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PROHIBITION IN WEST VIRGINIA.
On July 1, 1914, constitutional prohibition went into effect in West Virginia under the provisions of the Yost law, enacted in 1913, to enforce the prohibition amendment to the State Constitution. The closing of saloons was marked by riotous scenes in many places. All saloons, liquor houses and breweries were closed at midnight, June 30, and all stocks disposed of, under penalty of confiscation by the State. The Yost bill permits the sale of pure grain alcohol for pharmaceutical, scientific, mechanical and medicinal purposes, and wine for sacramental uses, but only under the most stringent restrictions.
The Constitutional amendment was ratified in the election of 1912 by a majority of 92,000 votes. Five hundred and twenty-five retail saloons and wholesale liquor houses, 12 breweries and one distillery, the whole industry employing 3,000 men and representing an investment of $12,000,000, were closed. They paid $650,000 a year in taxes to the State.
With prohibition in force in West Virginia, there are now nine "dry" States, as follows:
To this will be added Virginia, which adopted State-wide prohibition at the election on September 22, 1914, to go into effect October 31, 1916.
Local option territory in other States increases the population of the "dry" areas to 46,029,750, which is 47 per cent, of the entire population of the United States.
Central Amer. States:
.Gold..Colon......... .465 Newfoundland.
VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.
Legal Monetary U. S.
Standard. Unit. Money. Country.
Argentine Republic.. ..Gold..Peso... ..$0.967 Great Britain..
.Gold..Boliviano... .389 India (British)
British Colonies in Aus
tralasia and Africa.....Gold..Pound sterl.. 4.8665 Liberia... ...Gold..Dollar........ 1.00 Mexico....
(100 p'sters) 4.913 Sweden.
.Gold..Peso........ 365 Philippine Islands. .silver...Dollar-Yuan .504 Portugal..
Hongkong.. .455 Russia.
British..... .455 Santo Domingo.
.Gold..Dollar........ 1.000 Siam..
.God..Crown........ .288 Spain.
German Empire.. ......Gold..Mark.......... 238 Uruguay..
Gold.. Peso... ...Gold..Bolivar........ .193
The value of the tael; Amoy,
China-Lega! standard. silver; monetary unit, tael and dollar. $0.691; Canton, .60; Haikwan (customs), 704; Peking, .674; Shanghai,
.487 Straits Settlements.
PERSONS ELIGIBLE.-The laws of the United States have never allowed other than "free white persons" and "persons of Afri 'an nativity or descent" to be naturalized. The naturalization of Chinamen is also expressly prohibited by Section 14. Chapter 128, Laws of 1882.
ANARCHISTS AND POLYGAMISTS.-The law of June 29. 1906, provides, re-enacting the law of March 3, 1903: That no person who disbelieves in or who is opposed to all organized government. or who is a member of or affiliated with any organization entertaining and teaching such disbelief in or opposition to all organized government, or who advocates or teaches the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers, either of specific individuals or of officers generally. of the Government of the United States or of any other organized government, because of his or their official character, or who is a polygamist, shall be naturalized.
DECLARATION OF INTENTION.-An alien seeking naturalization as a citlzen of the United States must declare on oath before a Circuit or District Court of the United States, or a State court of record, having a seal, a clerk and jurisdiction in actions at law or equity, or law and equity, in which the amount in controversy is unlimited. at least two years before his rdmission, and after he has reached the age of 18 years. that it is bona fide his intention to become a citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever all alle lance and fidelity to any foreign state or ruler, and particularly to the one of which he may be a citizen or subject.
OATH ON APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION.-At the time of his application for admission he must also declare on oath, before some one of the courts above specified, "that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that be absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign prince, potentate, state or sovereignty, and particularly by name to the prince, potentate, state or sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or subject."
FINAL PETITION.-Not less than two years nor more than seven years after an alien has made such declaration of intention he shall make and file. in duplicate, a petition in writing, signed in his own handwriting and duly verified, in which petition he shall state his full name, his place of residence, occupation, and if possible, the date and place of his birth; the place from which he emigrated and the date and place of his arrival in the United States, and if he entered through a port. the name of the vessel on which he arrived; the time when and the place and name of the court where he declared his intention to become a citizen; if he is married, the name of his wife, the country of her nativity and her place of residence at the time of filing the petition; and if he has children, the name, date and place of birth of each child living.
The petition must set forth whether or not he has been denied admission as a citizen of the United States, and, if denied, the ground or grounds of such denial, the court or courts in which such decision was rendered, and that the cause for such denial has since been cured or removed.
The petition must also be verified by the affidavits of at least two credible witnesses, citizens of the United State, who shall state in their affidavits that they have personally known the applicant to be a resident of the United States for a period of at least five years continuously, and of the State, Territory or District in which the application is made for a period of at least one year immediately preceding the date of the filing of his petition, and that they each have personal knowledge that the petitioner is a person of good moral character, and that he is in every way qualified, in their opinion, to be admitted as a citizen of the United States.
At the time of filing the petition there shall be filed with the clerk of the court a certificate from the Department of Commerce and Labor, if the petitioner arrives in the United States after June 29. 1906. stating the date, place and manner of his arrival in the United States, and the declaration of intention of such petitioner. which certificate and declaration shall be attached to and made a part of said petition.
CONDITIONS OF CITIZENSHIP.-It must appear to the satisfaction of the conrt to which the alien has applied for final admission that immediately preceding the date of his application he has resided continuously within the United States for at least five years, and in the State or Territory where the court is held at least one year, and that during that time "he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same." In addition to the cath of the applicant, the testimony of two witnesses, citizens of the United States, as to the facts of residence, moral character and attachment to the Constitution is required.
TITLES OF NOBILITY.-If the applicant bears any hereditary title or belongs to any order of nobility, he must make renunciation at the time of applica tion,
SOLDIERS.-Any alien, 21 years of age or over, who has served one year r over in the regular or volunteer army of the United States and has been honorably discharged, may, upon application to a court as specified above, proof of one year's residence, good moral character and honorable discharge, be admitted a citizen of the United States.
SEAMEN.-Seamen who have declared their intention to become citizens, and who subsequent to such declaration have served three years on board a merchant vessel of the United States, may be admitted to citizenship.
NAVY OR MARINE CORPS.-Any alien, 21 years of age or over, who has served five years or over in the United States Navy or United States Marine Corps and has been honorably discharged, may, upon application to a court as specified above, proof of good moral character, five years' service and honorable discharge, be admitted a citizen of the United States.
WIDOWS AND MINOR CHILDREN.-When any alien who has declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States dies before he is actually naturalized the widow and minor children of such alien may, by complying with the other provisions of the law, be naturalized, without making any declaration of intention.
NATURALIZED CITIZENS RESIDING ABROAD.-When any naturalized American citizen shall have resided for two years in the State from which he came, or for five years in any other foreign State, it shall be presumed that he has ceased to be an American citizen, and the place of his general abode shall be deemed his place of residence during those years: Provided, however, that such presumption may be overcome on the presentation of satisfactory evidence to a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States under such rules as the Department of State may prescribe.
MEDICAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.
The total number of medical students in the United States for the year ending June 30, 1914, was 16.502, a decrease of 513 below 1913, a decrease of 1.910 below 1912 and a decrease of 11,040 below 1904, when 28,142, the largest number of students, were enrolled. Of the total number of students, 15,438 were in attendance at the nonsectarian (regular) colleges, 794 at the homeopathic and 270 at the eclectic colleges. The attendance at the nonsectarian colleges shows a decrease of 481 below that of 1912, a decrease of 1.839 below 1912 and a decrease of 9.492 (38 per cent.) below 1903, when 24.930, the largest number of nonsectarian students, were enrolled. In the homeopathic colleges there was a decrease of 55 below the attendance of 1913. Eclectic colleges show an increase of 14 over registration of last year, but a decrease of 38 below 1912 and a decrease of 744 (73 per cent.) below 1904, when the largest number of eclectic students were enrolled.
The total number of graduates for the year ended June 30, 1914, was 3,594. a decrease of 387 below 1913, and a decrease of 889 below 1912. The total this year is 2.153 (37.5 per cent.) less than in 1904. when 5.747, the largest number. were graduated. The number of graduates from the nonsectarian colleges was 3.365, or 314 less than last year, and 841 less than in 1912. It is a decrease of 1,825 (35 per cent.) below 1904, when 5,190, the largest number, were graduated from nonsectarian colleges. From the homeopathic colleges there were 154 graduates, or 55 less than in 1913, and 31 less than in 1912. It is a decrease of 266 (63 per cent.) below 1903, when 420, the largest number of homeopathic physicians, were graduated. The eclectic colleges graduated 70, or 23 less than in 1913, and 40 less than in 1911. It is a decrease of 151 (68.3 per cent.) below 1890, when 221. the largest number of eclectic physicians, were graduated.
WOMEN IN MEDICINE.
During the past year there were 631 women studying medicine, or 9 less than in 1913, a decrease of 48 below 1912 and a decrease of 498 (44.1 per cent.) below 1904, when 1,129 women students, the largest number, were reported. The percentage of all medical students was 3.8, the same as in 1913. There were 121 women graduates in 1914, or 3.4 per cent. of all graduates. Of all the women matriculants. 155 (21.4 per cent.) were in attendance at the two medical colleges for women, while the remaining 496 (78.6 per cent.) were matriculated in the 54 coeducational colleges. From the two women's colleges there were 25, or 20.7 per cent. of all woman graduates, while 96, or 79.3 per cent., secured their degrees from coeducational colleges. These figures. taken from the annual report of The Journal of the American Medical Association, show that women are not going into the study of medicine to the extent that they once did.
THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES.
.Aug. 8, 1905 Jan. 3, 1907 .April 29, 1908 ...Nov. 13, 1909 . Mch. 14, 1911
Wotherspoon, William W. May 12, 1912
..July 21, 1902
Pershing, John J..
HEAD. OF STAFF DEPARTMENTS.
Judge Advocate General.
Chief of Ordnance.
Chief Signal Officer.
Chief of Coast Artillery.
.Sept. 20, 1906 M.. Nov. 15, 1910
Jan. 30, 1911 . May 12, 1912 .Feb. 12, 1913 Feb. 12. 1913 Mch. 23, 1913 May 16, 1913 . May 16, 1913 Sept. 24, 1913 .Oct. 10, 1913 .July 17, 1914
.Aug. 27, 1914 Oct. 1. 1906 .. Feb. 15. 1911 ..Aug. 24, 1912 ..Jan. 16. 1914
Brig.-Gen. Henry P. McCain.
. Brig.-Gen. Erasmus M. Weaver.
. Brig.-Gen. Frank McIntyre..
President Army War College... Gen. M. M. Macomb.
.Col. C. I. Townsley, C. A. C.
Nov. 22, 1901
. Feb. 14, 1913 .Mch. 15, 1911 Aug. 24, 1912 .April 13, 1914 Aug. 31, 1912 ..April 16, 1914
NOTE. All general officers are appointed from the army by selection, there being 6 majors general and 15 brigadiers general, fixed by law. The dates opposite the names indicate the date of appointment to the office indicated above the list of General Field Officers and the date of seniority of grade of all under that classi fication. Following will be retired for age-64 years during current year: Maj.Gen. William H. Carter, November 19: Maj.-Gen. Arthur Murray, April 29, 1915; Brig.-Gen. Eli D. Hoyle, January 19, 1915.
Number of enlisted men, 85.965; number of officers, 4.764.
UNITED STATES ARMY CADETS
Appointments to West Point Military Academy.
Each Congressional District and Territory, the District of Columbia, and also Porto Rico, is entitled to have one cadet at West Point. Each State is also entitled to have two cadets at the Academy from the State at large, and 40 are also allowed from the United States at large. The appointments (except those from the United States at large, the District of Columbia and from Porto Rico) are made by the Secretary of War at the request of the Senator, Representative or Delegate in Congress, and the person appointed must be an actual resident of the State, District or Territory from which the appointment is made. The appointments from the United States at large and from the District of Columbia are conferred by the President. The appointment of the cadet from Porto Rico is made by the President on the recommendation of the resident Commissioner.
Accepted candidates, if between 17 and 18 years of age, should not fall below five feet four inches in height; if 18 or over, not below five feet five inches in height. The age of admission is between 17 and 22 years.
A cadet's pay is $500 per year and one ration or 30 cents per day; tota! $609.50, to commence with admission to the Acade ny. A deposit of $100 is made at entiance to cover cost of outfit.
At the beginning of 1914 the larger part of the army was in active service, along the Texas border, guarding the frontier against Mexican depredations. On April 25 a force of 3.400 men and 12 guns, under Gen. Frederick Funston, sailed for Vera Cruz, where they held possession of the city, after the United States seized the port and custom house,
Pay of Grade.
RATES OF PAY TO ARMY OFFICERS.
PAY OF OFFICERS IN ACTIVE SERVICE.
3.500 291.67 320.83
3.000 250.00 275.00
*Retired officers receive 75 per cent. of the pay of their grade (salary and increase.) crease of longevity after retirement unless retired for wounds received in battle. 10fficers below the rank of brigadier-general receive 10 per cent. on the yearly pay of the grade for each term of 5 years' service, not to exceed 40 per cent, in all-except colonel, lieutenant-colonel and major.
The maximum ray of a colonel is $5,000, that of a lieutenant-colonel $4,500 and that of a major $4,000.-Act May 11, 1903.
MIDSHIPMEN OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY. Appointments To The Naval Academy At Annapolis, Maryland. The minimum age for admission is 16 years; maximum, 20. Two midshipmen are allowed for each Senator, Representative and Delegate in Congress, two for the District of Columbia and five each year from the United States at large The appointments from the District of Columbia and five each year at large are made by the President. One midshipman is appointed by the President from Porto Rico on the recommendation of the Governor of Porto Rico. Each Senator, Representative and Delegate in Congress may appoint one midshipman during each Congress. Graduates are appointed to fill vacancies in the lower grades of the line of the Navy, and of the Marine Corps, in the order of merit.
Candidates must enter the Academy immediately after examination. Candidates are examined mentally in reading, writing, punctuation, spelling, arithmetic, geography, English grammar, United States history, world's history, algebra through quadratic equations, and plane geometry (five books of Chauvenet's geometry, or an equivalent).
On entering the Academy the appointee signs an agreement to serve in the Navy eight years, including his time of probation at the Naval Academy. A mið shipman's pay is $600 a year, commencing from the date of admission, The expenses for equipment at entrance are $226.35. A preliminary deposit of $50 for clothing is required.
MAKING THE NAVY POPULAR
Secretary Daniels' policy of making the navy a real training school, with larger opportunities for enlisted men, has resulted in so many enlistments that the navy has been recruited to its full strength and has a "waiting list" of applicants.
The cruise to European waters last winter gave the men an opportunity to visit foreign cities and see something of the world. The opportunity for action at Vera Cruz and the service in Mexican waters stimulated interest. The high stand ard insisted upon has brought a fine class of young men into the navy and probably the personnel of the enlisted men was never of a higher standard than it is today.