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but no churches are attached to her name, though the Cambrian Biography 1 says “some Welsh churches are dedicated to her.” Dolarddun, an old manor house in the parish of Castle Caereinion, Montgomeryshire, is believed to be called after her. There was another Arddun, the wife of Cadgor ab Gorslwyn, and also a Ceindrych “Benasgell.” But, indeed, other women in all ages have a claim to be called wingheaded or flighty.

S. ARIANELL, Virgin

ARIANELL, or Arganhell, was a daughter of Guidgentivai, a man of royal family, probably in Gwent ; she was possessed by an evil spirit, in other words, was deranged. She had to be kept in bonds to be preserved from throwing herself into the river or into the fire, and from biting and tearing her clothes and all about her.

The father appealed to S. Dubricius, who cast forth the evil spirit and restored the girl to soundness in the presence of her father and relatives. When thus recovered, she devoted herself to religion under the supervision of the saint, and remained a virgin consecrated to God until her death.3

There was a stream of the name that had its rise in S. Maughan's parish, Monmouthshire, and is mentioned in the Book of Llan Dâv as forming the bounds on one side of the territory of Lann Tipallai, which the editors of the Book of Llan Dâv suppose to be the Parsonage Farm, west of S. Maughan.4 But the grant made was to Dubricius by Britcon Hail, and no mention is made in it of the damsel Arganhell, so that we cannot be sure that this was the site of the place of monastic retreat of the saintly maiden. The stream Arganhell is apparently that which rises near Newcastle (Castell Meirch) and runs nearly due west to east, keeping north of S. Maughan's Church, and empties into the Monnow. It has lost its ancient name. The other brook that flows into the Trothy passing through Hendre Park retains its name, Bawddwr.

1 P. 11 (1803).

? Myv. Arch., p. 417. 3 “ Quae in tantum vexabatur quod vix funibus cum ligatis manibus poterat retineri quin mergeretur flumine quin comburetur igne, quin consumeret omnia sibi adherentia dentibus." Book of Llan Dâv, pp. 82–3. 4 Ibid., pp. 75, 372; cf. p. 173.

5 Ibid., p. 171.

S. ARIANWEN, see S. ARANWEN

S. ARILDA, Virgin, Martyr

This Saint is noticed in a Martyrology in the British Museum, A.D. 1220-4, MS. Reg. A. xiii, as honoured at Gloucester Abbey. In an old poem on this Abbey, printed at the end of Hearne's edition of Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle, are these lines :

Thes wonderfull workes wrought by power divine,
Be not hid, nor palliat, but flourish daylie
Witness hereof is Arilde that blessed Virgin
Which martyrized at Kinton nigh Thornebury,
Hither was translated, and in this monastery
Comprised, and did miracles many one,

As whosoe list to looke may find in hir Legion.
Unhappily her“ Legion ” is lost.

The place of her martyrdom was Kington by Thornbury in Gloucestershire. Both the period to which she belonged and the stock, whether English or British, are unknown.

Whytford gives as her day, July 20. “In englonde at glocester the feest of saynt Aryld a virgyn and martyr."

S. ARTHEN, Confessor

S. ARTHEN, or Arthan, was one of the sons of Brychan Brycheiniog, and his name in the Cognatio and most lists occurs as the fourth son.1 In the Domitian Cognatio he is entered, “ Arthen qui erat pater Kynon qui est in Manan.” There was a church once dedicated to him in Gwynllywg, but “was destroyed by the Pagan English,” and he was buried in “Manaw.” 2 This church was no doubt the extinct Llanarthen, near Marshfield, Monmouthshire. Rhiw Arthen, near Aberystwyth, is supposed to have been called after him, but with greater probability after Arthen (or Arthgen), “King of Ceredigion,” who died in 807.3

1 Iolo MSS., pp. 108, 111, 119, 140; Myv. Arch., pp. 417, 419.

? See the same references. Nicolas Roscarrock says that he was a saint in the Isle of Man ; this was due to his supposing that Manaw stood for that island, but there was a Manaw Gododin in North Britain.

* Annales Cambriæ, p. 11.

Possibly his name is perpetuated in the Brecknockshire hill-name Cefn Arthen, within his father's territory. As to his name, the vocable arthan (common gender) means a bear's whelp, arthen being the feminine form of the same. His name under the form Arthan occurs in one list only.

S. ARTHFODDW, Confessor ARTHBODU, hodie Arthfoddw, was one of the disciples of S. Dyfrig at Hentland, and may be also at Mochros, or Moccas, in Herefordshire. 1 He was the founder of Lann Arthbodu, in Gower, possibly the Pennard (S. Mary) of to-day. It was merely a cell. There was an Artbodgu, the son of Bodgu, who in the old Welsh genealogies of Harleian MS. 3859 is given as fifth in descent from Cunedda Wledig. 3

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S. ARTHMAEL, or ARTHFAEL, Abbot, Confessor On the Cross at Llantwit is the inscription testifying that Samson the Abbot made the cross for his own soul and for those of Iuthael the king and Artmail or Arthmael. It has been supposed that the cross is of later date than the sixth century, and that it was not erected by S. Samson to the memory of King Iuthael and his companion Arthmael, but at a time posterior, and that the Iuthael and Arthmael thereon named belonged to this later date, and to the house of Morganwg ; moreover the style of decoration supports this view. The coincidence of names at two periods is remarkable, for S. Samson's great work was the restoration of the princely line in Domnonia, the placing of Iuthael on the throne in 555, and Arthmael was his great helper in the work.

The authorities for the Life of S. Arthmael are these :—The Lections in the Breviary of Rennes, fifteenth cent., that of Léon, 1516, the Breviary of S. Malo, 1537, and that of Vannes, 1589. The original in the Breviary of Léon, 1516, exists in a copy made by Benedictines of the seventeenth or eighteenth cent., printed by Roparz, Notice sur Ploërmel, p. 163. That from the Breviary of S. Malo, printed at Paris, 1489, is in the Acta Sanctorum, Aug., t. iii, pp. 298-9. Albert le Grand gives the Life from the Breviaries of Léon and Folgoët- the latter no longer exists—also from the Legendarium of Plouarzel, which has also disappeared. Albert le Grand is usually very reliable in what he extracts from documents no longer accessible, though reckless in attribution of dates. The earliest text we have is that of the Rennes Breviary, and this is later than the twelfth century, but is probably bised on an earlier life.

1 Book of Llan Dâv, p. 80. 2 Ibid., p. 144 ; Col. Morgan, Antiquarian Survey of East Gower, 1899, p. 202. 3 Y Cymmrodor, ix, p. 181.

Arthmael was born in Morganwg, in the cantref of Penychen. We are not told the names of his parents, but this we obtain from the Welsh genealogies. From one in the Iolo MSS., p. 133, we learn that Derfael, Dwyfael, and Arthfael were sons of Hywel, son of Emyr Llydaw, cousins of S. Cadfan ; they were members of S. Illtyd's“ choir," and afterwards were with S. Cadfan in Bardsey. Arthmael was accordingly first cousin of S. Samson, S. Padarn, S. Maglorius, S. Malo, and brother probably of S. Tudwal of Tréguier, and perhaps also of S. Leonore.

According to the Life in the Breviaries, he was educated in a monas. tery under a certain abbot Caroncinalis, more properly Carentmael, but did not become a monk. He lived as a secular priest, till one day entering the church he heard the deacon read the gospel :-“Whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath cannot be My disciple.” This seemed to him to be spoken to himself. He therefore resolved on abandoning his own land, his parents, and his property. He went to Carentmael and told him his purpose. The abbot agreed to depart also, and a large body of colonists left South Wales together with Caroncinalis and Arthmael. They landed in the mouth of the Aber Benoit in Finis. tère, the principality of Léon, and went inland till they formed a settlement where is now Plouarzel.

Carentmael is said to have been a near kinsman of Paul of Léon, but he has left no impression in the district where he settled, and he is not numbered among the Breton Saints.

Arthmael remained at Plouarzel some years till the death of Jonas, king of Domnonia, in or about 540, when Conmore married the widow, and obliged Judual, or luthael, the prince, to fly for his life to the court of Childebert. Arthmael, like Leonore and other Saints of Armorica, got on bad terms with the regent Conmore, and he was obliged to leave and go to Paris, where he did his utmost to induce Childebert to displace Conmore and restore Judual. His efforts were unavailing,

till the arrival of Samson, whose energy and persistence in the same cause broke down finally the King's opposition, and they were suffered to return to Brittany, and organise an insurrection on behalf of Judua).

This succeeded, and Conmore was killed in battle in 555. Judual rewarded Arthmael for his services by giving him land on the Seiche, now in Ille et Vilaine, where is the village of S. Armel. Here he established a monastery. A dragon infested the neighbourhood ; he went to it, put his stole about its neck, and conducted it to the river. He bade the monster precipitate itself into the stream, and was at once obeyed. This is a symbolic way of saying that he subdued Conmore, the old dragon of Domnonia.

Passing one day by the valley of Loutéhel, the people complained to him that they lacked good water, and with his staff he miraculously produced a spring. He would seem to have established another monastery at Ploermel, near the pretty lake called l'Etang du Duc, in a well-wooded rolling country. Whether he died and was buried there or in his territory near the Seiche, and where is his tomb in the church, is uncertain. How long this was after the restoration of Judual we do not know, but it was somewhere about 570.

He was formerly patron of Ergué-Armel, near Quimper, but has been supplanted by S. Allorius. There is a fountain of the Saint at Loutéhel, and another prettily situated near the road to Vannes at Ploermel. At this latter place is a window of stained glass of the sixteenth century, representing the story of the Saint in eight compartments : 1. S. Arthmael bidding farewell to his parents. 2. S. Arthmael healing a leper. 3. The messenger of Childebert summons Arthmael to court. 4. Arthmael performing a miraculous cure. 5 Arthmael and his companions bid farewell to King Childebert. 6. S. Arthmael with his stole round the dragon. 7. S. Arthmael precipitating the dragon into the river. 8. The death of the Saint.1 Arthmae] became one of the most popular Saints of Brittany.

In addition to the parish churches of Plouarzel, Ploermel and S. Armel Loutéhel, and Ergué-Armel, those of Languedias and Langoet were dedicated to him, and he had chapels at Bruz, at Fougeray, Lantic, Radenac, S. Jouan de l’Isle, S. Glen, Sarzeau, and Dinan. His day is most generally regarded as August 16, Missal of Vannes, 1530 ; Breviary of Vannes, 1589; MS. Calendar of S. Meen, fifteenth century ; Breviary of Dol, 1519; Proper of Vannes, 1660; and the MS. Breviary of S. Melanius, Rennes, 1526, Albert le Grand, and Dom Lobineau.

On the other hand August 14 is his day in the Breviary of S. Malo,

1 Roparz (S.), La Légende de S. Armel, S. Brieuc. The window is engraved in La Légende de S. Armel, S. Brieuc, 1855, c. xii, p. 133.

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