« ForrigeFortsett »
ral View of the Agriculture of Hertfordshire, | Commons can be ignorant of the facts stated says : “ I am sorry to observe, that a purezz- . by ihe agricultural surveyors ; and, I believe,
dice against granting leases, increasing duily, few of them will deny, viat it would be ad" will, if not checkcd by the good seose of vantageous to them it is were otherwise, and "the landlords, injure, beyond any calcula- if :hty could venture to let long !eascs as for"tion, the agriculture of the kingdom.” | merly. The effect of this impediment to Mr. Kent, in his agricultural survey of agricultural industry, is, a dead loss to the
" that leases are the first, ihe country; because, it prevents the land fronz "greatest, and most rational encouragement being so well cultivated as it would be by the "That can be given 10 agriculiure, admits very same persons that are employed on it,
oot of a doubt in my opinion. But of late and which persons eat just as much as if they years there are very strong prejudices enter
worked more. No land at yearly rent was "tained against them. lo many counties,” ever yet cultivated to the best advantage ; and continues he, " the frejudice is so strong ihat 10 yearly rents all the firms in the kingdom
an owner would as soon alicnate the fee sim- are fast approaching. But, though the agri* ple of his estute as demise it for a term of cultural surveyors, as well, inde d, as every years. It grieres me," says he again, “ logo one else, can clearly see, that the granting of "into a country, which I often do, and find long leases would remove this greatest of all "it almost in a state of nature, because the impediments to agricultural industry, none "soil being wet and expensive to cultivate, of ihem seem to have thought it necessary to "the tenant cannot afford to do it without make the least inquiry as to the impediment
encouragement, and the owner's insur- to the granting of leases. They do, indeed, mountable objection to leases keeps him from talk about a “ prejudice ;" a
granting the sort of encouragemen: which is prejudice ;' an unreasonable preMessentially necessary." Another writer, MR. julice;" but, this is not the way to setMIDDLETON, says, in his View of the Agri- tle so material a point. Call it prejudice, culture of Middlesex, “ It is, without doubt, if you will; but, then we come back to "a most unreasonable firejudice which many the place whence we starled, and I ask "proprietors entertain against grauting leases you, whence this prejudice has arisen, " of their estates ; forihee with holding these What is the canse of it? Do you say, “certainly operates as a most powerful bar that it has arisen from the folly, or whim, " against every improvement." And after a of the land owners? Then I ask : hun long discussion of the subject, he adds, did this whim never happen to take them “ leases appear to me to be of so much im. before? For, you yourselves say, that, “portance, as being perhaps ihe most power- it is only of late years, that they have be“ful and rational means of promoting im- gun to refuse to grant long leajes.--.I "provements in agriculture, that I hope I shall have before thrown out some hints as to “stand excused for having entered so fully on the true cause of this reluctance of landlords “this branch of the report."--Here, then, to grant leases; but I will here treat the is something worthy of the serious attention matter a little more at large. Before the of parliament in general, and of Sir Robert commencement of the very rapid depreBuxton in particular. Here is an official re- ciation of money occasioned by the enor. port, or, rather a concurrence of official re- mous loans, the consequent increase of the prrts, from persons paid by tbe government quantity of paper-money, and especially by to inquire into the state of the agriculture of the stoppage of cash payments at the the kingdom; and the information it commu- Bank; before this epoch, leases of farms nicates, is, First, that leases are the first, were usually granted for 21 years ; some the greatest, and the most rational encourage- for 14 years; some for us years; and ment that can be given to agriculture ; and, some, but comparatively very tew, for a that the refusing of leases is the greatest pos
term so short as that of 7 years. Last sible impediment to agricultural industry, and summer a large temporary aid was proof course, to the production of corn, where- posed to be granted to the Civil List, and of our chief food is made. SECONDLY, that, also a permanent addition to it. That the of late years, there have arisen strong pre- the grant was made by parliament we judices against the granting of leases; that know; and, it should not be forgotten, this prejudice is daily increasing; and that, that it was called for upon the ground of $0 powerful is it, that an owner would as the vast rise in prices (which is another soon aliepate the fee simple of his estate as phrase for depreciation of money), which demise it for a term of years. “That such is had taken place, since the annual allowthe real state of the case cannot, I think, be ance for the civil list was fixed by parliadenied. Few land-holders in the House of ment; that is to say, since the year 1787.
Mr. Pitt said (See Parl. Debates, Vol. II. was when he let his farm; when he per. p. 905), ' “ that no gentleman who re- ceived, that other farms of the same value, is flected
the very considerable rise that now let for twice as much as he was receive “ had taken place in every article of do- ing for his; when he perceived, that while he “ mestic consumption and accommodation, was daily sinking into poverty, his tenant was “ could be surprized that His Majesty had swelling into riches, and only waiting for “ not confined his expenses, under that the moment to ride over him; he began to 56 head, within limits that had been mark. | inquire into the cause, and, when the lease
ed out so long since. An increase of expired, took good care not to grant a.
40, 50, or bol. per centum had taken noiher for above two or three years at most. s place in such articles since the year Some landlords, have continued to grant the zivi list, published in 1801, stated the to do it for a year or two longer perhaps. rise at 75l. per centum, and, in some cases Habit is very powerful, and, besides, the at 1001. per centum. But, we have bet. cause is not well enough understood to preter facts to proceed upon than the state- vent all landlords from believing, that a ments and calculations of these gentle- / good swinging addition to the old rent will
That is to say, a circumstantial secure them for the next 14 or 21 years, account of the rise in the price of bread, But, if the present system of fivance be which is the true standard of the real pursued, this purblind state will soon go value of money, for the last fifty years. off: the consequences will become visiFrom this account (which see in Vol. VI. ble to the dullest eyes : and then, as P. 239) it appears that the
Mr. Kent says, the landlord will, indeed, Average price of the quartern loaf, s. d. as soon alienate the fee simple of his estate
during the ten years ending with as demise it for a term of years.-Such, 1760, was
Os then, though the Agricultoral Surveyors do Doring the ten years ending with not appear to have obtained even a glimpse 1770,...
o 61 of it, is the real cause of the refusal, on the During the ten years ending with part of laudlords, to grant leases, which re1780.
07 fusal is stated to be, and undoubtedly is the During the ten years ending with most powerful impediment to agricultural 1790,
o 73 industry. And how comes it that it has neDuring the thirteen and a half years ver aitracted the attention, or, at least, never ending in July, 1804
engaged the deliberative faculties, of parliaSuch then, has been the progress of the de- ment? It certainly is not, because it lics too preciation of money. 'Lord Castlereagh deep for discovery, but, on the contrary, beand Mr. Pitt will say: “no ; it is not deprecia- cause it is too obvious. The moment the " tion of money; it is only rise in the price of fact is ascertained, that the landlords refuse " commodities.' Be it so; but, call it what any longer to grant leases, the mind of every you will, the consequence is precisely the intelligent man traces back the effect to its same to whomsoever is obliged to live upon efficient and only cause. But, where is the a fired income.
Wheatley excepts the remedy? Who shall remove that cause? The landholders from those who suffer on ac- impediment to agricultural industry is found count of the depreciation of money; be- in the refusal to granı leases; that refusal in the cause, says he, they can raise their rents to rapid depreciation of money; that depreciation keep pace with the depreciation. Very in the excessive quantity of paper-currency; true ; and precisely for that reason it is, that currency in the stoppage of cash payments; that they will now let their lands only from that stoppage in the immense sums quarterly year to year. Previous to the year 1795 demanded in paymemt of the interest on ibe na. (for it was not till then that the rapid de. tional debt. “ Hah!" methinks I hear some preciation of money began) landlords had Pittite exclaim, in the hollow voice of a trano objection to let long leases; because, as gedy hero, “beware how you touch the viwill be perceived by the progress in the ials of your country!”. If such be her vitals, rise of prices above exhibited, even a I would not stake much upon her existence twenty-one years' lease produced but a for another four years, either of war or peace. slight falling off in the real value of their Yet this is really the notion, which almost rents; but, when the man who had granted all men of all parties appear to have adopted. a twenty-one years' lease in the year 1780 When a demand is made for money, the found, in 179;, that his rent, though it mo:le of raising it is the only subject of venpreserved its nominal value, was really sure or criticism; and, when the minister is worth likle more than half as much as it driven hard upon that head; “ Well," saya
he, “shew me a better way: if not you British flag, are to cost, in the first instance, “ cannot find fault that I pursue this, for 551. a man! But, the cost is 'nothing com" I tell you that so much must be gol, or I pared with the disgrace. I have always “ cannot pay the interest of the national ihoaght it upwise 10 have negroes in the ar" debt.” To put an end to the payment of my at all, eveis as musicians, though that is that interest ; to suspend the payment during a situation in which, if in any, they might war; even to reduce it in amount; never be suffered. But, they ought never 10 seems to come, for one moment, athwart the march in ihe same corps; they ought never miod of any man.
To hear people talk up. to wear a rag of the same uniform ; never to on this subject, a total stranger to our situa- live in the same barrack or camp with white tion and circumstances, would think the na- men. They are lazy, they are insolent, they tional debt to be something belonging to the are beastly; they are fit for nothing but slasoil or the atmosphere of the country. We very, and the encouragement They receive in look at its progress with apprehension and England is a disgrace to the country; a diseveu with terror; but we seem to wait for its grace that no other country upon earth sub. final effects with that sort of feeling that ma- mits to, and which is not submitted to here lefactors wait for the day of execution. Here! from any motive worihy of applause. I like here! and no where else, is the canker-worm the West Indies as colonies, and I like the that is eating out the heart of England! And West Indians as fellow subjects; but, I like till that ever-gnawing worm be killed, one England better, and rather than see her far. moment's real peace she will never know. ther disgraced by a sort of fellowship with
BLACK REGIMENTS,- The following Guipea ; rather than see myself a fellowextract is taken from a ministerial paper of subject of these slave soldiers, much rather the 21st instant. " Government is said to would I see the West India islands totally in.“ have contracted with a mercantile house dependent of this country. What!“800,000 “ in the West Iodies, for a supply of 5,000
men in arms," and not, 3,000 a year to “ African negroes, tron the age of 16 10 30, spare for colonies like tbose in the West In" to serve as soldiers in the Leeward Islands. dies! Who will believe borb of these facts ? “ The contract is to be completed within a Napoleon tells his Majesty, that he has al
year, and application teen made by ready more colonies than he knows how to " the contractors to merchants in London
preserve; and, really, one would think so 166 and Liverpool, to assist them in com- from the adoption of desperate measures like “ pletiog their engagement. Mr. B. of the that now said to be in contemplation. 16 latter place, has agreed to furnish one thou- OVERTURES FOR PEACE.-When the “ sand negroes at 351. per bead!"--Per bead! letter from Napoleon was first announced iq and by contract too! And while a billis before London, it was observed in this work, and, the House of Commons for abolishing the indeed, by every person of common discernslave trade! What, are we, then, to send ment, that, let ihe result be what it would, it recruiting partirs to the coast of Guinea ! would prove to have been a politic step on the Are these negro-soldiers to be raised by ne- part of France; for that, at any rare, Napogro parish-officers, or how? This, if true, leon would acquire the reputation of being a seems to have been all that was wapted to lover of peace. That the letter was intended cap the climax of inconsistency and absur- for publi, ation is very likely; but, we know diiy. We have, we are told, 800,000 men that it has been published; and, though the in arrgs (for the statement is now swelled to ministerial writers affect not to have perthat), and yet we are driven to such means ceived the circunstance, we know very well to preserve our most valuable colonies, what impression ihe publication has produced which, let it be observed, do not require an in the minds of the people in this country. establishment of more than 15,000 nien, do The French papers, containing the letter, not occasion a waste of more than 3,000 arrived in London on the 141h instant, in men in a year, and which waste might be the evening papers of which day a translaeasily reduced to half that number. In a tion of it appeared. The very next mornformer page will be found a letter from a ing, by eight o'clock, the hawkers were cry. correspondent, who is in favour of this sootying it about the streets, printed upon a nar. system: his reasons do not convince me; row slip of paper, with the following words and, I am firmoly persuaded, that, if it be at the head of it: * GOOD NEWS FOR OLD persevered in, we shall have no West India • ENGLAND! PEACE WITH BUONAPAKTÉ, colonies in a very short space of time. Ob. AND CHEAP BREAD FOA THE POOR !" serye, that these negro, these slave soldiers, This is that same Buonaparte, against whom who are to protect British colonies, to wear all the handbills and canibal-like prints lbie British uniform, and to march under the were published about a year and a half
This is that very same Buonaparté, whom “The enemy threatened our shores," said the courageous “ patriotic hand-bill” men the Morning Post at the Catamaran time, represented as being toasted upon a fork " let them now look to their own. Their by the devil belore hell-fire! Where are “ innumerable flotilla was to land their in. these hand-bill men now? One of their fel- 66 vincible
army in this country, which low-labourers, the patriotic conductor of “ was to prove a rich and easy conquest. the Times newspaper, does, indeed, seem " Where is now this boasted notilla ? to have taken the alarm at this returning “ What is the present state of the fortune love for Buonaparté. It is a subject of too " and desting of France, which were so delicate a nature to be dashed into at once; “ pompously committed to it? It skulks but the patriotic gentleman very broadly " in its harbours, and even doubts whehints, that if the people take this turn all is “ ther its skulking will insure its safety!" over with us. That they will take this In the Oracle of the 19th of January it turn the patriotic Treasury writer may be was asserted, that " universal discontent assured, unless a course of plicy very dif- “ prevailed amongst the troops ar Bouferent from the present be pursued. Na- “ logne ; that all idea of their embarking poleon still sticks to the Treaty of Amiens. " for the purpose of invasion had been He will make us give up Malta. And, all “ abandoned; and that the flotilla-men the world knows, that it was for Malta, were ready to turn their arms against “ plain Malta after all," as Mr. Fox said, " their commanders." Similar sentiments that our ministers went to
Peace have been over and over again expressed would suit Napoleon very well. He wants by the ministerial prints during even the some naval stores, which at present he can. present month. But now, behold, as soon not get. He wants to re-inforce his colo. as the sun begins to melt the icicles, the nies; and to open a free communication danger is become as imminent as with them again for a year or two. And, It is curious indeed to observe how these all the while, our expenses must be the writers, having received their cue from same very nearly that they are now. His the clerks of the Treasury, sneak back to gun-boats would go on daily increasing, the language of alarm. * Nothing," says and at a greater rate than at present, be- the Times of the 21st instant, cause he would then have an abundance of " farther from our heart, than to wish to naval stores. Bef re we had wound up the see any thing like panic or trepidation account of the war, a new war would be “ in our countrymen ; but a fatal security, necessary; and, besides, under our present “ and a wilful deafness, are still more to system, military, naval, and financial, we “ be apprehended. As to the overture, can never again disarm, as long as France we are distinctly told by the Moniteur, retains her present power and possessions. " that the same policy preceded the battle Mark, I beg, the qualification ! Under our “ of Marengo and ihe passage of the present system,
of it in
“ Drave; and can we refuse to underparticular, we never can selurn, for one sin- stand what is now to follow it? Do we gle year, to a peace establishment. This not see plainly, that the epocba is at band; Napoleon well knows. He risks nothing " that preparations have been made upon by giving us a short respite under the name a vast scale, for which two years are a of peace; and with the offer of peace, very short period ;-that two considertherefore; with pacisic and conciliating “able squadrons, with troops on board to professions, he will trequently embarrass a large amount, have put to sea already and distract us.
“ since that overture, of which the desti. INVASION.---The shaking fit appears " ration is totally unascertained, and the to be coming on again! My readers will 6 subject only of speculation and conjecremember, that, at the time when a dis- " ture? Do we not know, that the Dutch cussion respecting the failure of Mr. Pitt's “ fleet is under sailing orders in the Texel, military project was first lalked of (about a " and that every thing announces the promonth ago), the Treasury writers asserted, ject of sending out the grand fieet from that the failure was of no consequence,
" Brest harbour ? Some persons, we have seeing that the danger of invasion " being “ been given to understand, are weak
now over," there was no necessity for " enough to imagine, that the effect of immediate levies. Upon this occasion the " those Continental alliances, of which Oracle, which is under the immediale di. we have only heard by the subsidies, rection of the principal " young friend," “ will be to occupy and divert the asked, if “any one could now seriously enter- “ French armament from attempting our “ Lain apprehensions of an invasion!”. 66 shores ; but is it not far more pro
« bable, that it will be to accelerate “ resolution of attempting, without delay, the long " the grand attack, before any diversion “ menaced invasion ; ot" attempting it at the " or distraction can be occasioned by the same moment from all poinis, and with “ tardy movements of Continental auxilia- “ all his forces, so that the issue will be imo ries? --But supposing even that we are u mediate and decisive. Our feeling on the “ too much alert and sensible to these “ day of fast and prayer at the commence" threats and demonstrations upon the part “ ment of the war, was a religious and pa " of France, and that our combination is “triotic devotion, aware of the vastness of “ liable to the censure of too much pru. " the power, which threatened to oversi dence and alarm; we will conclude by “ whelm us, trusting in the favour of Hea" submitting to the public judgment, whe- "ven" (what shocking impiety! what a 06 ther this be not the side to inistake upon, shamefui mockery of the Almighty !!." to « and whether the danger be not in the op: a righteous cause, and in our own courage
posite error, of too much confidence and " and exertions, and resolved to perish with «« tranquillity? --It does not seem to us, 66 arins in our hands rather than surrender
indeed, that the present ought to be, in " in the smallest degree our rights or our any sense or degree, a moment of more con- “ honour; rather than suffer ourselves in fidence or security, than those at which the alarm " the least instance 10 be wronged or ip" has been most powerfully soundled. The pre- “ sulted by an upprincipled and outrageous " parations of the enemy are either com- pretender. On the second day of ge"plete, or in great forwardness, and two “ neral devotion, last year, we felt gratitude ~ of his feets are actually at sea. In calling, to Heaven for having suffered our strengti " therefore, the public attention to these " to mature before the danger came on ; we " circumstances, we are conscious that we "s looked forward to the contest with con“ are acquitting ourselves of a great duty to “ fidence, and we preyed earnestly and sincere
our country, and we would sooner have “ ly for ils arrival!!! Since that time, our our judgment questioned by those who enemy appeared to bave formed the reso
may think differently, than omit it."- “Jution of avoiding an experiincut, whichi, So, then, the five millions which the parlia- “ however he may vapour, he knew was ment has voted for subsidies are calculated “ most hazardons to the duration of his illonly to accelerate an attack upon our shores ! " gotten power. Now we have to raise our The object of publications of this sort is " hearts to the Almighty, in exulting joy, that it evident enough : they are intended to keep " has been determined to make the long meracerd, the people stirring; to prevent the zeal of " attempt!!!" This, however, is really nothe volunteers from evaporating quite to the thing, until we reflect on who it is that comdregs; to counteract the effect of Napoleon's mits this to paper, or causes it so to be comletter, of “Good News FOR OLD EN mitted! " Ah, poor soul," says dame Quick“ GLAND," of which mention was made ly, " an a' begins to pray, it's all over with above. The Morning Post, which, only ten “ 'un." But your true thorough-paced Pitdays ago, congratulated its readers on the tite has always at his command a sufficient
near approach of the day, when we should portion of religious cant. Had Moliere and “ be able to say to the tyrant;" (for such it Foote lived in the days of the Pittadininistracalled him) « barn, burn your flotilla, or tion, the TARTUFFE and MOTHER COLE “ we will hurl you from the throne ihat never would have been exhibited as singu
you have usurped !" that very Morning larities. ---But, as to the subject before us, I Post is pow terror-stricken to a degree that beg it may be remembered, that the writers has made it quite religious.--" Yesterday of the Treasury express their wishes that an “ being the day appointed for the solemn invasion of the couutry may take place ; “ fast and prayer for the success of His Ma. that, they " raise their hearts to the Al. " jesty's arms, was observed with becoming “ mighty" impious hypocrites ! ] " in gra“ devotion by all descriptions of people. Yet " titude, that the enemy has determined to van air of satisfaction was mingled with the " invade us !". And, this, obserye, at the * solemnity of the occasion, which we did very moment, while the Church calls upon " not observe on any other day of general us to pray to God, that we may not be ina “ fast and prayer since the cominencement vaded, and swallowed up quick! The object, “ of the war. It was because the blessings however, which I have now in view, is, to
of Heaven and our own exertions have iinpress upon the mind of the reader, the “ now placed us in a situation to look for- fact, ibat the Treasury writers do express « ward to the conflict without any fear of their wishes, that the enemy may invade the " the result; and because we have reason to country; and, then, I wish to recall to his
believe he greany has been inspired wille pe memory, that Mr. Archdale and others,