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ON THE

PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION;

OR, A

VIEW OF ITS PAST AND PRESENT EFFECTS

ON

HUMAN HAPPINESS;

WITH

AN INQUIRY INTO OUR PROSPECTS RESPECTING THE
FUTURE REMOVAL OR MITIGATION OF THE

EVILS WHICH IT OCCASIONS.

By T. R. MALTHUS, A. M.

LATE FELLOW OF JESUS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. I.

FIRST AMERICAN, FROM THE THIRD LONDON

EDITION.

WASHINGTON CITY:

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY ROGER CHEW WEIGHTMAX,

PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE.

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ADVERTISEMENT

TO THE

THIRD EDITION.

THE principal alterations in the present edition are the following:

The chapters which were the fourth and sixth of the second book are nearly rewritten, on account of an error into which the author had fallen in an attempt to estimate the fruitfulness of marriages and the number of the born living to be married, from the data in registers; and as the chapters in their present state, are not suggested by those which immediately preceded them in the same manner as they were before, they are transferred to the latter part of the book, and now form the ninth and tenth chapters.

In the chapter of the same book, which treats of the Checks to Population in England, a remark has been added to show the incorrectness of considering the proportion of births as nearly uniform throughout the last century, and consequently of founding an estimate of the population at different periods on such grounds.

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In the fifth chapter of the third book an observation has been inserted on the policy as well as duty of assisting the poor through temporary seasons of distress; and in the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth chapters of the same book, some passages have been omitted and others added, particularly in the tenth, which treats of bounties on the exportation of corn, on accouut of the present importance of the subject, and the discussion which it has lately received.

In the sixth chapter of the fourth book, one passage has been omitted, and a passage has been added on the effect of good government in diminishing poverty.

In the seventh chapter of the same book a passage

has been omitted; and in the eighth chapter a passage of some length, relating to a comparison of the married and unmarried, has been omitted, and an observation added on the propriety of not underrating the desirableness of marriage, while we are inculcating the duties of moral restraint.

These are the most prominent alterations. The rest consist merely of a few verbal corrections, and here and there a short passage or explanatory note, to prevent misconceptions. These minor corrections occur principally in the two first chapters.

The reader will see that the alterations here

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