« ForrigeFortsett »
Despite S. Asaph's eminence as a Welsh Saint, mediaeval Welsh literature has but little to say about him. Not so much as one poem appears to have been written in his honour. Iolo Goch, Owen Glyndwr's laureate, mentions him as "Assa lwyd" (the Blessed), and invokes his protection for himself.1 Lewis Glyn Cothi, a fifteenth century Carmarthenshire bard, also invokes his protection for Caio, his natale solum. In another passage he exclaims, " Myn bagl Assa!" (" By S. Asaph's bacillus or pastoral staff! "); and in another he uses the expression "pryd Asa," by which the Saint's traditional handsomeness is implied.2
He is credited with having written " Ordinationes Ecclesice sua, and
the Life of his master Kentigerne." 3 He very probably did write the
Life of his master, but it has not come down to us in its original form.
It may have formed the basis of the Lives by the anonymous monk
and Jocelin in the twelfth century. The following saying is attributed
to him, and " would bee often in his mouth "—
Quicunque verbo Dei adversantur,
He is represented in fifteenth century glass in Llandyrnog church, in the Vale of Clwyd.
S. AUDE,5 Virgin, Martyr
The identification of this virgin Saint presents peculiar difficulties. Apparently the Aude or Haude venerated in Leon is the same as the Jutwara of the Sherborne Calendar. The name Jutwara or Audwara, is Aed-wyry, or Aed the Virgin, but at Sherborne the Welsh name went through modification to suit English mouths.
The legend of S. Aude in the Leon and Folgoet Breviaries is the same with certain small differences as that by John of Tynemouth in Capgrave's Nova Lcgenda Angliae, of Jutwara.
1 Gweithiau Iolo Goch, ed. Ashton, pp. 355, 533 (Oswestry, 1896).
2 Gwaith Lewis Glyn Cothi, pp. 311, 371, 533 (Oxford, 1837). "Bagl Asaf" alsooccurs in a eulogy of Bp. Wm. Hughes (1573-1601) by Wm. Lleyn.
3 Bp. Godwin, Catalogue of Bishops of England, London, 1615, p. 544.
* " Bale out of Capgraue" (Ibid., ad foe). The apothegm is quoted by Bp. Richard Davies at the end of his Epistle to the Welsh, prefixed to the Welsh New Testament of 1567. It has been put into Welsh thus by some one—
Y neb a ludd ddysgu crefydd, Trwy genfigen etyl rybudd. 5 The name is from the Welsh Aidd, zeal, warmth, ardour, cognate to the Irish aed, ead, and the Gaelic cud.
I i i i I
S. Paulus Aurelianus, S. Sativola, S. Wulvella, S. Aod or da= ,
B. of Leon, d. c. 560. V.M. at V. Abbess in Jutwara
Exeter. Cornwall. V.M.
S. joavan, Ab. Batz,
It will be advisable to tell the story as given by the latter, noting the differences, and then to point out some curious coincidences which link it on to that of Paulus Aurelianus, or Paul of Leon. Jutwara, born of noble parents, lost her mother, and her father married again. She had a brother named Bana and three sisters, Eadwara, Wilgitha, and Sativola. All these sisters were Saints.
Jutwara grew pale as wax, and her step-mother asked her the cause. She replied that she was suffering from pains in her chest. The stepmother advised the application of a cream-cheese ; and then told Bana a scandalous story affecting his sister; "atque in argumentum fidei interulam puellae a pectore ejus extrahere suadit: dicens earn profluente de mamillis lacte madidam fore."
The young man rushed to find his sister, and meeting her as she was returning from church, charged her with incontinence. She was staggered at this accusation. "Interulam ejus, ut doctus fuerat, extraxit: quam madidam inveniens "—in a blind fury, he drew his sword and cut off her head. Not only did a fountain spring up on the spot, but a great oak grew there as well. After many years the tree was overthrown by a gale, and fell against a house that was near, so that the branches interfered with exit and entry. The owner of the house and his boy set to work to hack the boughs away, when the stump, relieved of the burden, righted itself, and carried up the lad who was clinging to a branch uncut off.
According to the Leon version of the story, of which however we have only Albert le Grand's arrangement, the name of the father was Galonus, presumably a settler from Britain, living at Tremaouezan, near Landerneau, in Leon. He had a son Gurguy, and a daughter Aude. Gurguy went to the court of Childebert; and on his return found that his father had married again, a lady of good family whom he had met in Britain. The step-mother poisoned his mind against his sister, told him she had been incontinent, and he rushed to find her, at a well washing clothes. He cut off her head, and found her bosom stuffed out with milk-curds, which she had purposed giving to the poor. She took up her head, walked to the hall, put on her head again, reproached her brother, and forthwith died.
The story goes on to relate that Gurguy repented and went off to S. Paul at Leon and was bidden by him retire as a penance into a forest near Landerneau, and there fast and pray for forty days. The penance accomplished, Gurguy returned to S. Paul, who admitted him as a monk into his monastery, and finally sent him to be superior to a cell he had established at Gerber, afterwards called Le Relecq, and changed his name to Tanguy.
Then follows a legend of the bringing of the head of S. Matthew to Brittany, and the founding by Tanguy and S. Paul of a monastery on a headland, the extreme western point of Finistere. This is a gross anachronism, as the relics of S. Matthew were not brought to Brittany till 830.1 This episode may accordingly be dismissed.
What is true is that S. Paul founded the monastery of Gerber, after wards called Le Relecq, about 560 on the spot where the final battle was fought between Judual and Conmore, usurper of Domnonia, in 555, in which Conmore was slain. It acquired its name Le Relecq, or abbatia de reliquiis, from the number of bones found about on the battlefield, relegou being the Breton for bones of all sorts, not necessarily of Saints.2 S. Paul gave Tanguy a dozen monks as his companions. The new name imposed on him is derived from Tan, fire, as that of Aude is from flame.
Now if we look at the Life of S. Paul of Leon, an early document, we find that he had as his father one Porphius,3 and that he came from Penn-Ohen, i.e. Cowbridge, in Glamorgan, and that he had three holy sisters, the name of one of these was Sicofolla, and he had brothers Notalius and Potolius.4
Sicofolla is, we may suspect, the Sativola of the Exeter Calendars, popularly called Sidwell. If this be so, then we obtain the names of Paul's other sisters. It is true, the author of his Life says there were only three that were saints, whereas in the Life of S. Jutwara there are four named. The curious coincidence is that Tanguy in Leon is represented as in close relationship with S. Paul.
Eadwara and Jutwara may be only two forms of the same name Aed-wyry. The sister called, in the Life of S. Jutwara, Wilgitha, is known in Cornwall and Devon as Wulvella, and she is the reputed foundress of Gulval.
1 "Chronicon Britannicum," in Dom Morice, Preuves, i, p. 3.
2 Abgrall (Abbe), Le livre d'or des Eglises de Bretagne, Nos. 19-20, Les Abbayes, p. 9.
3 In Achau'r Saint (Cambro-British Saints, p. 270) the name is Pawlpolius, printed by Rees Pawlpolins.
4 Vita, ed. Dom Plaine in Analecta Boll., 1882.
It is possible that Lanteglos by Camelford may have been dedicated originally to Jutwara, as Laneast, hard by, is to the sisters Wulvella and Sidwell. The church is now supposed to be dedicated to S. Julitta. There is a Holy Well, in fair preservation, with remains of a chapel at Jutwells, which may be a contraction for Jutwara's orAod's well. The day of the Translation of the body of S. Jutwara from Halinstoke to Sherborne Abbey was observed on July 13. Where was Halinstoke? Can it have been Helstone or Helsbury, the former in Lanteglos, the latter the stone camp dominating it? Nicolas Roscarrock says that holding her head in her hands, she turned to look back on the hill where she had been martyred.
July 13 was given in the Sherborne Calendar and by Whytford. What seems confirmatory of the dedication is that at Camelford in Lanteglos parish, a fair is held on July 17 and 18, i.e. within the week or octave of the feast of the Translation of S. Jutwara.
The day of her martyrdom according to Nicolas Roscarrock was January 6, but he also gives the day of her translation, July 13.
The sequence for S. Jutwara's day is in the Sherborne Missal, liturgical notes on which have been issued by Dr. Wickham Legg, for the S. Paul's Ecclesiological Society, 1896. It recites the incidents of her legend. It concludes with the invocation :—" Virgo sidus puellaris medicina salutaris, salva reos ab amaris, sub mortis nubecula." In the Breviary of Leon, 1705, the feast of S. Aude is marked on November 28, as a semi-double. Statues of SS. Tanguy and Aude are in the chapel near the ruins of the abbey of S. Matthieu, also in the church of Kernilis. A statue of S. Aude of the sixteenth century, perhaps earlier, is at Guizeny. It is probably she who is represented with a scimitar, her sister S. Sidwell is on the next panel but one, at Ashton, Devon, on the screen, certainly at Hennock beside S. Sidwell with her head in her hands.
In art she might well be represented holding a cream-cheese, or a sword, with an oak tree at her side, if the identification with Jutwara be admitted. In Allwydd neu Agoriad Paradwys, 1670, S. Juthwar V.M. is inscribed on December 23, but this is borrowed from Wilson's English Martyrologie, 1608, and he puts an asterisk to the insertion to show that he had no authority for it. The insertion there was purely arbitrary.
S. Aude, Virgin, is entered inWhytford's Mart'iloge, on November 18, a slip apparently for November 28.