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An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future ..., Volum 2
Thomas Robert Malthus
Uten tilgangsbegrensning - 1809
able according agriculture allowed America annual appear arising average births calculations causes chapter checks to population China circumstances classes common consequence considerable considered constant continue course cultivation custom deaths destroyed difficulty effect emigration encourage England equal Europe evident extreme famine France frequent give given greater habits human improvement increase industry inhabitants islands Italy kind labor land late laws less live lower manner marriages marry means means of subsistence mentioned misery mode mortality nature nearly necessary Norway observes occasion operation parish particularly perhaps period persons poor poverty present prevail principal probably produce proportion proportion of births reason registers remain respect returns Russian savage says seems severe society soil sometimes sufficient supply suppose taken tend tion towns tribes villages wars whole women
Side 114 - Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee, from me: if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left.
Side 18 - ... himself possessed ? Does he even feel secure that, should he have a large family, his utmost exertions can save them from rags and squalid poverty, and their consequent degradation in the community? And may he not be reduced to the grating necessity of forfeiting his independence, and of being obliged to the sparing hand of charity for support? These considerations are calculated to prevent, and certainly do prevent, a great number of persons in all civilized nations from pursuing the dictate...
Side 14 - In the next period, the population would be eighty-eight millions, and the means of subsistence just equal to the support of half that number. And at the conclusion of the first century, the population would be...
Side 13 - In the next twenty-five years, it is impossible to suppose that the produce could be quadrupled. It would be contrary to all our knowledge of the properties of land.
Side 6 - The effects of this check on man are more complicated. Impelled to the increase of his species by an equally powerful instinct, reason interrupts his career, and asks him whether he may not bring beings into the world for whom he cannot provide the means of support.
Side 21 - Promiscuous intercourse, unnatural passions, violations of the marriage bed, and improper arts to conceal the consequences of irregular connections, are preventive checks that clearly come under the head of vice.
Side 4 - To enter fully into this question, and to enumerate all the causes that have hitherto influenced human improvement, would be much beyond the power of an individual. The principal object of the present essay is to examine the effects of one great cause intimately united with the very nature of man, which, though it has been constantly and powerfully operating since the commencement of society, has been little noticed by the writers who have treated this subject.
Side 4 - The cause to which I allude is the constant tendency in all animated life to increase beyond the nourishment prepared for it. It is observed by Dr. Franklin that there is no bound to the prolific nature of plants or animals but what is made by their crowding and interfering with each other's means of subsistence.
Side 10 - ... population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twentyfive years, or increases in a geometrical ratio.