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amidst the dense foam of the boiling caldron.-Few travellers, who pass a Sabbath here, fail to visit the village of Tuscarora Indians, distant about ten miles on the Lockport road. They are a remnant of a once powerful tribe from North Carolina, and number about five hundred. A venerable chief, who held a commission under General Lafayette during the Revolution, died in 1840. In the Presbyterian Church a Missionary preaches in the English language, and one of the chiefs interprets the discourse. In the Baptist Church a chief preaches in their own language.--Seven miles below the Falls, the country on the Canadian side suddenly rises into abrupt and elevated ridges, called Queenston Heights,rising more than three hundred feet, and running to a considerable distance east from Queenston. This striking escarpment, or line of inland cliff, is supposed to have anciently been the banks of the river and the “ Place of the Falls.” QUEENSTON, before the opening of the Welland Canal, had a considerable business as a principal depot for merchandize intended for the West, shipping some forty or fifty thousand bushels of wheat in a
A rail-road thence to Chippewa, which cost £19,000, was opened in 1841. A horse-ferry-boat crosses regularly to the opposite village of Lewiston, where the Buffalo rail-road terminates. A party of Rifles are stationed here. Above the village stands the once handsome monument to the memory of the brave General Brock, who was killed here in October. 1812, while repelling an invading army of Americans.
The result of the attack was the capture of the entire American force, including General Scott, recently Commander-in-Chief of the American Army in Mexico, and then a Colonel of Artillery. This monument was blown up by a disaffected American, named Lett, in April, 1841, who has met with some meed of his deserts in the New York State Prison at Auburn. It is expected that it will shortly be rebuilt on a more magnificent scale, as the necessary sum has been nearly realized by public subscription. The General's remains were originally interred at Fort George (now in ruins) within half a mile of the town of Niagara, but were removed in 1824 to their resting-place under the monument.--NagARA, which lies at the distance of seven miles below, was formerly called Newark, and was settled by Colonel Simcoe, then Lieutenant Governor of the Province. For some years it was the Capital, and before the opening of the Welland Canal had a considerable trade. It has a population of upwards of four thousand, and sends a Member to Parliament. Its Harbour and Dock Company have an establishment with machinery of a very superior description, as is proved by the numerous steam-boats, schooners, and engines which they have turned out. They usually employ one hundred and fifty hands, and in very busy times have employed as many as three hundred and fifty. The Chief Justice Robinson, Princess Royal, Admiral, &c. &c., of four hundred and four hundred and fifty tons, were built here. At Fort Mississagua at the mouth of the river are stationed a company of Rifles and a few Artillerymen.-On the opposite shore is the strong American fort, called Fort Niagara. This fort was built in 1685 by the Marquis de Denonville, French Governor of Canada, but was soon razed to the ground by the powerful Iroquois, who had been incensed by his treacherous conduct. In 1725 the French built on the same site another fort, which surrendered to the British and Indian forces under Sir Wm. Johnson in 1759. In 1796 it was surrendered to the United States by treaty. In 1813 it was retaken, but surrendered to the States at the close of the war in 1815. The latest transaction of interest in connection with this ancient fortress, was the confinement of William Morgan within its magazine for a few days, after having been kidnapped from Canandaigua jail (in New York State) for revealing the secrets of Masonry. Since his imprisonment therein this notorious individual has not been seen.--It is worthy of noting that Lake Erie is five hundred and sixty-five feet above the level of the Sea, and three hundred and thirty-four above Lake Ontario. The fall is thus divided; in the sixteen miles from Lake Erie to the Rapids, the fall does not exceed twenty feet ; in one quarter of a mile of the Rapids, forty feet; at the Falls, one hundred and sixty-four feet; and in the seven miles thence to Queenston or Lewiston, one hundred and one feet.--The country on both sides of the river is beautiful, and capable of producing rich crops of wheat, if well cultivated. It has been remarked with regret that there has been a disposition on the part of some farmers to wear out their farms, although the recent settlement of English and Scotch farmers has produced a beneficial change in this respect among the American, native Canadian, and also not a few Pennsylvanian Dutch farmers, by whom the District was settled after the American War of Independence. Extensive orchards are abundant, and large quantities of apples, peaches, and cider are annually shipped at Niagara.
LAKE ONTARIO, along the British or American side of which the tourist will now proceed according to his selection of a steamboat at Queenston or Lewiston, is about one hundred and eighty miles long by about sixty in its greatest breadth. It is two hundred and thirty-four feet above the Atlantic, is so deep that in many places it exceeds one hundred fathoms, and is never frozen over. It is the safest of the three Lakes for navigation, as it has several excellent harbours, and numerous bays. On the British side the usual route is straight across from the mouth of the Niagara to Toronto, a distance of thirty-six miles ; although there is an opportunity of visiting the western extremity of the Lake, called Burlington Bay, afforded by a daily steamboat. 'This is distant about forty-five miles. About midway is the opening of the Welland Canal at Port Dalhousie.-On the south side of the Bay at the western extremity lies the rapidly improving town of HAMILTON, which was laid out in 1813 by a person of that name, and now contains a population upwards of ten thousand. From being the principal market for the Western merchants it seems destined to become second to no city in Upper Canada., An ample supply of excellent freestone and limestone behind the city affords the means of erecting handsome buildings, of which the merchants now generally avail themselves ; and considerable quantities are exported to Toronto and other places on the Lake. It is expected that it will soon be furnished with gas and water-works. From the Bay is seen Dundurn, the handsome mansion of Sir Allan M‘Nab, lately Speaker of the House of Assembly. It returns one M.P.P. Three newspapers are published. It is worthy of notice that behind the city rise the Burlington Heights, a continuation of the ridge from Queenston Heights, and that the same ridge stretches along gradually inwards till it recedes about twenty miles between Toronto and Hol
land Landing, separating the streams falling into Lake Simcoe from those that fall into Lake Ontario, and, as it advances eastwards, again approaches the Lake towards the Bay of Quinté. This formation has evidently at one time formed the boundary of the Lake, the same being visible on the American side.-There is a communication between the rising manufacturing town of Dundas and the western end of Burlington Bay by means of a canal, five miles in length, called the Desjardins Canal after a Frenchman who commenced the work. The prosperity of both places may be dated since the cutting of the Burlington Canal through the sandy beach that formed an impassable bar between the Lake and the Bay.--Betwixt Hamilton and Toronto there are seen in succession the towns or villages of Wellington Square, Oakville, and Port Credit. In the neighbourhood of the last'is an Indian reserve, belonging to the Missisagua Indians, extending for one mile on each side of the river Credit. Their village was built by Government in 1825. They have a Methodist chapel and a school attached, besides a warehouse at the Port. It is gratifying to mention that the Indians here possess £1350 of the stock of the company that built the harbour at an expense of £2500, which might be so improved as to be rendered capable of affording refuge for any number of ships.
TORONTO is the most populous city in Upper Canada, being upwards of twenty thousand. The site was selected by Governor. Simcoe in 1793, when only two Indian families resided on it. It was at first called York, but afterwards it was altered to the sonorous Indian name of Toronto or “ The Place of Meeting.” It was the Capital of the Upper Province from 1797 to 1841, when Lord Sydenham removed the Seat of Government to Kingston. It was apprehended that the removal would have caused a decline in its prosperity ; but the energies of the citizens were roused, their trade has greatly increased, and the city itself is now.well drained and paved, and supplied with gas and water.
Of late years many handsome buildings have been erected, such as Osgoode Hall, St. George's Church, the Banks, the Lunatic Asylum, the Catholic Cathedral, and the Lyceum. The city labours under the disadvantage of having no quarries, so that the private buildings are of brick. Property has increased greatly in value, and the rents of houses in good situations for business are upwards of £150 to £200. The principal public buildings are the Jail at the east end, the Court-house, the old Market-house, the new City Hall, the Upper Canada College, the old Parliament Buildings (partly occupied by the officials of King's College) and the Hospital, the last two of which lie towards the west end on the Bay. The stranger should visit the extensive and tastefully laid-out grounds of King's College, which will be a splendid edifice, should it ever be completed in the costly style which the finished portion presents as a specimen. This University is empowered to grant degrees in Arts and Sciences. The Free Church Presbyterians have a Theological Seminary and Academy, and the Congregationalists an Academy. The Lunatic Asylum and Observatory are worthy of a visit. There is a great number of institutions and societies for benevolent, religious, seientific, economical, and other objects. Ten newspapers and three monthly periodicals are published. The tonnage of steamboats owned here is about four thousand tons; and the yearly value of the
; Esports is estimated at £200,000. Toronto sends two members to the House of Assembly.-In coasting from Toronto to Cobourg, a distance of seventy-two miles, the villages or towns Pickering, Windsor Harbour, Darlington and Port Hope, are passed in succession, all of which are well supplied with mills, and export several hundred thousand feet of lumber annually. COBOURG is well laid-out, and has a flourishing appearance. The merchants have established a Board of Trade. About a mile and a half to the west stand the Jail and Court-house, a handsome stone building. The principal building is Victoria College, which was constituted as such by Act of Parliament in 1842 with power to confer degrees in Arts and Sciences. It was originally founded by the Wesleyan Conference, but is unsectarian in its character. It is chiefly supported by a Legislative grant of £500 per annum, and by tuition-fees. It cost about £10,000, and contains Lecture-rooms, Chapel, Library, and Reading-room, which is, perhaps, overstocked with Canadian newspapers liberally forwarded by the Editors. It is commonly attended