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UNITED STATES

AMERICA.

ven the earliest pertes to the present due.

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OF

THE UNITED STATES

OF

AMERICA:

FROM THE EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME.

BY

TALIAFERRO PRESTON SHAFFNER, LL. D.,

MEMBER OF THE BAR OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA;

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS; THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY; AND THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; FELLOW
OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES OF COPENHAGEN, AND OF THE LITERARY SOCIETY OF
ICELAND; FOREIGN MEMBER OF THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF BERLIN, ETC.

Illustrated with Steel Engravings,

COMMEMORATIVE OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF AMERICA; PORTRAITS OF THE PRESIDENTS; MAPS, VIEWS, ETC., ETC.

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revolutionary struggle between the provincial, colonial, and proprietary governments, and George III., which resulted successfully to the former, and in the ultimate formation of the United States' government.

The peculiar powers distributed between the State and Federal institutions, defined by their respective constitutions, ordinances, and bills of rights, are carefully discussed; and the details respecting their mixed administrations, from the foundation of the Republic to the present time, are definitely stated. The reader will observe that I have not indulged in adulation of my countrymen or government; and, in this particular, it is hoped that patriotic service has been done to both. Having mingled with the people of all parts of the civilised world, and availing myself of rare facilities in studying the governmental systems of Europe, my observations have led me to believe that all governments are imperfect, and that none can be maintained beyond the time they cease to be supported by the affections of the people.

In narrating the discoveries of America, and the thrilling events that occurred, from time to time, during the progress of its settlement, I have copied largely from Holmes' Annals, Hinton's Colonial History, Stedman's and Gordon's Histories of the Revolution, and various other publications. Credit has been given in all cases to the original source of information; but it is quite possible that I may have failed to do full justice to some of the authorities from which matter has been collected: for, in fact, materials from many hundreds of volumes have been employed. I desire to disclaim any particular merit for originality of ideas or excellence of language; but it is expected that the reader will accord to me the credit of having sought for, and grouped together, the greatest amount of facts relating to America. that has ever been published in a connected history. In accomplishing this great desideratum, I have had access to most of the principal libraries in the United States and Europe; but my studies have been more particularly confined to the archives and libraries of the British government, in London. Within the past three years I have examined more than 11,000 volumes, and, from a number of them, collected important truths. I have toiled many years for materials contained in this Work; and while engaged in preparing them for the press, many times the dawn of morn has warned me to lay aside the pen; and then, reluctantly, have I regretted the necessity of yielding for repose.

Among the reliable works referred to for corroborative data, were Howe's and Barber's State Annals: these local histories abound with instructive information. Lossing's Field Book contains a vast amount of historic matter, briefly stated. stated. Bancroft's History, consisting of eight volumes, though confined to the colonial period, and not extending later than 1776, has been quoted from occasionally. Hildreth's History is rich in chronology. Two volumes of this work are devoted to the colonial affairs; one to the

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