1. State Bishop Berkeley's theory of Perception, distinguishing what he allowed from what he rejected.

2. Give some of his leading proofs.

3. Distinguish his theory from the subsequent one of Hume, showing that Berkeley anticipated and disallowed it.

4. State the beneficial results which he claimed for his system.

[ocr errors]

1. State the arguments for and against the liberty of the Will; with the objections urged against each.

2. Mention the principal advocates on both sides; and give the arguments urged by two eminent recent antagonists.


1. Trace the various meanings of the term “Idea' in ancient and modern philosophy; classifying the advocates.

2. Enunciate the different theories which have arisen from these various meanings, giving each under its own head.

VII. 1. State the various theories of perception enumerated by Sir William Hamilton.

2. Mention accurately their points of agreement and disagreement.

3. Trace each to the base on which it rests; giving, in your own language, the marks of discrimination.



1. Review briefly the leading principles put forward by Bacon in his Fifth Book, De Augmentis Scientiarum.

2. a. Give some account of the controversy between Mr. Mill and Dr. Whewell on the subject of Induction.

B. Give a sketch of Mr. Thomson's remarks under the head "Anticipation."

3. State at length Mr. Mansel's criticism of the opposite theories of Dr. Whewell and Mr. Mill on the nature of axiomatic principles.

4. Give an account of Mr. Mansel's view as to the distinction between Positive and Negative thought; adding the leading instances in which this distinction, as well as its neglect, are exemplified throughout the Prologomena Logica.

5. a. State Mr. Mill's view as to the functions and logical value of the Syllogism. In what respect does he differ from ordinary writers on the subject?

ß. Enumerate the opinions of modern logicians as to the nature and value of the Dictum de omni et nullo.

6. a. Mr. Thomson criticizes the Table of Judgments according to Sir W. Hamilton ?

B. Give some account of Professor Max Müller's sketch of Indian logic.




1. Arguments by which Aristotle proves that opóvnois is distinct from επιστήμη and τέχνη!

2. It is argued that prudence and wisdom are useless. State the argument, and Aristotle's reply; and show the meaning and object of this remark, which occurs in his reply: του δέ τετάρτου μορίου της ψυχής ουκ έστιν αρετή τοιαύτη του θρεπτικού.

3. Source of the errors of the Stoics and of Socrates with respect to the nature of virtue ? How is the latter theory reconciled with moral responsibility?

4. Prove that προαίρεσις is όρεξις διανοητική, and show the importance of this definition of it in the discussion in Aristotle's sixth book.

5. Illustrate from Aristotle the following passages :

α. "Οστις όλον τον νόμον τηρήσει πταισει δε εν ενί, γέγονε πάντων ένοχος.

δ. (Τελείων) των διά τήν έξιν τα αισθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα εχόντων προς διάκρισιν καλού τε και κακού.

6. Adopting Plato's views, prove the existence of innate švvoiai.

7. Cite instances from the “ Tusc. Disp." of arguments from analogy of the kind used by Butler.

8. Contrast the views of Butler and Cicero as to the source of perfect human happiness.

9. Hobbes' theory of the origin of society is noticed and refuted by Cicero (after the Stoics)?

10. The Socratic argument for the immortality of the soul proves too much for Cicero. How does he attempt to evade the consequence ?

“ Animus se non videt." Quote and illustrate Cicero's criticism on this remark.

12. The Epicurcan theory de Natura Deorum destroys both virtue and religion?

13. In Butler's system virtue and religion necessarily coincide ?

14. “Love cannot be a duty, for Love is not in the power of the will." So Kant. State in Butler' s words both premises of this enthymeme, and show how he deals (implicitly) with the conclusion.


15. St. Paul expresses the true source of that love which is rédog ons mapayyelias. Quote the passage, and show its correspondence with the principles stated by Bishop Butler.

16. Compare the Stoical division of the moral virtues with that adopted by Butler, and with any parallel enumerations in the Sacred Scriptures.



1. State and refute the objections which have been urged against the " Analogy" by Pitt, Wardlaw, and Tholuck, severally. (10.)

2. Give an abstract of Dr. Whewell's observations, historical and critical, upon the enumeration and classification of the springs of human action, and discuss the merits of the classification proposed by him. (10.)

3. Mackintosh charges Butler's ethical system, as developed in the “Rolls Sermons," with four defects. Enumerate these, and show that the first allegation is unreasonable ; that the second is incorrect; that the method proposed by Mackintosh himself for remedying the third is unsatisfactory; and that for the fourth there is no just ground. (10.)

4. Write an abstract of the “Dissertation on Virtue,” and comment briefly on those points in which Butler has tacitly controverted the views of contemporary writers. (10.)

5. Give a simple and intelligible account of Mackintosh's theory of the genesis of Conscience. (5.)

6. State in full those indirect considerations by which Paley proves that the story for which the early Christians suffered was, in the main, that which we have now. (5.)

7. Give an abstract of Mackintosh's observations upon the ethical system of Hobbes. (5.)

8. Draw out a scheme of Stewart's inquiry into the principles of Natural Religion, stating briefly the arguments advanced under cach head. (5.)

Moderatorships in History, Political Science, and Gnglish



MOUNTIFORT LONGFIELD, LL.D., Professor of Feudal and English Law.
John TOLEKEN, M. D., Lecturer in Modern History.
John K. INGRAM, LL.D., Professor of English Literature.



1. How does M. Guizot describe the state of Gaul during the last half of the sixth century? What was the true character of the Germanic invasions ?

2. To whom has the first summoning of the Tiers Etat been erroneously attributed ? Give an account of the great controversy which occasioned their convocation by this monarch. Last meeting of the States General under the old monarchy, prior to the Revolution ?

3. What were the pretexts under which Charles VIII. and Louis XII. invaded Italy? Describe the principal events of the latter's Italian campaigns, and the three treaties which preceded his aggressions.

4. Describe the progressive civilization of the nations and governinents of Europe during the fifteenth century, and show that the external relations of the various States may be said to commence from this epoch.

5. What efforts have been made to impede the tendency to centralization in France in the course of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries :

6. Give an account of the chief members of the families of Guise, Bourbon, and Chatillon, who took part in the wars of religion. To what combination of circumstances did the Guises owe their influence ? Origin of the house of Bourbon ?

7. Describe the treaties of Westphalia, and state the parties to and objects of each. Was peace restored to all Western Europe ?

8. Describe the events which rendered Spain comparatively powerless at the close of 1640.

9. Enumerate the instances in which the government of France has been in the hands of females, distinguishing the regencies. Give an instance of the evils arising from the unsettled state of the law respecting regencies.

10. Give some account of the following persons:

(a) Arthur Count of Richemont.
(B) Louise de Savoye.

Cardinal de Retz. 11. What theories have been proposed to explain the origin of borough representation in England ? Compare the opinions of Hallam and Palgrave.

12. Give some account of the controversy respecting the character of Richard III. What writers have chiefly contributed to spread the prevailing opinion: Describe the state of parties at the close of the reign of Edward IV., and the grounds on which Richard defended his usurpation.

13. What legislative enactments have been passed from time to time affecting the duration of Parliaments ? Describe the circumstances which led to the introduction of the latest.

14. In whose reign was the Royal Veto most frequently exercised? Give the particular instances, and probable causes of each.

15. State the circumstances which gave occasion to the Scottish Act of Security, and the important measure to which it necessarily led. To what English statesmen is its passing attributed? What was the Eng. lish Act of the same name?

16. Trace the dependence of the Irish on the English Parliament. When did it finally cease? What was the effect of the constitutional changes in England on the subordinate legislatures ?

17. On what occasion did No. 45 of the “North Briton" appear? Show that whilst the legal proceedings against Wilkes may be contrasted favourably with those in the case of the Seven Bishops, the conduct of the House of Commons, on the other hand, was most unconstitutional.

18. Discuss the effect of the Revolution on the personal authority of the Crown and on the Executive Government.



1. Define “lands,” “ tenements,” and “hereditaments,” respectively, and give an example of each.

2. Does a Court of Equity in any, and, if so, in what case give effect to a provision against alienation of property, or anticipation of income?

3. What is meant by the "jus accrescendi" ? State a case of jointtenancy of personal property in which this right does not exist at common law; and state a case in which it is admitted at common law, but not ia equity.

4. What interest does the husband take in his wife's freehold property?

5. What interest does the husband take in her chattels real, and what rights exist in case of his aliening them, or of his surviving his wife, or of his wife surviving him, respectively?

« ForrigeFortsett »