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The chief cause of the tides is the attraction of the moon, which, affecting most strongly the side of the earth nearest to it, draws or heaps up the waters in the parts of the earth successively turned toward it At the same time the moon attracts the bulk of the earth, and, as it were, pulls the earth away from the water on the surface farthest from it, so that here also the water is raised. although not quite so much as on the nearer side. The waters being thus heaped up at the same time in these two parts of the earth, and the waters situated half way between them being thus necessarily depressed, two high and low tides occur in the period of a little more than one revolution of the earth on its axis. When the sun and moon are in conjunction or opposition, at times of new and full moon, their tidal waves will be superposed crest upon crest, and the effect will be what is called "spring tide"; when they are in quadrature the lunar tide will be partially neutralized by the solar tide, and the result will be a "heap tide."
To find the high water at Port Deposit for May 1, 1914, for instance, we have to add 2h. 59m. to the P. M. high tide of April 30th, being 10h. 8m., and we get 1h. 7m. for the A. M. high tide of May 1; and adding 2h. 59m. to the A. M. tide of May 1, which is 11h. 5m., we obtain 2h. 4m. for the P. M. high tide for May 1, 1914, of Port Deposit
To illustrate by another example, let us choose Cove Point Light. To find the time of high water in that place for June 4, we must subtract 4h. 48m. from 3h. Om., the time of the afternoon tide at Baltimore, and we get 10h. 12m. for the time of the tide in the morning: and by subtracting 4h. 48m. from 4h. 2m. A. M. of the tide of June 5, we find the time of the afternoon 11h. 14m. as that of the P. M. tide at Cove Point Light.
THE EARTH'S HEAT.
By far the most important obstacle to very deep mining is the certain and proportionate increase of temperature. At the Parnischowitz borehole, in Silesia. 6,573 feet deep, the increase in temperature with depth has been 1° Fahr, for 62.1 feet.
The inferior planets Mercury and Venus occasionally pass over the disk of the sun, a phenomenon which is called a transit. The times when these transits occur are subject to a certain law, and depend upon the synodic times of revolution of these planets. The months in which Mercury transits can occur are May and November. This year there will be a transit of Mercury on the 6th of November. The transit months of Venus are June and December. The last June transit of Venus occurred in 1769 and the last December transit in 1882. During the twentieth century there will be no transit of Venus across the sun's disk at all, the next that will occur being in June, 2004, and the next after this in June, 2012.
THE HORIZON AT SEA LEVEL.
Distances of objects at varying elevations from one foot to one thousand feet. The elevations given are in feet.
It was from observation of the sky and the varying appearance of the clouds, their color and formation, that the ancient meteorologist formed prognostications as to the weather conditions likely to prevail for short periods in advance. He was able also to draw more or less certain inferences from the behavior of birds and beasts-all, in some measure, sensitive to coming changes in the weather. As an instance, it may be observed that sea birds, as stormy weather comes on, fly inland in search of food; wild-fowl leave the marshy ground for higher localities; swallows and rooks fly low before and during bad weather; frogs are unusually noisy before rain; sheep huddle together near bushes and trees, and in hill countries come down to the plains at the approach of bad weather.
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1Tu. 7 611 55 204 44 2W. 7 711 55 424 44 3Th. 7 811 56 54 44 4Fr. 7 1011 56 294 44 5Sa. 7 1111 56 534 44 6Sun 7 1211 57 174 43 7 Mo. 7 1311 57 434 43 8Tu. 7 1311 58 94 43 9 W. 7 1411 58 314 43 10Th. 7 1511 59 24 43 11 Fr. 7 1611 59 284 43 12 Sa. 7 1711 59 574 43
13 Sun 7 18 12 14 Mo. 7 1912 15 Tu. 7 2012 16 W. 7 2012 17Th. 7 21 12 18 Fr. 7 2112 19 Sa. 7 22 12
0 254 44
5 5311 24 Rises
4 59 6 19
5 39 6 57
5 24 12
6 19 7 32
6 22 1
7 0 8 15
7 44 8 56
8 33 2 53
Algenib Persei S. 10 51
in S. oh C. h 5°29′ Almaach S. 9 4 P.M.
8 32 9 38 2nd Sunday in Advent 9 39 3 33 9 2610 219
8 +0°21' 10 46 4 31 10 2511 4 a Triangulæ S. 8 42 P.M. 5 18 11 2711 53 Algol sets 6 50 A.M. 6 4 12 30 0 6 50 12 42 1 34 1 35 2 47
2 11 7 39
2 (Jupiter) S. 12 48 A.M. Alcyone (Plei.) S. 10 25 PM Alcyone (Plei.) sets 3 A.M. 3rd Sunday in Advent
+7°36′ &C. &+4°56′ C. d+3°47′
3 24 4 32 Aldebaran sets 5 56 A.M.
9 43 4 20 9 48 10 18
4th Sunday in Advent
10 46 5 310 4811 1 Oenters; Winter com.
20 Sun 7 2212
in Aph. h S. 11 40 P.M.
3 36 5 20
Highest Flood Tide December 16, 17, P. M., 1.7 ft.
If birds in autumn grow tame,
The winter will be too cold for game.
With the discovery of the Barometer in 1643, the first step towards a clearer knowledge of the great aerial ocean by which we are surrounded, and at the bottom of which we live, was made. By the movements of the barometric column we learn the weight or pressure of the air, and can infer from these the condition of our aerial ocean, whether it be in a state of calm or storm.
The invention of the Thermometer, shortly afterwards, gave the means of determining its temperature. The Hygrometer, for showing the amount of moisture it contained, and the Anemometer, for giving the direction and force of the wind. are also instruments of great importance to the meteorologist. The indications of these instruments, combined with the careful observation of atmospheric appearances, interpreted by the results of former observations, will enable the individual observer generally to predict the kind of weather that may be expected in his immediate locality for a day or sometimes longer in advance.
The principal rules in use for forecasting the weather may be briefly stated as follows:
A rising barometer usually foretells less wind or rain, and a falling barometer more wind or rain, or both; a high barometer, fine weather, and a low one the contrary.
Predictions founded solely on the indications of the barometer and thermometer may be made with more certainty if combined with careful observation of the appearance of the sky, and the atmospheric effects peculiar to the particular locality.
A rosy sky at sunset, whether clouded or clear, a grey sky in the morning, a low dawn (that is, when the first signs of the dawn appear on the horizon), all indicate fair weather. A red sky in the morning indicates bad weather, or much wind; and a high dawn (or when the first signs of the dawn are seen above a bank of clouds) presages wind.
From the clouds we may draw the following conclusions:-Soft looking and delicate clouds foretell fine weather, with moderate breezes; hard-edged clouds, wind; rolled or ragged clouds, strong wind. A bright yellow sky at sunset also presages wind, and a pale yellow sky wet.
Dew and fog both indicate fine weather, while remarkable clearness of the atmosphere near the horizon (causing distant objects to appear very distinct and nearer than usual) is one of the most characteristic signs of coming wet.
THE SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT.
The new Income Tax Article of the Constitution of the United States which was finally ratified by the States and proclaimed is as follows:
ARTICLE XVI.-The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States and without regard to any census or enumeration.
THE SEVENTEENTH AMENDMENT.
On the 8th of April, 1913, Connecticut ratified the proposed seventeenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States. This made the thirty-sixth State to ratify, and that being three-fourths of all the States, the amendment became a part of the Constitution. It provides for the election of Federal Senators by the vote of the people instead of by the Legislature. It is as follows:
"The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures.
"When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies, provided that the Legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the Legislature may direct.
"This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.”
POPULATION OF COUNTRIES.
According to the number of inhabitants, the countries range roughly as follows: British Empire and Colonies....418,000,000 Austria-Hungary
The following table shows the commonly used antidotes for various poisons:
Prussic acid (cyanide of potassium).. Cold douche; smelling salts to nostrils;
Strychnia (nux vomica).
Narcotics (opium, morphia, laudanum, paregoric)
artificial respiration; brandy and ammonia.
Emetics; chloroform to relieve spasms; cold affusion, artificial respiration: brandy and ammonia; morphia; rectal injections of tobacco.
Emetics; strong coffee; cold affusion; forced walking about.
In serious accidents the first thing to be done is to send for the physician. While awaiting his arrival make the patient as comfortable as possible. In severe bleeding stanch the blood by means of compresses applied to the veins or arteries. In case of insensibility loosen or remove any of the clothing pressing upon the neck, chest or abdomen. Sprinkle the face with cold water, and if the power of swallowing be present give some cold water to drink, or if this should prove insufficient some stimulant, such as whiskey or brandy.
BURNS AND SCALDS.
Cover with bicarbonate of soda, or wet with water in which as much of the soda has been placed as can be dissolved. When the skin is broken and blisters are raised, open the blisters at once and swathe the parts with soft linen anointed with simple cerate or saturated with sweet oil, castor oil, or equal parts of linseed oil and lime water. Burns from caustic alkalis should be well washed with vinegar and water.
Place patient flat on the floor, with little or no elevation of the head; control his movements so far as to prevent injury, and place a folded towel between the teeth, so as to prevent the biting of the tongue. When the convulsion is over let the patient rest in a quiet place, giving him previously a slight stimulant.
Loosen the clothing, allow plenty of fresh air, sprinkle cold water over face and apply hartshorn to the nose.
Bring about reaction gradually by friction in a room without fire, and avoid heat. Rub the part with snow or other cold application. If severe, call physician, as gangrene may follow.
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED-Continued.
Remove the patient into fresh air, undo clothing, dash cold water on the face and neck and employ artificial respiration, as in drowning.
Remove clothing; put patient in cool place and apply ice or ice cold water to head, back of neck, spine and armpits until the high temperature is lowered. Keep head in elevated position.
HEMORRHAGES FROM THE NOSE.
These may be stopped generally by snuffing up the nose salt water, alum and water, or vinegar, by applying ice between the shoulders or at the back of the neck, or by putting bits of lint into the nostrils, and raising the arms over the head.
Loosen or remove clothing and rid the air passages of any water, mud or mucus which may be present. Pull the tongue well forward; an elastic band over the tongue and under the chin will answer the purpose. Turn the patient over, face downward, so that the head hangs down, and, by making firm pressure upon the loins, any water will be expelled from the lungs and stomach. Then turn him upon his back and proceed with artificial respiration. For this purpose grasp the patient's arms just above the elbows and draw them gently and steadily upward until they meet above the head, and, after keeping the arms in that position for two seconds, turn them down and press them gently and firmly for two seconds against the sides of the chest. Repeat these measures alternately fifteen times in a minute until a spontaneous effort to respire is perceived. When breathing has been established proceed to induce circulation and warmth. Remove carefully all wet clothing and wrap the patient up in warm, dry blankets. applying heat to the extremities. Restore the circulation by brisk friction applied to the limbs, and as soon as he is able to swallow give small quantities of hot coffee, whiskey or brandy. Do not despair if resuscitation does not immediately follow. Cases have been reported where it has taken two hours to effect this, and recovery from drowning has occurred where persons have been submerged from ten minutes to nearly an hour.
BURNS FROM ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTNING.
Do not touch the body until the current has been turned off, unless you are provided with rubber gloves. Send for medical aid immediately. In the meantime apply external heat and friction to the extremities. If the respirations have ceased, employ artificial respiration. The burns may be treated as any ordinary burn.
BITES OF ANIMALS.
Remove the possible poison and prevent its entry into the system. Place a ligature about the part and thoroughly cauterize the wound with a hot iron, hot coal or some caustic. When a person is bitten by an animal supposed to have hydrophobia he should at once be removed to a Pasteur institute for inoculation with preventive serum.
BITES OF VENOMOUS INSECTS.
Tie a ligature about the injured part and suck the wound to produce bleeding. Then enlarge the bite with an incision and swab it out with pure carbolic acid or some other antiseptic. Should dangerous symptoms appear, stimulate the patient with whiskey.
POISONS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES.
When poisonous substances have been taken the first move is to cause their ejection by vomiting or neutralization by proper antidotes; the effects produced must be counteracted by stimulants, artificial respiration and exciting the excretory organs. The simplest means of causing vomiting are: Tickling back of throat with finger or a feather; drinking large drafts of lukewarm water, salt and water, mustard and water, one or two tablespoonfuls of ipecac in water, and twenty grams of sulphate of zinc in water. When as much of the poison as possible has been gotten rid of by vomiting certain antidotes, according to the nature of the poison, must be administered. Acids and alkalis form antidotes to each other. The acids suitable for the purpose are vinegar, lime juice and orange juice, mixed with water. The alkalis are soda, potash, lime and magnesia diluted with water. Albumen and oils will protect the gullet and walls of the stomach in poisoning by so-called irritants. For the same purpose also white of egg, milk, flour and water, salad oil and castor oil may be used.