldiers, cure radical evil by partial cmendations, and to place them in a line of battle where consists in the want of an efficient controul. they may be exposed to the impetuous and This defect is wholly incurable ; for. so well supported charge of a force hardened loosely cemented are all its constituent parts, by service and perfected by discipline, apthat the slightest pressure of authority would pears to me to be a rash and hazardous probreak into pieces the whole fabric. A va- ject totally repugnant to those cautious riety of particles are brought together, but maxims of policy by which plans of exten a powerful predominating principle is want- sive national utility are gradually matured, ing to counteract their iendency to mutual The improdence and rashness of this perilous repulsion. Without any distinct knowledge ionovation, and indeed the folly of the of the materials which they possessed, the wbole system has been exposed with great framers and contrivers of the volunteer sys- force of argument, and with a variety of tem have jumbled them together into he pointed illustrations, both by yourself and Mr. terogeneous mixture, and left it without any Fox, to whose speeches I could wish everyone compunction to the troubled operation of to refer, not only as they bear forcibly upon the hostile ingredients which it contained. the present question, but as they throw a The whole contrivance being founded on an steady light on the general principles of miintimate union of civil right with military litary discipline. Your opinions and docduties, involves a radical contradiction ; it trines I have only endeavoured in this letter proposes to blend together principles des- to arrange, illustrate, and amplify. tined by the constitution of the political The third part of my subject shall be very system to exist in eternal enmity, and to shortly discussed. It is evident that if the alter the form into which society has been original separation of the sofdiers by means cast by the fixed operation of moral laws. of military distinctions, was fonoded on It is impossible therefore that the volunteers just principles, the good effects of that poli. can ever attain to any proficiency in the most cy must be counteracted by the indiscrimi. important requisites of discipline. The nate prodigality with which the peculiar ministry have indeed declared them to be in ornaments of a soldier have been lavished a state of progressive improvement and of away, and by the mass of spurious unabated vigour; but it is impossible for which the volunteer system has given birth. the blindest enthusiast to give credit to this | All the artificial distinctions in society de. assertion, when he contemplates the glar vive their value entirely from their rarity; ing relaxation, and indeed the almost com- they possess no dative or intrinsic excellence, plete abandonment of military daties which | by which they can be secured from debase. has already taken place. Have the volun- ment, and in proportion as they are rendered teers improved in habits of obedience to common, they cease to be the objects of command, in respect or deference to their ambition. It is justly observed by the officers, in a punctual attendance at drill author of the Rambler that " fame, power, Have their exertions to perfect themselves in “ and riches are only the names of relative discipline been invigoraied by emulation, or "conditions, which imply the obscurity, by any other strong principle of action ? « dependance, and poverty of greater num. These are the grounds on which their merits 66 bers." It would be impossible in every ought to be estimated, and while on every case to fix upon the predominating motive one of these, facts speak so strongly against which impelled the individual to enlist. them, all general commendarions on their The most general inducement appears to be proficiency are nugator and useless. Their a love of honour, distinction and shew, comoutward appearance may be ameliorated; bined with the unsteady propensities of youth. they may have attained to some degree of The ostentation of a military dress, and all expertness in those trifles which are con- the pomp and parade connected with the nected with shew and parade ; but in all the business of war, undoubtedly tends to substantial qualities of an efficient military awaken the enthusiasm of the mind, and force they are deplorably deficient. Their by renderiog a soldier an object of peculiar attention is directed merely to the unimpor interest, 10 create a love for his character tant minute of discipline, while all that is and profession, great part of the effect.must evidently arise from the novelty and uncom- power. Her ministers seem to have consi modness of the spectacle;, a distinction, dered the attainment of a precarious secuwhen it is rendered common loses its nature rity, as the utmost boundary of their bumand character. lo this respect the volunteer ble ambition, and the force which they have system, has completely depreciated the value provided accords perfectly in its nature and of all those honorary badges, which in for- constitution with their grovelling views mer times exclusively characterised the mili- Siruck with a most irrational panic by the tary profession. They are now displayed in threat of invasion, all their faculties seem rich profusion by clowns, mechaoics, and to have deserted them ; they adopted a succitizens, who are every where to be seen cession of measures so contradictory, that glittering in the splendor of inartial array, it was very naturally imagined that they that as a ground of distinction they are per- were debarred by the fear of a malediction fectly useless, and their former effect of from looking behịnd them. So far from excourse almost totally done away. Those Hibiting in any of their contriyances the therefore who have established the volunteer faințest indications of a disposing mind, all system, have virtually stripped the military their movements appeared to proceed from profession of all those external graces by a mere blind animal instinct of self-preserwhich the heart is gained, and the passion's vation. ' Absorbed in the contemplation of are kindled, and now they exhibit the inar- a hostile invasion their whole systeni was lowless skeleton, in all its naked deformity pointed exclusively to this solitary possibito captivate affection, and to conciliate lity, and for a bare and inglorious safety, 4 love. All those inducements, therefore which safety liable to be disturbed by perpetual arose from the influence of ornamental and alarms, they have sacrificed the resources honorary distinctions, being withdrawa, the of their counity; they have crippled almost tendency to enter into the regular army her wbole force by the inherent disability must rather be checked than encouraged. It of its constitution, and have thus incapahas been sometimes urged that a taste for çitated ber from achieving a salid and howarlike occupations may be created among nourable security by bold and decisive opethe yolunteers and that men may be thoss rations of active induced to enlist. But motives of that sort

I am, Sir, yours, &c. &c, can only exist where a force is permanently Edinburgh, Ian 26th, 1805.

B. kept up, not where men are drilled occasionally and are consequently conversant, only DOMESTIC OFFICIAL PAPERS. in the duties, nou in the pleasares of a mili- JAMAICA COMPLAINTS.-Resolution of the

But wly resort to any circuitous Governor and Council of the Colony of Lameasure for increasing the regular force,

maida, dated and issued on the 2107 of Let all impediments be removed wiiich arise November, 1804. from the jarring operation of contradictory Whereas, by a resolution of Council, bear. contrivances, and the ordinary mode of re- iog date, the 17ıb day of July, 1800, his Hocruiting will ensore a perennial supply of bour the Lieutenant-Governor was advised men to the army. The ministers however to recommend to the several Officers of his appear to be smitten with a malignant in. Mrjesty's Customs, at the several ports of clination to introduce into all their schemes this island, io permit the free importation of of internal policy, à useless degree of in. sheep, hogs, poultry, small live.stock of all tricacy, to multiply wheels within wheels kivds, and all sorts of fruit, :salted and all till they are lost in the chaos of their own other provisions, and lumber of every de: fully. This strange complexity in the scription, as well in British as in all other ves. theoretical construction of sheir plans, re. sels belonging to neutral and other states in cells to mind ihe qualifications of a well | amily with Great-Britain, from the day of known hero, who

the date thereof uncil tlie 31st day of Decem“ Could wisely tell what hour o'the day ber next ensuing, and until six months no

• The clock does strike' by algebra." tice should be given to the contrary, upon the Without a radical change in the whole like terms, charges, and conditions, and subsystem of our internal policy, Britain neverject to the same rules, regulations, visita. can rogain her former importance among tions, and searches as are observed with rethe nations of Europe. She has been spect to vessels importing provisions to this brought into her present state of degrada- island : And whereas permission was also tion, partly by a dishonourable and hollow granted to all neutral vessels importing the truce, and parily by a succession of weak above articles, under the authority of the and contradictory measures, which have above resolution, to export run and molasses crushed ler energles and enfeebled her from any port or ports, place or places, of

tary life.

this island, upon the like terms, stipolations, and properties, whenever the regulation charges, and conditions, as are observed with which we now deprecate shall be adoptad. respect to the British vessels in the like

JAMAICA COMPLAINTS. - Answer of Gocases.---RESOLVED. That his Honour be advised to sign fy to the priocipal Officers of his

vernor Vugent 10 tbe Assembly. Majesty's Customs, at the several ports of

Mr.SPEAKER, AND GENTLEMEN OF THE this island, that from and after the expiration

ASSEMBLY, -The subject of your Address of six months, to be compated from the pre

has had the mature consideration which its sent date, the said resolution of Council of importance required. Having received inthe 17th of July, 1800, is to be no longer

structions from his Majesty's Ministers relaconsidered in force.

tive to the intercourse between this island and M. ATKINSON, CI. Cone.

the American States, and having laid the

same before the Privy Council, the Resolution JAMAICA COMPLAINTS.To his Honour

of the 21st ult, was published by the advice Lieutiant-General Gorge Nugent, Lieute- of that Board, as a necessary consequence of nant-Governs and Commander in Chief of the imperative orders transmitted to me from this his Majesty's Island of Jamaica, and England ; It is with extreme concern therezbe Territories ibereon depending in America, fore that I feel myself obliged to deny ile Chancellor and Viceadmiral of tbe same, earnest request of so very respectable a dated 8th Dec. 1804.

body as the Representatives of this valuable THE AUMBLE ADDRESS OF THE ASSEMBLY.

Colony; but as the six months notice of the MAY IT PLEASE YOUR Honour,-We

terinipation of the intercourse have given me his Majesty's dutiful and loyal subjects, the

an opportunity of communicating your wishthe Assembly of Jamaica, beg leave to state avail myself of it, and that period will also

es to the Secretary of State, I shall not fail to to your Honoar that we have seen, with the deepest conceró, tbe Resolution of Council

afford you sufficient time to make your of the 21st November last, announcing a ter representations to his Majesty, in the manner mination of the intercourse betwixt this

you think most conducive to the interests island and America, in six months from that

of Jamaica

concen date.-The fatal consequences which must

JAMAICA COMPLAINIS.- Petition of the Tésult from such a measure, impel us to re

Assembly of Jamaica to his Majesty, agreed present to your Honour the alarm and dread- to on the 12th Dec. 1804. ful apprehensions it has generally excited; Most G'R ACTOUS SOVEREIGN, -We your for the fact is notorious, that without a conti- Majesty's most datiful and loyal subjects, the nuance of this intercourse, our plantations Assembly of Jamaica, beg leave to approach cannot be supplied with the articles of lum- your Throne with our assurances of that prober indispensably requisite to convey the va- found respect and veneration, which your Fious produce of the island to the mother- Majesty's trany eminent virtues have imcountry : that the very systenance necessary pressed on the minds of all your faithful subfor our own existence and that of our slaves, jecte.-Conscious that it has been the deor even the subsistence of his Majesty's forces lighı of your Majesty, and of the Princes of by sea and land on this station, cannot be ob- your Illustrious House, to protect the rights, tained by any other means, especially during to advance the interests, and promote the ibe time of war, but by a permission for an proserity, of every part of your extensive intercourse with the United States of America, Empire, with perfect confidence in your and which if once interrupted, in the moment Majesty's pateroal care we bring before you of famine and distress, cannot be restored. the grievances, which at present oppress and Penetrated with the most lively feelings on threaten to ruin the loyal inhabitants of this this alarming occasion, and having the fullest valuable colony before they are known to the conviction of the fatal consequnces insepara- best of Sovereigns. - Encouraged by the proble from ibis resolution, should it not be re- clamations and charters of your Majesty's voked, we, the Representatives of this valu. predecessors, our ancesters emigrated to this able island, do most anxiously submit to your island, and, under the sauction of positive Honour's just consideration our earnest solici. laws, enacted when civil and political liberty rade that your Honour would be pleased to was well understood, established a trade direct a reconsideration of this order in with Africa for procuring labourers. Py Council, and recal the publication of such means of this intercourse plantarions were resolution, unul an opportunity is afforded opened, and have been extended and cultito the Assembly of representing to his most vated with well-known advantages to your gracious Majesty the certain and immediate Majesty's Empire. But those speculative destructioa that will impend, over our lives men who have propagated fanarical and chi

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merical ideas of liberty and equality in the table compensation by encouraging the pro-
old world, who poisoned the minds of the duction of sugar in the settlements of the
inhabitants, and deluged its fairest provinces East India Company: The duties levied on
with blood, have now attacked the rights, this commodity and on Rum have been car-
traduced the reputation, and set at nought ried so far beyond what they can support,
the lives of the peaceable ivhabitants of your that the consumption bas materially dimi-
Majesty's West-India Colonies : They affect nished, and great part of the exaction falls
to promote the happiness of the natives of on the unfortunate planter, leaving him liuide
Africa, but your Majesty's wisdom, which or nothing for a laborious and expensive
soon penetrated the plausible and delusive cultivation in an unhealthy climate. --The
guise assumed by those theorists in Europe, wisdom, the justice, the paternal solicitude
will not fail to discover that the good ibat of your Majesty are the only resources left to
they seek in another Continent is at best your most loyal but distressed subjects in this
uncertain, whilst the means they propose, island: We repose on them with contidencé,
an abolition to the Slave-Trade, will be im- and most humbly pray your Majesty's pro-
mediate destruction to the property, and tection for securing us the sole means of care
put in hazard the lives of your Majesty's rying on our plantations by a supply of la-
faithful subjects settled in these colonies; bourers, the enjoyment of a reasonable profit
and we confidently trust that the same firm- from them by continuing the reciprocal mo-
ness, which protected those subjects, more
immediately blessed with your Majesty's cient usage, and, finally, that your Majesty
presence, from the fatal gifts of liberty and will be pleased to direct your Ministers lo
equality, will shield your faithful colonists bring under the review of your Majesty's
from dangers no less imminent, althoughcon- Parliament our calamitous situation from the
cealed under pretences equally specious and effects of the present exorbitant duties on our
popular. – By laws and regulations enacted staples, in the hope that, by your Majesty's
by your Majesty's royal predecessors, ' with most gracious interposition, such an altera-
the advice of their Parliaments, a monopoly tion may be made as shall preserve from
of the navigation and trade of the colonies utter ruin yonr faithful people of Jamaica.
were secured to the mother-country ; but,
as a compensation, Great Britain, in her jus- SUMMARY OF POLITIC:.
tice, gave to the staples, cultivated in these JAMAICA COMPLAINTS-Of the dis
valuable dependencies, a decided preference, puies between the legislature and the go-
or an exclusive right to supply her home vernor of this important colony, or, ra-
consumption. As our means and prosperity ther, between the representatives of the
increased, duties were levied on our pro- colony and the king's

« confidential serduce imported, and their augmentation, as vants" in Downing Street, much was said the exigencies of the state required, was sub- in the month of July last. Indeed, I think, mitted to with cheerfulnes, whilst keptwith. it will be found, upon examination, that in such bounds as there was a possibilty of all, or nearly all, the documents, relating sustaining. Under ti is system your Majesty's to these disputes, are contained in the colony of Jamaica attained an enviablestate preceding volumes of this work; and, to of prosperity, and contributed largely to that those who may not have perused those doof ihe mother-country. It is with the deepcuments, and the observations thereon, it est regret that we appeal to your Majesty's may be useful in refer to p. 82 of Vol. VI, justice to protect us from the consequences where the several parts of the Register, of the many deviations lately made from this relating to these matters are pointed out. system, regarded by your colonists as a com- In that page the history of the compact the most solemn, matured by'expe- plaints of the planters of Jamaica was rience, and sanctioned by time: Whilst ils brought down to the month of December, observance on our part has been rigidly ex- 1803, when the governor applied to the acted, Great Britain has exempted herself assembly to make provision for the expence from its operation : A maximum has been of sending to France, the French prison. established, limiting the price of our prin- ers of war taken at Saint Domingo, an cipal staple, Sugar, to what is barely suffi- application to which the assembly returned cient for its cultivation in time of peace : for answer, that they could not undertake The protecting duty which secured us, iv re- for any part of the expense.--In this hu. return for oumberless restrictions, the con- mour they met again in December, 1804, sumption of the Britisb market, has been re- as will, I think, clearly appear from the duced until they are of no avail, and for the documents to be found in the foregoingavowed purpose of depriving us of this equi- pages of the present sheet, all of which

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documents I beg leare to recommend to ther country and the colony of Jamaica, the attention of the reader.---The first which breach consists, in the im nosing, by is a resolution of the governor and council, the ministers at home, enormous duries upon potifying, that after the end of six months, the produce of Jamaica, and in the encoureckoning from the 21st of November last, ragement of the production of sugar in the the importation of provisions and lumber settlements of the East India Company, and hitherto permitied in neutral vessels, sliall that, too, for the avowed purpose of discou. no longer be permitted; and that, the ex• raging the West India production of that portation of rum' and molasses, hitherto article. The observations, to be made upoa permitted, under certain restrictions, in the these complaints, naturally divide themselves same vessels, shall no longer be permitted. | under four distinct heads ; namely; theia

-Whereupon the assembly, in an ad- tercourse with the United States of America: dress dated on the 8th of December, re. the slam trade; the oppressive duties ; and present to the governor the deep concern the preference given to the produce of the which this resolution has excited, and the Easi India Company. --The first is, in every fatal consequences, which, if perscrered sense of the word, the most important sub. in, it must produce. They say, that it is ject; for, it is to be hoped, that the legis. notorious, that, without a continuance of lature here will not hastily adopt the notions their intercourse with the United States of | wbich the Asseinbly dread, relative to the America, their plantations cannot be sup- slave trade ; . the oppressive duties may be plied with the articles indispensably neces- lightened ; and the East lodia sugar project sary to the cultivation of their land and the may be abandoned, or may soon fail, from conveying of its productions to the mother more than one cause. But with regard to country. They, therefore, beseech the go- the intercourse with America there is not a vernor either to revoke the resolution, or moment to be lost. Three months of tbe to recal the publication of it, untilan op- six will shortly bave expired : already merportunity is afforded the assembly of ma- chants and planters must have made prepaking a representation to their sovereign. rations for regulating their conduct upon the

-In answer to this address, the governor resolution of the Governor and Council: expresses his extreme concern, that the alrendy the colony must have begun to feel imperative orders he has received from the its effects; and, unless it be revoked, withministers of England compel him to refuse out loss of time, consequences the most serithe request of the assembly. But, he ob- ous must ensue, consequences resultiog in a serves to them, that the six months notice state of things that may, without exaggeraof the termination of the intercourse will af. tion, be described as the total ruin of the coford him time to communicate their wish- lony ; and if the example be followed in the es to the ministers, and will afford themother islands, by the ruin of all our colonies time to make their representations to the in the West Indies. That such must be the king, in the manner, that they may think effects of this harsh measure will admit of most conducive to their ioterests. -The little doubt in the mind of any one who petition of the Assembly to his Majesty, takes time to consider what is the nature and which is the last of the documents here laid what the extent of the intercourse between Jabefore the public, appears to have been maica and the United States. The Americans drawn up in consequence of a resolution supply the planters of Jamaica with flour, Inagreed to previous to the date of the resolution dian meal, Indian corn, rice, pork, beef, salt of the Governor and Council, the subject of fish, some live stock, house timber, scantling, that resolution beiog reserved for a separate boards, shingles, and staves; that is to say, representation to the King The perition with a great portion of the food required for complains first, of the attacks which have the planters, the negroes, the merchants, been made, and which are still making, upon and, as the Assembly observe, even for His she rights, the reputation, and the lives of the Majesty's troops; with timber, scantling, and peaceable inhabitants of the West India Co- boards wherewith 10 build and repair the looies, by those speculative men, who have, houses and manufactories, with shingles to with such dreadful success, propagated their cover them, and with staves for making the fanatical and chimerical notions of liberty hogsheads and puncheons wherein to send and equality in the old world; and, it ex- the produce of the colony to the mother presses a firm. reliance on the wisdom and country. In payment for these articles of paternal care and solicitude of his Majesty prime necessity the planters have been bither. to prevent sim lar success in his distant pos- to permitted to employ, in part, the produce sessions. The other subject of complaint, is, of their land; but, this permission has extend, the breach of the compact between the mo- ed, I believe, no further than the articles of

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