interesting: While our humanity is deeply engaged in the cause of the D slidents, we cannot but lament the fatality by which a great nation is surrounded in its capital by a foreign army; and the fenators of a republic, that was once free and independent, carried off by a military force for a discusfion of their own affairs. This is a subject, that, notwithstanding the rectitude and integrity of the motives which guided those transactions, affords a full opportunity for the most deep and serious reflection,

Our home affairs have not been deficient in matters-sufficiently interesting. Of these we give such an account as we hope will be agreeable to our readers ; and have endeavoured to preserve that impartiality, which it will be always so much our wish to support. And it shall ever be our greatest happiness to have any opportunity of shewing the grateful fenfe we entertain of the repeated indulgence which we have fo conftantly experienced from the Public.


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General aspect of affairs. Present appearances pacific. Some ancient causes

of contention removed. France. Holland. General state of the North. Germany. Italy. Expulsion of the Jefuits from Naples and Parma. Tbe Interest of ihe court of Rome declining in Italy. Portugal. Scarcity of corn. Friendly intercourse fubfifting between the learned.


E observe, with pleasure, while at least, of that rage of con

that the event has hap- quest, which had for so many centu

pily justified our prog- ries plunged the different parts of nostication of last year; and that the great European commonwealth the general tranquillity of Europe into all the calamities of devaftais not in any immediate danger of tion and war. That martialdifpofi- : being disturbed. A spirit of im. tion, which so entirely possessed the provement in the arts of peace, in people of those ages, was the natumanufactures, commerce, and the ral consequence of the hardy bo. elegant embellishments of life, dies, the active and intrepid minds, seems to have taken place, for a the western and northern na. Vol. X.



tions, when not otherwise engaged 'other's bodies, for the falration of by a close attention to the useful, their fouls, is not only worn out, or mellowed by a knowledge of the but almost forgotten. Succesions, fine arts.

boundaries, and rights of governIt may now appear late to look ment, are fixed upon a more known back to the lubversion or change of and settled foundation than ever the feudal system, and from thence they were before ; and commercial to derive reasons for prognosticat. nations have discovered a more ing the approach of a leis martial successful and happy method of age. This change was not indeed procuring gold, than by digging it immediately productive of so hap. themselves from the mine, or forcpy an effect. 'Many, however, of ing it from those that do. the causes of ancient quarrels were Many other sources of contencertainly removed, by the different tion of a later date, together with modifications which that system some mistaken notions in politics, underwent in moft of the countries which have had their day and done of Europe. The two last centuries fufficient mischief, are exhaufted. were (partly through accident, and Some just causes of contention are partly from those epidemic pal- also removed. The ideas attend. sions, which have been observed at ing a balance of power, seem to be particular æras to possess the minds ' at present very different from what of great bodies of mankind)fo pe. they have been formerly. The culiarly fertile in producing new dread of universal monarchy apcauses of diffenfion, that the cor. pears to be much abated, if not sequences naturally to be expected entirely at an end. With regard from the decide of the feudal go. to England, to our happiness, the vernment could rot be perceived causes of those fears which were amidst the continuai din of fresh once so prevalent, with respect to disputes. It may be unnecessary to the protestant fucceffion; the dan. recapitulate those causes of diffen. ger of rebellions within, orinvali. şion; many of them are generally ons from without, from that cause, known. Religion, or the pretence are so entirely vanished, that they to it, had its full share amongst only serve to endear to us our pre. them. The uncertain rights of fuc- fent security. cellion in most countries, together These circumstances seem in with the avidity with which all some sort pledges of a greater tranmankind were seized to grapple at quillity to our pofterity, than we or the treasures of the new world, were our ancestors have enjoyed. Howsuch seeds of contention, as served, ever, it must be confefied that all along with many others, to keep speculations of this kind, however Europe in continual agitation. plausible, are'in their nature ex.

Several of the principal of those iremely uncertain. The natural causes, and, happily, some of those inconftancy of mankind, the sport which occafioned the greatest mis. which fortune legins at some times chief, are now no more. The vio. to make of every system, destroylence of religious animosity; that ing in a day, or an hour, the best bitterness of zeal, which set man. laid foundations, and trampling kind to the destruction of each the labour of ages, and the wiselt

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inftitutions in the duft; all these declared Queen of Naples; but upmay forbid the hopes of a lasting on this occalion' it made no great permanency to any system of tran. change, and the young Prince has Quillity, let the present appear. heen tince contracted to her next ances be ever so serene.

filter the Archduchess Caroline, It must be admitted that this age who is about a year younger. seems to have a cause of contention Unnatural as the present friend. more particularly its own, and ship and alliance between those an. which cannot fail to supply, in cient and hereditary enemies, the some degree, those which are now houses of Bourbon and Austria, by time and change of manners may appear, and dangerous as the extinguished. The desire of naval effects of it might at first seem to power, which at present acts so many of their neighbours; it is not it rongly upon many of the nations perhaps impoflible, but it may conin Europe, will generate daily dif- tribute to preserve that tranquil. putes, and must become a fruitful liry, which seemed to be so much fource of diffenfion. The spirit of endangered by it. This will apcommerce will not be confined to pear the less problematical, if we the acquisitions of induftry. The refleft on the many wars in which new adventurers in this field will the bickering, and enmity of these encroach upon the old, while the two families have engaged for near same passion will act as powerfully two centuries the rest of Europe. with the old possessors, not to re

Neither does this alliance appear linquish any of those profits which fo very formidable to its neighusually came into their lands, and bours, as it might have done in to which they will think that long another situation of things. The prescription has given them a right. great weight which has accumu.

With respect to other matters, laced in the northern balance of the general ftate of affairs in Eu. late years, may well prevent the rope has suffered no material change scale from preponderating exces. fince the conclusion of our last vo. fively in their favour. lume. The same close union and It does not at present appear, alliance still subfifts between the that any of the three powers in different branches of the house of question are disposed, or indeed in Bourbon. The friendship and union a condition to disturb the public between that family and the house repose. France has been long a of Austria, is still more closely ce. loser by her wars, nor do the late mented by a marriage between the trials the has made of her itrength, young king of Naples, and a comparatively with that of her daughter of the Empress Queen, neighbours, give the least encou. The hopes of this alliance might ragement to her seeking for new. indeed have been frustrated in a less The systein of Europe is much

numerous family, by changed since those victorious 15th Oct. the death of the Arch. days of Lewis the XIV th, when 1767. duchess Maria Josepha, he was so much the terror of it.

who was seized with Other nations have gained great the small-pox in a few days after additional strength, whilft France hier being married by proxy and has without question rather loft

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ground; yet it must be owned, not the two nations, is in some degree in such a degree, but that her great wearing off; and it is observable, natural resources, and the very that more French of diftinction valuable and improveable colonies have visited England since the laft she is still poffeffed of, will always war, than at any other period since make her very respectable, if not the English lost their great poffefformidable. At present the is load sions in that country. ed with a very heavy debt, which The most interesting event which will require length of time, joined the past year has produced in Holwith itrict æconomy and close land, has been the marriage of the attention to her finances, to dilo Prince Stadtholder with the Princharge. Nor will her commerce, cefs Royal of Pruffia. Nothing though greatly recovered, sudden- could be more pleasing to the ly forget the inocks it received in whole republic than this marriage, the last war.

Agriculture has, nor could any thing happen of a through a series of mismanage. more interesting nature; the pubment, been long on the decline in lic and private rejoicings they that country ; it was the error of made, and the marks of respect the famous Colbert, that he want. and regard which they shewed the ed to form the French into a nation princess upon every occasion, sufof manufacturers, and forgot that ficiently teftified the sense they had agriculture is the principal strength of it. By this marriage the comof a state. The French ministry, as monwealth has entered intoa nearer well as the nation, seem now fully connection with a great, a power. sensible of this error; and agricul. ful, and a neighbouring prince, ture meets with all that encou. whose disposition, if not a certain ragement and attention which it friend, was always to be dreaded ; so juftly merits. It will, however, and the vicinity of whose territo. require length of time, and all the ries to those of the states, would leisure of peace, to bring it to any always furnish sufficient matter for degree near the perfection to which altercation, whenever he chofe 10 it is capable of arriving.

seek for it. At the same time this Upon the whole it is evident, marriage is juttly to be looked upthat nothing can be so effential to on in a very interesting light with the interest of France, as the con respect to the Proteftant fyftem in tinuation of peace; and that they general, and to connect that chain must be the most pernicious poli- of union which it will always be tics, which could at present urge so much the common interest to it to enter wantonly into a war. preserve between the maritime and

With respect to England, France northern powers, and the Protesfeems at present to be in a state of tant princes of Germany. perfect good neighbourhood ; nor In the north, affairs at present is there any apparent cause of quar. wear the most benign aspect. The rel likely io disturb this harmony. great disputes in Poland about the It may not perhaps be quite visi. Dillidenis, u hich seemed pregnant onary to imagine that the violent with so much danger to the geneani nosity and national prejudice, ral repose, are, through the weigh. which has fu long subfifted between ty and effectual mediation of the


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