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UNIVERSITY

EXAMINATION PAPERS.

1856.

UNDERGRADUATE HONOR EXAMINATION PAPERS.

Hilary Term.

SENIOR SOPHISTERS.

Experimental Physies.

CHEMISTRY.

1. In what proportions by volume should ammonia and carbonic acid be presented to each other so that the compound formed should be binary? Explain also generally the mode of solving such a question.

2. Write the formula of the compound formed when into water of ammonia sulphuretted hydrogen is passed as long as it continues to be absorbed ; and explain in symbols the action of the compound thus produced on a solution of nitrate of lead.

3. Give the theory of the production of sulphuric acid which you have heard explained in the Chemical Course.

4. What is the reaction of potash on an excess of sulphur when the two are boiled together with water; and how, from the solution, would you prepare persulphuretted hydrogen?

5. Enumerate the metals whose acid solutions in mineral acids are not precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen, and those whose precipitates with sulphuretted hydrogen are soluble in the sulphuret of ammonium.

6. Explain the production of fuosilicic gas, the action of water upon it, and the formula for hydrofluosilicic acid, -ist, on the supposition that silex is Si 03; and, on the hypothesis of its being Si 02.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 1. When a mineral has more cleavages than one, what is the law which governs the relative degrees of facility with which they may be effected?

2. What are the rules by which we are guided in the selection of the principal form

b

3. Should the angles of a regular octahedron be bevilled by a pair of planes resting symmetrically on two opposite edges, to what simple form do they give rise, and what is its notation ?

4. What is the compound form whose simple forms have the following notation :

ist simple form, a sob:

I

I

2nd do. do.

wa:6: 3rd do. do.

a: m" b c c. 5. An ikosihedron is occasionally found in the first system as a compound form; what are its constituent simple forms, and the notation of each

6. Write the notation of the oblique prisms of the 5th system belonging to the principal octahedron.

GEOLOGY

1. Give an account of Bischoff's and of Davy's Theories of Volcanic Action.

2. Describe the subdivisions, and give the formulæ of the Feldspar family; and state the rocks of which they are component parts.

3. Sounding at sea in a hundred fathoms water, in a particular locality, the bottom is found to be composed of large angular stones, mixed up with dead limpets and periwinkle shells. How does this result differ from what you would expect; and what geological changes does it indicate ?

4. What is the character of the living and dead mollusca, dredged from the deep depressions of the Scottish and North of England seabottoms? Mention the names of any such shells you are acquainted with.

5. State the arguments, geological or otherwise, in favour of the nebular hypothesis, and the objections which have been made to it. 6. State and prove the laws of climate, and apply

them to the explanation of the following facts :—that the harbour of Hammerfest is clear of ice during the entire year; and that on the English and Scotch coasts, in January, there is the same temperature from Dover to the Shetland Islands.

HEAT.

1. If a lump of ice at 32° F., and weighing 10 lbs., be plunged into two gallons and a half of water at 212°, to what temperature will the water fall when all the ice is melted ?

2. A bath capable of holding 250 gallons is to be filled with water at 96° F.; how much water at 212°, and how much at 56°, must be mixed in order to do so ?

3. How many pounds of water at 50° F. will be required to condense one pound of steam at 212°, the temperature of the water in the condenser being 98°?

4. How many cubic feet of steam, at 45 lbs. pressure on the square inch, will be furnished by the evaporation of one gallon of water?

5. The wet and dry bulb thermometers stand at 56° and 63°; calculate the weight of a cubic foot of the atmosphere, taking its moisture into account. The barometer reading reduced = 29.52.

6. Two pints of water at 212° are thrown into a vessel which weighs 40 ounces, and the temperature of which is 50°. The water is observed to fall through 7o. From this calculate the specific heat of the vessel.

Classics.

ARISTOTLE-NICOMACHEAN ETHICS.

1. Aristotle lived at a period peculiarly favourable to the exercise of his philosophical genius?

2. His method of instruction differed from that of Socrates; to whom his views on the subject of the moral conduct of men were opposed in an important respect?

3. Give a brief account of the circumstances which brought Aristotle's works into notice in modern times; and point out the reasons which have caused the spirit of his philosophy not to be duly appreciated.

4. Explain Aristotle's method in the treatment of his subjects. He differs from Plato in his conception of the idea ?

5. Describe the circumstances which preceded the rise of Epaminondas, and state the politic means adopted by him to promote the supremacy of Thebes.

6. What was the great defect in the views of Alexander; and how were his conquests beneficial to the nations of the East?

7. What was the position of Greece at the death of Aristotle? Another distinguished man died the same year?

8. What distinctions existed between ypápai and dikat, as to the persons who could appear as plaintiffs, and as to the penalties in case of failure? Before what officer would such a charge as that against Aristotle be commenced ?

9. Describe the geographical position of Issus, and the advantages which it afforded to Alexander Where and in what year did he penetrate into India?

το. Distinguish the terms είδος, μορφή; ποιησις, πράξις; άκρατής, ακόλαστος.

11. How are the various parts of the Greek verb used in the apodosis ; i. e. in connecting the consequence of some supposition with it?

12. Such verbs as άρχειν, ηγείσθαι, &c., are found governing genitive, dative, and accusative: state the difference of the senses in these constructions.

13. When expressing the relation of cause, how do åró and unó differ in the sense conveyed ?

14. α. ο δε μεγαλόψυχος.... Και οίος ευ ποιείν ευεργετούμενος, δ' αισχύνεται το μέν γάρ υπερέχοντος, το δε υπερεχομένου και αντευεργετικός πλειόνων.

Explain the words και οίος εύ ποιείν and the construction of πλειόνων. δ. πρός γάρ τά τη γένει έτερα και των της ψυχής μορίων έτερον τω γένει το προς εκάτερον πεφυκός, είπερ καθ' ομοιότητά τινα και οικειότητα η γνώσις υπάρχει αυτόις. Translate and explain the connexion of the words προς εκάτερον. .

σ. ει δη οίς αληθεύομεν, και μηδέποτε διαψευδόμεθα περί τα μη ενδεχόμενα, ή και ενδεχόμενα άλλως έχειν, επιστήμη και φρόνησίς εστι και σοφία, και νoύς: τούτων δε τριών μηθεν ενδέχεται είναι (λέγω δε τρία, φρόνησιν, σοφίαν, επιστήμης) λείπεται νούν είναι των αρχών.

What is the antecedent to oic? and translate the first clause. How is a supposition which is not true expressed by the Greek verb with εί?

d. έστι δε και η πολιτική και η φρόνησις ή αυτή μέν έξις το μεν είναι, ού το αυτό αυταίς.

Explain the sense and construction of the last clause.

ε. έτι έπει δύο τρόποι των προτασέων, έχοντα μέν αμφοτέρας, ουθεν κωλύει πράττειν παρά την επιστήμην χρώμενον μέντοι τη καθόλου, αλλά μη τη κατά μέρος πρακτά γάρ καθ' έκαστα.

Explain this passage and the terms used in it.

One of each pair of the following passages to be translated into English Prose, no portion being omitted.

1.

Κατά την έξιν γάρ και τα τοιόσδε είναι αλαζών έστιν, ώσπερ και ψεύστης: ο μεν τω ψεύδει αυτο χαίρων, ο δε δόξης ορεγόμενος ή κέρδους. Οι μεν ούν δόξης χάριν αλαζονευόμενοι, τα τοιαύτα προσποιούνται, εφ' οίς έπαινος ή ευδαιμονισμός: οι δε κέρδους, ών απόλαυσίς έστι τοίς πέλας και ο διαλαθείν εστι μη όντα, οίον ιατρών ή μάντιν σοφόν. Διά τούτο οι πλείστοι προσποιούνται τα τοιαύτα, και αλαζονεύονται έστι γαρ εν αυτοίς τα ειρημένα. Οι δ' είρωνες επί το έλαττον λέγοντες, χαριέστεροι μεν τα ήθη φαίνονται ου γάρ κέρδους ένεκα δοκούσι λέγειν, αλλά φεύγοντες το όγκηρόν μάλιστα δε και ούτοι τα ένδοξα απαρνούνται: οίον και Σωκράτης επoίει. Οι δε και τα μικρά και τα φανερά προσποιούμενοι, βαυκοπανούργοι λέγονται, και ευκαταφρόνητοί είσι και ενίοτε αλαζονεία φαίνεται, οίον ή των Λακώνων έσθής και γάρ η υπερβολή και η λίαν έλλειψις αλαζονικόν. Οι δε μετρίως χρώμενοι τη ειρωνεία, και περί τα μη λίαν εμποδών και φανερά ειρωνευόμενοι, χαρίεντες φαίνονται.

'Απορήσειε δ' άν τις, πώς υπολαμβάνων ορθώς ακρατεύεται τις επιστάμενον μεν ούν ού φασί τινες οιόν τε είναι δεινόν γαρ επιστήμης ενούσης, ώς φετο Σωκράτης, άλλο τι κρατείν, και περιέλκειν αυτόν ώσπερ ανδράποδον Σωκράτης μέν γάρ όλως έμάχετο προς τον λόγον, ως ούκ ούσης ακρασίας ουθένα γάρ υπολαμβάνοντα πράττειν παρά το βέλτιστον, αλλά δι' άγνοιαν. Ούτος μεν ούν ο λόγος αμφισβητεί τοίς φαινομένοις εναργώς, και δέον ζητείν το πάθος, εί δι' άγνοιαν, τίς ο τρόπος γίνεται της άγνοίας: ότι γάρ ουκ οίεται γε ο ακρατευόμενος, πρίν εν τω πάθει γενέσθαι, φανερόν. Είσι δέ τινες, οι τα μεν συγχωρούσι, τα δ' ού το μεν γαρ επιστήμης μηθέν είναι κρείττον ομολογούσι το δεμηθένα πράττειν παρά το δόξαν βέλτιον ούχ ομολογούσι και διά τούτο τον άκρατη φασιν ουκ επιστήμην έχοντα κρατείσθαι υπό των ηδονών, αλλά δόξαν. 'Αλλά μην εί γε δόξα, και μη επιστήμη, μηδ' ισχυρά υπόληψις ή αντιτείνουσα, άλλ' ήρεμαία, καθάπερ εν τοίς διστάζουσι, συγγνώμη τω μη εν ταύταις μένειν προς επιθυμίας ισχυράς τη δε μοχθηρία ού συγγνώμη, ουδε των άλλων ουδενί των ψεκτών.

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Βουλευτών δε και προαιρετών το αυτό πλήν άφωρισμένον ήδη το προαιρετόν: το γαρ εκ της βουλής προκριθεν, προαιρετόν έστι: παύεται γάρ έκαστος ζητών, πώς πράξει, όταν εις αυτόν αναγάγη την αρχήν, και αυτού εις το ηγούμενον τούτο γάρ το προαιρούμενον. Δήλον δε τούτο και εκ των αρχαίων πολιτειών, ας "Ομηρος εμιμείτο: οι γάρ βασιλείς, ά προέλoιντο, ανήγγελον τω δήμω. "Οντος δε του προαιρετού, βουλευτού ορεκτού των εφ' ημίν, και η προαίρεσις αν είη βουλευτική όρεξις των εφ' ημίν του βουλεύσασθαι γάρ κρίναντες, όρεγόμεθα κατά την βούλευσιν. Η μεν ούν προαίρεσις τύπω ειρήσθω, και περί ποιά εστι, και ότι τών προς τα τέλη.

"Ετι, διδακτη πάσα επιστήμη δοκεί είναι, και το επιστητόν, μαθητών εκ προγινωσκομένων δε πάσα διδασκαλία, ώσπερ και εν τοις αναλυτικούς ελέγομεν: η μέν γάρ, δι' επαγωγής: η δε, συλλογισμό. Η μεν δή επαγωγή αρχή εστι και του καθόλου και δε συλλογισμός εκ των καθόλου εισίν άρα αρχαι, εξ ών ο συλλογισμός, ων ουκ έστι συλλογισμός επαγωγή άρα. Η μεν άρα επιστήμη έστιν έξις αποδεικτική, και όσα άλλα προσδιοριζόμεθα εν τοις αναλυτικοίς· όταν γάρ πως πιστεύη, και γνώριμοι αυτώ ώσιν αι αρχαι, επίσταται· ει γάρ μή μάλλον του συμπεράσματος, κατά συμβεβηκός έξει την επιστήμην. Περί μεν ούν επιστήμης διωρίσθω τον τρόπον τούτον.

TO BE TRANSLATED INTO GREEK PROSE. Itaque non deterret sapientem mors (quæ propter incertos casus quotidie imminet, propter brevitatem vitæ nunquam longe potest abesse) quo minus in omne tempus reipublicæ suisque consulat, et posteritatem ipsam, cujus sensum habiturus non sit, ad se putet pertinere. Quare licet, etiam mortalem esse animum judicantem æterna moliri non gloriæ cupiditate, quam sensurus non sis, sed virtutis, quam necessario gloria, etiam si tu id non agas, consequatur. Natura vero sic se habet, ut, quomodo initium nobis rerum omnium ortus noster afferat, sic exitum mors; ut nihil pertinuit ad nos ante ortum, sic nihil post mortem pertinebit. In quo quid potest esse mali, cum mors nec ad vivos pertineat, nec ad mortuos? alteri nulli sunt, alteros non attingit. Quam qui leviorem faciunt, somni simillimum volunt esse : quasi vero quisquam ita nonaginta annos

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