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CONTENTS OF WOL. II.

§

1. Analogy of the early history of Spain and England,

2. The colonies were not a source of weakness to Spain, . -

3. Colonies are always a benefit to the parent state, -

4. Support which colonies afford to the mother country, . - -

5. What the colonial policy of the parent state should be, - -

6. Inevitable loss to the parent state from the separation of the colonies,

7. Tyrannical rule of old Spain over her colonies, - - -

8. The trade of Spain was all with foreign manufactures, . - -

9. Want of industry in the national character, . - - -

10. The physical circumstances of Spain favoured commerce, but not manufac-

tures, - - - - - - - -

11. Effect of the long-continued hostility with the Moors,

12. Impolitic laws of Spain in regard to money, . - - -

13. Important effect of the Romish faith, . - - -

14. Difference of the towns and country in respect of political opinion,

15. Disposition of the army, - - - - -

16. The church, - - - - - - - -

17. State of the peasantry, . - - - - - -

18. State of the nobility, . - - - - - -

19. Huge gap in the revenue from the loss of the South American colonies,

20. Constitution of 1812: how it was formed, - - - -

21. Its extreme democratic tendency, - - - - -

22. Utter unsuitableness of the constitution to the generality of Spain, .

23. Universal unpopularity of the Cortes and constitution, - -

24. Influence of the Cortes on South America, - - - -

25. Situation of Portugal: effect of the removal of the seat of government to

Rio Janeiro, - - - - - - -

26. Its general adoption of English habits and ideas, - - -

27. Character of Ferdinand VII., . - - - - -

28. Ferdinand's arrival in Spain, and treatment by the Cortes, -

29. Universal unpopularity of the Cortes, . - - - -

30. Decree of Walencia, - - - - - - -

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31. King's declaration in favour of freedom, and promise to convoke a legal

Cortes, . - - - - - - - 32

32. Universal transports in Spain at this decree, and the king's return to

Madrid, . - - - - - - - 33

33. Reflections on this event, and the obvious courses which lay open to the

king, - - - - - - - - 34

34. Ferdinand's despotic measures. Re-establishment of the Inquisition, 35

35. Discontent in various quarters, - - - - - 36

36. Revolt of Mina in Navarre, - - - - - - 37

37. Fresh arbitrary decree of Ferdinand, . - - - - 38

38. Further violent proceedings of the king, and Porlier's revolt, . - 39

39. Its failure, and his death, - - - - - - ib.

40. Invasion of France, and retreat of the Spaniards. Fresh tyrannical acts of

the king, - - - - - - - 40

41. Change of ministers, and policy at Madrid, - - - - 42

42. Restoration of the Jesuits, and other despotic measures, - - 43

43. Double marriages of the royal families of Spain and Portugal, - 44

44. Creation of the kingdom of Brazil, - - - - - 45

45. Insurrection in Valencia, - - - - - - ib.

46. Abortive conspiracy in Barcelona, and death of General Lacy, - 46

47. Papal bull regarding the contribution by the Spanish church, - 47

48. Treaty regarding the Queen of Etruria, - - - - ib.

49. Treaty for the limitation of the slave-trade, . - - - 48

50. Miserable state of Spain: its army and navy, . - - - - 49

51. Extreme penury of the finances of Spain. Decree, April 3, 1818, - 50

52. Death of Queen Maria Isabella of Spain, - - - - 51

53. Disastrous fate of the first expedition to Lima, - - - ib.

54. Fresh revolt at Valencia, which is suppressed, . - - - 52

55. Causes of the revolt in the Isle of Leon, - - - - ib.

56. Efforts of the Cadiz Liberals to promote it, - - - - 53

57. Insurrection at Cadiz, . - - - - - - 54

58. The conspiracy is at first arrested by d'Abisbal, - - - 55

59. D'Abisbal is deprived of the command of the expedition, - - 56

60. Additional measures of severity on the part of the Government, - ib.

61. Yellow fever at Cadiz, . - - - - - - - 57

62. Sale of Florida to the Americans, - - - - - 58

63. Marriage of the king, . - - - - - - 59

64. Revolution attempted by Riego, - - - - - 60

65. Vigorous measures adopted against the insurgents, - - - 61

66. Capture of the arsenal, and expedition of Riego into the interior, - 62

67. Its defeat and failure, . - - - - - - 63

68. Perilous position of Quiroga in the Isle of Leon - - - ib.

69. Insurrection at Corunna, and in Navarre, - - - - 64

70. Revolution at Madrid: the king accepts the constitution, - - 65

71. Reflections on this revolution, . - - - - - 67

72. Rapid advances of the revolution, - - - - - 68

73. Reception of the revolution at Barcelona, Valencia, and Cadiz, - ib.

74. Massacre at Cadiz, - - * - - - - - 69

75. New ministry at Madrid, - - - - - - 7

76. First measures of the new government, - - - - 71

77. Establishment of clubs in Madrid, and other revolutionary measures, ib.

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78. Legislative measures, . - - - - - - 72

79. Meeting of the Cortes: its composition, - - - - 73

80. Disorders in the provinces, . - - - - - 74

81. Murder of one of the body-guard, and reward of the murderers, - ib.

82. Opening of the Cortes, . - - - - - - 75

83. Report on the state of the army, - - - - - ib.

84. Majority of the Cortes: its leaders, . - - - 76

85. Suppression of the Jesuits, and measures regarding entails, . - 77

86. Financial measures, . - - - - - - 78

87. Tumult at Madrid, and dismissal of Riego, . - - - 79

88. Closing of the session, and rupture with the king, . - - 80

89. Reception of the decree against the priests in Spain, . - - 81

90. Illegal appointment of General Carvajal by the king, . - - 82

91. Return of the king to Madrid, . - - - - - 83

92. Victory of the revolutionists, . - - - - - 84

93. New society for execution of lynch law - - - - ib.

94. Identity of recent history of Spain and Portugal, - - - 85

95. Revolution at Oporto, . - - - - - - 86

96. Which is followed by a revolution at Lisbon, . - - - 87

97. Establishment of a joint regency at Lisbon, . - - - 88

98. Return of Marshal Beresford, who is forced to go to England, - 89

99. Effect of the banishment of the British, - - - - 90

100. Reaction, and adoption of more moderate measures, . - - ib.

101. Commencement of reforms in Italy, . - - - - 91

102. Breach of the king's promise of a constitution, - w - 92

103, Progressive but slight reforms already introduced, . - - 93

104. Origin of secret societies, - - - - - - 94

105. Their origin and previous history, - - - - - ib.

106. Commencement of the Neapolitan revolution, - - - 95

107. Defection of General Pepe and the garrison of Naples, - - 96

108. The king yields, and swears to the constitution, - - - 97

109. Causes which prepared revolution in Sicily, . . . - - 99

110. Revolution in Palermo, - - - - - - 100

111. Frightful massacre in Palermo, - - - - - ib.

112. First measures of the new junta, - - - - - 101

113. Failure of the negotiations with Naples, - - - - 102

114. Suppression of the insurrection in Palermo, . - - - 103

115. Renewal of hostilities, . - - - - - - 104

116. Meeting of the Neapolitan parliament, - - - - 105

117. Insurrection of the galley-slaves in Civita Vecchia, . - - 106

118. Commencement of the revolution in Piedmont, - - - 107

119. Revolt in Alessandria and Turin, - - - - - 108

120. The king yields, and accepts the constitution, - - - 109

121. Resignation of the king, and proclamation of the Prince of Carignan as

regent, and the Spanish constitution, . - - - 110

122. General character of the revolutions of 1820, . - - - ib.

123. What caused their speedy overthrow, . - - - 111

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1. Vast growth and extent of Russia, America, and British India in recent

times, . - - - - - - - 113

2. Increase of Russia by the treaties of 1814 and 1815, . - - 114

3. Important acquisition of Russia in the grand-duchy of Warsaw, - 115

4. Statistics of the grand-duchy of Warsaw, - - - - 116

5. Establishment of the kingdom of Poland, - - - - ib.

6. Biography of the Grand-duke Constantine, - - - - 117

7. His character, . - - - - - - - 118

8. His first acts of administration, and training of the army, - - 120

9. Great advantage to Poland from its union with Russia, - - 121

10. Great increase of its military strength, . - - - - 122

11. Failure of the representative system in Poland, - - - 123

12. Great influence of Russia, - - - - - - 124

13. Great wisdom of its external policy, . - - - - 125

14. Their unity of purpose, . - - - - - - 126

15. Statistics of the empire: its population, - - - - 127

16. Great rapidity of increase of the Russian population, . - - 129

17. Great room for future increase in its inhabitants, - - - ib.

18. Unity of feeling in the whole empire, . - - - - 130

19. Reason of this unity. Their Asiatic habits and religious feelings, . 13]

20. Unity of interest in the empire, - - - - • - 132

21. General insufficiency of the schools to produce enlightenment, - 133

22. The clergy, - - - - - - - - 134

23. Rank in Russia: the Tchinn, . - - - - - 135

24. Great power given by the Tchinn, - - - - - 136

25. Caste of the nobles, - - - - - - 137

26. Of the bourgeois and trading classes, . - - - - 138

27. The serfs : their number and condition, - - - - 139

28. Privileges and advantages they enjoy, . - - - - 140

29. The Tieglo : its advantages and evils, . - - - - 141

30. Way in which it is carried into effect, . - - - - 142

31. Contrast of English and Russian cultivators, . - - - 143

32. Opinion of M. Haxthausen on the serfs and their enfranchisement, . 144

33. Evils of the Russian serf system, - - - - 145

34. Foreign conquest ever forced upon Russia by its climate, - 146

35. Fear the universal principle of government in Russia, . - - 147

36. General use of corporal chastisement, . - - - - 148

37. Character which these circumstances have imprinted on the Russians, 149

38. Causes which have led to this character, - - - - 150

39. Great effect of the distances in Russia, . - - - - 151

40. Civilisation depends entirely on the higher ranks, - - - 152

41. Strong imitative turn of the Russians, . - - - - 153

42. Military strength of Russia, - - - - - - 154

43. The military colonies, . - - - - - - 155

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