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remaining Fellows, or the majority of them, shall elect such persons as they shall consider duly qualified, into the vacant Fellowships or Scholarships, within two months after the vacancy:

2. That the Provost and Fellows may have a common seal for transacting the business of the Corporation, and that it may be lawful for them from time to time to make, constitute, and confirm, such laws, statutes, and ordinances, as to them may seem necessary for the government of the College; selecting from the statutes already in force in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge such as they shall consider applicable to their purpose ; and especially that no other persons should teach or profess the liberal arts in Ireland without the Queen's special license.

3. That Students be admitted, in due time, to the degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor, in all Arts and Faculties ; but that the Fellows of the College, when they shall have completed the term of seven years after the degree of M. A. shall be removed from their Fellowships, and others co-opted in their room.

4. That the Provost and Fellows, or the majority of them, shall be empowered to appoint the acts and scholastic exercises to be performed for Degrees in each Faculty, and to elect their Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, Proctors, and other University officers, necessary for the more solemn conferring of such Degrees.

5. That all the Queen's subjects and officers be permitted and encouraged to grant to the College such assistance as they may be disposed to give; and that all goods, chattels, lands, tenements, and hereditaments, belonging to the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars of the said College be for ever exempted from all burdens, taxes, tallages, cesses, subsidies, exactions, compositions, or demands whatsoever, as well in time of war as of peace.

This Charter also nominated seven Visitors, viz., the Chancellor, or his Vice-Chancellor; the Archbishop of Dublin ; the Bishop of Meath; the Vice-Treasurer; the Treasurer at War; the Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in Ireland ; and the Lord Mayor of Dublin; all for the time being, to constitute a court before whom, or a majority of them, all strifes, actions, and controversies, which the Provost and Fellows may be unable to settle, shall be heard, and who shall punish all “graviora delictawhich the Provost and Fellows may have left unpunished.

King James I., in the eleventh year of his reign, issued Letters Patent, enumerating the privileges granted to Trinity College by the Charter of Elizabeth, and reciting, " that whereas the said College was, and was esteemed, an University, and had, enjoyed, and possessed, all and singular, the

AD. 1613.

rights, liberties, and immunities pertaining to an University", therefore the King granted to the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars, the privilege of electing two Burgesses from among themselves, to represent the University in Parliament, as at Oxford and Cambridgeb.

The Charter granted by Charles I. (13 Car. I.), confirmed A. D. the privileges and powers given by the Charter of Eliza- 1637. beth to the Corporation of Trinity College, repealing, with the consent of the Provost and Fellows, such parts of the original Charter as were found by experience to have operated to the discouragement of learning, and to have impaired the efficacy of the University as a seminary of education. The following are the changes that were thus introduced into the constitution of the College, and which have continued in force to the present day:

1. The clause which limited the duration of Fellowships having been found to be injurious, “not only to the Students and the College, but also to the general interests of the kingdom and the Church,” is repealed, and Fellowships are made tenable for life.

2. The power of making statutes for themselves is taken from the Provost and Fellows, and reserved to the Crown. The book of Statutes which they had framed by the powers formerly lodged in them was abrogated; with this exception, that the increase made in the number of Fellows, from three to sixteen, and in the number of Scholars, from three to seventy, as also the distinction of the Fellows into seven Senior, and nine Junior, Fellows, is approved of and confirmed, and the whole government of the College committed to the Provost and Senior Fellows as in the former statutes.

3. The Statute-book, having been revised, and such alterations made in it as were deemed necessary, was imposed on the College by Royal authority; reserving to the Crown the power of changing, repealing, or dispensing with, any statutes or clauses of statutes that may at any time be found inconvenient or injurious to the College. But power is given to the Provost and Senior Fellows to make new rules and

"Cumque dictum Collegium sit et habeatur Universitas, ac habeat, gaudeat, et statur omnibus et singulis libertatibus, privilegiis, et immunitatibus ad Univenitatem sive Academiam pertinentibus sive spectantibus. idcirco operae pretium et necessarium videtur, quod dictum Collegium et Universitas habeant plenam et absolutam potestatem duos Burgenses de seipsis eligendi, osqne mittendi ad supremam curiam Parliamenti.”-Charta Regis Jacobi 1.

The words of the Charter express distinctly the King's design of assimilating the University in this respect to Oxford and Cambridge." In qua quidem aria (scil. Parliamenti)

Burgenses sic electi et missi, juxta formam Universitatis Oroniensis et Cantabrigiensis in Anglia usitatam, notum faciant verum statum dieti Collegii ac Universitatis ibidem." It may be added, that the privilege of returning Members to Parliament was first granted to the English Universities by the same inonarch at the commencement of his reign.

decrees in cases not decided in the statutes, which decrees have the force of statutes, provided they be not repugnant to the statutes given by the King, and provided also, that they shall receive the consent of the Visitors; and all such decrees continue in force until they are repealed by the Provost and Senior Fellows, with consent of the Visitors.

4. The power of electing their own Provost was taken from the Fellows and reserved to the Crown. The vacancy of the Provostship to be signified immediately by the Vice-Provost (or in his absence, by the Senior of the Fellows then in residence) to the Chancellor of the University, and by the Chancellor to the King; but during the vacancy of the Provostship no elections can be made, nor can leases or other instruments requiring the College seal be signed.

5. Upon the vacancy of a Senior Fellowship, the place must be filled up within three days after any such vacancy is known; and upon the vacancy of a Junior Fellowship or Scholarship, successors are to be elected on the Monday after the Trinity Sunday next following the vacancy. The electors are the Provost and Senior Fellows, or the majority of them; and in case of an equal division, the election is made according to the vote of the Provost.

6. The election of University officers, the Chancellor, Proctors, &c., was continued in the Provost and Senior Fellows as in the former Charter ; but the Vice-Chancellor is appointed by the Chancellor, and all officers of the University so elected must declare upon their oath that they will faithfully discharge the duties prescribed to them. This oath is taken by the Chancellor before the Lord Chancellor or Lord Keeper of England, or before the Lord Chancellor of Ireland; by the Vice-Chancellor, before the Chancellor of the University, or in his absence before the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and by the Proctors and other officers of the University before the Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor.

7. The Visitors were diminished in number from seven to two, viz., the Chancellor of the University (or in his absence, the Vice-Chancellor) and the Archbishop of Dublin.

Since the date of the Charter and Statutes of Charles I., the number of Junior Fellowships has been increased by different foundations from nine to twenty-eight. In the year 1698

one Fellowship was founded out of lands bequeathed to the College for that purpose by Dr. John Richardson, Bishop of Ardagh, who had been himself a Fellow about the year 1600; and William III., by Letters Patent in the tenth year of his reign, granted the corporate rights of a Fellow to this foundation. In the year 1724 (10 Geo. I.) three Fellowships were founded out of the funds bequeathed by Erasmus Smith, Esq., for that and other purposes. In 1761 (1 Geo. III.) two Fellowships were founded by Letters

1851.

A. D. 1855.

Patent, out of the property bequeathed to the College by Prorost Baldwin. In 1808 (48 Geo. III.) Letters Patent were passed for three Fellowships, to be endowed out of the revenues of the College. In 1840 (3 Vict.) Letters Patent were passed for the addition of ten Fellows to the existing number, by the election of one new Fellow in that year, and in each of the next succeeding nine years.

In the year 1851, a Royal Commission under the Great A. D. Seal was appointed to inquire into the state, discipline, studies, and revenues, of the University of Dublin and of Trinity College. In the Report of the Commissioners, which was laid before Parliament in the year 1853, they recommended, amongst other matters, that the Royal Statutes should undergo a complete revision. This recommendation was carried into effect by Letters Patent, dated Jan. 31, 1855, of which the preamble is to the following effect:

“Whereas the Statutes whereby our College and University of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth, near Dublin, is now governed, were ordained and given by His Majesty King Charles the First, and by others of our Royal Predecessors ; and whereas it hath been represented unto us that many things in the said Statutes enjoined upon the heads and members of the said College and University have become either impracticable, or have a tendency to retard or prevent those improvements which the present state of learning and science requires; and whereas the Provost and Senior Fellows of our said College, by and with the consent of our right trusty and entirely beloved Councillor, Lord John George Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of all Ireland, and Chancellor of our said University of Dublin, have prepared a draft of an intended Statute for repealing such clauses of the said Statutes, and enacting instead thereof, in some cases, certain other clauses, for alteration and amendment of the same :--Know ye, therefore, that we, taking the same into our gracious consideration, have thought fit to approve thereof."

Among the numerous and extensive changes introduced by these Letters Patent, the following are the principal :-

1. Power is granted to the Provost and Senior Fellows, with the consent of the Visitors, to found new Professorships in the University:

2. The limitation which the Caroline Statutes had imposed, relative to the time and subjects of the Examination of Candidates for Scholarships and Fellowships, is repealed; and the Board are empowered, with the consent of the Visitors, to fix the time and subjects of these Examinations in future; and they are also empowered to call upon any

number (not exceeding three) of the Junior Fellows who are Professors, to take part in these Examinations.

3. Certain offices which before were confined to Fellows of Trinity College are now thrown open to other members of the University

4. The Statutes relating to the University Library are altered and amended.

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The following list contains the names of the Chancellors and Vice-Chancellors of the University since the foundation. The first Chancellor was nominated in the Charter of Queen Elizabeth

CHANCELLORS. 1592. Sir William Cecil, Baron Burleigh, Lord High Treasurer

of England. 1598. Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. 1601. Sir Robert Cecil, Secretary of State, afterwards Earl of Sa

lisbury. 1612. George Abbot, D.D., Archbishop of Canterbury. 1633. William Laud, D.D., Archbishop of Canterbury. 1645. James, Earl (afterwards Marquess and Duke) of Ormond. (1653. Henry Cromwell, Commander-in-Chief of the Parliament 1660. James, Marquess (afterwards Duke) of Ormond. Restored. 1688. James, Duke of Ormond, grandson to the former. Outlawed,

1715. 1715. His Royal Highness George Prince of Wales (afterwards

George II.) 1728. His Royal Highness Frederick Prince of Wales. 1751. His Royal Highness William Duke of Cumberland. 1765. John Duke of Bedford. 1771. His Royal Highness William Henry Duke of Gloucester. 1805. His Royal Highness Emest Augustus Duke of Cumberland,

LL. D. (afterwards King of Hanover.) 1851. The Most REVEREND LORD JOHN GEORGE BERESFORD,

LORD ARCHBISHOP OF ARMAGH, AND PRIMATE OF ALL
IRELAND, D.D.

VICE-CHANCELLORS. 1609. Henry Alvey, late Provost. 1612. Luke Challoner, D. D. 1614. Charles Dun, LL. D. 1614. James Ussher, D. D., Professor of Divinity, afterwards Lord

Primate of all Ireland. 1646. Henry Jones, D. D., Bishop of Clogher, and afterwards of

Meath. 1660. Jeremy Taylor, D.D., Bishop of Down and Connor. 1667. James Margetson, D. D., Lord Primate of all Ireland.

* " Cancellarii dignitatem, honoratissimo et fidelissimo consiliario nostro, Gulielmo Cecillio, Domino Baroni de Burghley, totius Angliæ Thesaurario, delegatam approbamus."-Charta Reg. Eliz.

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