by about fifty pupils, the majority of whom are boarders. There is a large cloth factory which, when in full operation, will employ about two hundred hands, and will be capable of turning out eight hundred and fifty yards per day. Three newspapers are published, the population is about five thousand, and the annual exports are estimated at £30,000.-- It is worthy of remark that from Cobourg to Kingston, a distance of one hundred and five miles, a half is formed by the south shore of the fertile peninsula of Prince Edward, which is remarkably indented by the waters of the Bay of Quinté on the north, at the head of which the Trent is discharged after a winding course of one hundred miles from Rice Lake. BELLEVILLE, at the mouth of the Trent, is a thriving town with about three thousand five hundred of population, and two weekly newspapers. Picton, the District town, is at the east end of the peninsula. On the top of a mountain in this peninsula is a remarkable lake, whose depth cannot be fathomed. At Tyendenaga on the north-east of this bay there is a very interesting settlement of Mohawk Indians, who separated from their nation in the State of New York about 1784. In 1793

they received from the Crown a large grant of land. In 1820 they • surrendered nearly one-third in exchange for an annuity of £450.

In 1835 they made a further surrender in trust to be disposed of for their benefit; so that their possessions do not now exceed sixteen tho:sand eight hundred acres. They live for the most part on detached farms scattered over the reserve. They have about fifteen hundred acres cleared, and about five hundred under tillage. There have been some instances of successful industry among them. A chief, named Hill, left by will at his death a few years ago considerable possessions to particular members of his family, who are at this day in full enjoyment of them. One of his sons, who is Catechist to the Missionary, recently built a wharf and commenced business as a general trader among his brethren in partnership with a white man. They possess stock and agricultural implements corresponding to their progress in husbandry. They were Christians long before their arrival in Canada, and were presented with a service of plate for communion as far back as the reign of Queen Anne. This they look upon with great respect, and the chief, in whose custody it re

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mains, is always well pleased to exhibit it to the traveller. They are attached to the Church of England, and, their place of worship having become too small for the congregation, they have recently erected a commodious stone church, the expense of which has been defrayed out of their own funds. A missionary was first appointed in 1810 by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Their present excellent missionary reports that during his incumbency they have been making a gradual advance in morals, piety, and industry. They support a school-master out of the produce of certain small rents, which they receive and manage themselves. Their number is about four hundred. It is highly gratifying to the Christian philanthropist to mark such progress among the descendants of the ancient proprietors of the American soil.--Between the Peninsula of Prince Edward and Kingston lies Amherst ISLAND, so called after Lord Amherst, one of the Generals in command of the British forces in 1760 when Canada was transferred to Britain. It was originally granted to Sir John Johnson for military services. The Earl of Mountcashel owns the principal part. The land is very good, and the tenants are in comfortable circumstances.--It is worth remarking here that the real settlement of Upper Canada took place in 1783 at the close of the first American war. At that time many inhabitants of the United States, who had adhered to Britain during the unsortunate contest, sought refuge within Canada. As they were generally in a very destitute state, the Government treated them liberally, and afforded them the utmost possible compensation for their losses and sufferings. With this view the whole lard along the St. Law. rence above the French settlements to, and around, the Bay of Quinté was formed into townships. The settlers were termed the United Empire (U. E.) Loyalists, and besides an ample supply of land received farming utensils, building materials, and subsistence for two years; and every member of their families, on attaining the age of twenty-one, had a donation of two hundred acres.


KINGSTON is built on the site of the old Fort Cataraqui, subsequently called Fort Frontenac in honour of the Count de Frontenac, one of the French Viceroys. Its advantageous position at the outlet of Lake Ontario into the St. Lawrence has raised it to considerable importance as an entrepot between the two Provinces. To accommodate this trade, wharfs and spacious warehouses have been provided. The streets are regularly arranged, and the houses are chiefly built of stone, of which there is an abundant supply. About half a mile distant is a low peninsula ending in Point Frederick, which with the other parallel one, terminating in Point Henry, encloses Navy Bay, the depot for the maritime armament formed during the late war. On an eminence of the peninsula is Fort Henry, which commands the entrance to the Lake. Point Frederick is connected with the town by a wooden bridge across the Cataraqui Bay, near which are the Marine Barracks. The town has recently been put into a state of complete defence by the erection of large substantial martello towers. In 1841 Lord Sydenham removed the Seat of Government thither from Toronto, when the inhabitants, indulging the hope that it would continue to be the Capital, went to considerable expense in making improvements. The removal of the Seat of Government to Montreal in 1844 proved for a time a severe shock to its prospective prosperity, from which it is rapidly recovering. Its commercial importance is enhanced by being the port of the Rideau Canal, which communicates with the Ottawa at Bytown, and thus opens up so much of the back country. The principal building is the MarketHouse so called, although only a portion of it is occupied as such. It is the finest and most substantial building in Upper Canada, and cost £25,000. In the front are several public offices, and above are the Town-Hall and a room opposite, of the same size, capable of accommodating five hundred persons. From the gallery surrounding the interior of the dome a very extensive view is commanded. The Presbyterians in connection with the Church of Seotland have a Collegiate Institution, called Queen's College and University of Kingston. The Hospital is supported partly by Government and partly by voluntary contributions. The Hotel Dieu is attended by Sisters of Charity, and the Roman Catholic Cathedral is of recent erection. There are two Marine Railways, one for hauling out vessels of three hundred tons, and the other for hauling out river boats and barges. At Portsmouth Harbour, a little to the west, lies the Provincial Penitentiary, a visit to which, and inspection of the internal arrangements, will not disappoint the traveller. It is a large stone building, surrounded by a high and most substantial stone wall with towers at the corners. The arrangements are so complete that escape seems under any circumstances impracticable. Blacksmiths, carpenters, shoemakers, tailors, &c., are busily employed in different workshops. The silent system is pursued except in necessary intercommunication at work. The inmates in general display a contented and subdued appearance. Perseverance in good behaviour entitles in remarkable cases to a discharge some years before the expiration of the term of confinement. It seems that there are not a few instances of convicts becoming inmates but a short time after receiving their liberty; so irresistible is the force of habit, when again subjected to temptation. The cells are so arranged that each keeper has a great number of prisoners, apart from each other, completely under his eye in his round,and can at all times ascertain, without being perceived, what is going on. Near the Penitentiary are baths and mineral springs, which have been much frequented. In the neighbourhood is an extensive saleratus factory in connection with a brewery. The proprietor offers to supply two thousand lbs. per day. Five weekly newspapers are published. Kingston returns one M. P. P.

The population, including two villages, is about twelve thousand. The tonnage of steamers and schooners owned here is upwards of seven thousand.

Before descending the St. Lawrence and bidding farewell to the Ontario, for the sake of the tourist who may prefer to steam along the American or Southern shore of the Lake, we shall furnish a few particulars. From the outlet of the Niagara at the Fort of that name to the boundary line of 45°, the entire littoral is in the State of New York, and comprises in succession the counties of Niagara, Orleans, Monroe, Wayne, the northern corner of Cayuga, Oswego, Jefferson, and St. Lawrence. The last along its entire western frontier, and a half of Jefferson County are bounded by the River. From Fort Niagara to the mouth of the Genesee River in Monroe County, a distance of about eighty-five miles, the coast presents an almost undeviating level under the primeval brush-wood, relieved by a few scattered clearances.

ROCHESTER, Should the tourist on ascending the Genesee to Carthage, which is the port of Rochester, resolve upon visiting this city, he will find enough to engage and gratify his curiosity till he resume his journey by the next steamer. The road for a mile from Carthage has been excavated to the depth of from sixty to eighty feet, and in some parts overhangs the rugged banks of the river to an equal height, so that the stranger on his return, as he is borne along in the omnibus, from its peculiar construction making a regular alternation of jolts from side to side, notwithstands ing the romantic scenery cannot help yielding to an uncomfortable impression of danger. An Englishman in 1810, having penetrated many miles into the bush, was struck with the water advantages which the Genesee afforded, and selected for his loghouse a portion of the locality which the wide-spreading Rochester now fills-up. Some idea may be formed of its astonishing progress from the fact that the population, which in 1825 was 5,271, and in 1840 20,191, amounts now to ab:jut 35,000. This large commercial and manufacturing city owes its greatness mainly to the “water privileges” which the proprietors on the banks of the Genesee here possess. For a considerable way above the Upper Falls the banks are on both sides surmounted by a great variety of mills. Its proximity to Lake Ontario, and the passage of the Erie Canal through its principal streets, contribute materially to its prosperity. A frontage on the river fetches a high price, as from the nature of the situation a supply of water from the canal or race can in many cases be rendered available twice or thrice. The aqueduct, by means of which the Canal crosses the river, is eigh hundred and four feet long, contains ten acres, and is finished off in a most substantial manner. The vast produce of the Genesee Valley, which stretches sixty or seventy

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