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arbitrarily. Barruc is the monk of that name who was a disciple of S. Catwg, and who is mentioned in the Vita S. Cadoci.1

"It happened that the blessed Cadoc on a certain day sailed with two of his disciples, namely Barruc and Gualehes, from the island of Echni, which is now called Holme, to another island named Barry. When, therefore, he prosperously landed in the harbour, he asked his said disciples for his Enchiridion, that is to say, his manual book ; and they confessed that they had lost it through forgetfulness, in the aforesaid island. On hearing this, he at once commanded them to go aboard a ship, and row back to recover the codex, and blazing with fury broke into the following invective, saying, 'Go, and never return !'2 Then the disciples, making no delay, at the command of their master quickly entered the boat, and rowed out to the aforementioned island. When, having recovered the volume, they were on their way back about midcourse, and were seen in midsea by the man of God sitting on top of a hill in Barry, the boat unexpectedly upset, and they were drowned.

"The body of Barruc being cast by the tide on the shore of Barry, was there found, and was buried in that island, which bears his name to the present day. But the body of the other, that is to say, Gualehes, was swept by the sea to the Isle of Echni and was there buried." The story as told is not to the credit of Catwg, but his curse is an after invention. Naturally he wanted his book back, and would not ill-wish the men who were to recover it for him ; but the writer of the Life, to enhance the credit of his hero, as he thought, made him predoom the poor fellows to death, that the accident might seem to be a fulfilment of his word.

Barry Island is an islet about a mile and a half in circumference, situated in a sandy bay, and separated from the mainland by a narrow isthmus, which at low water is dry. It is treated as being in the parish of Barry opposite, which is said to have taken its name from it. Barry, not so long ago a tiny village, is now celebrated for its extensive docks. In Norman times William de Barri founded the Castle of Barry on the island, and from him was descended Giraldus de Barri, better known as Giraldus Cambrensis. Leland, writing of the island, says, "Ther is in the midle of it a fair litle Chapel of S. Barrok, wher much Pilgrimage was usid.' 3 There are no traces of it now to be seen. The hermit is said to have been buried in it. Towards the south of the island, at a spot called Nell's Point, is the saint's holy well, once much resorted to. Great numbers of women visited it on Ascension Day, and having washed their eyes with its water, each would drop a pin into it. As many as a pintful were once found on cleaning the well out.

1 Cambro-British Saints, pp. 63-4.

1 " Hujuscemodi invectionem in eos cum furore inurens, inquit: Ite nunquam rediturus." Vita S. Cadoci, Cambro-British Saints, p. 63. • Itin., iv, f. 62.

In the Vita S. Cadoci (written in the early thirteenth century), already quoted, the island is said to have been so called from S. Barruc. Its name occurs there as Barren.1

The Iolo MSS. credit S. Barrwg with having founded Barri and Penmark,2 in Glamorganshire. The parish church of Barry is now dedicated to S. Nicholas, and Penmark to S. Mary. Rees 3 adds Bedwas, in Monmouthshire, but see the next notice. There is a Ffynnon Farrwg near the church there.

Cum Barruc = Cenubia, in the Valley Dore, Herefordshire, is mentioned several times in the Book of Llan Ddv. It was probably identical with Lann Cerniu.

His Festival in the Calendar in Cotton MS. Vesp. A. xiv, is on September 27; on which day he is also given by Wilson in both editions of his Martyrologie, 1608 and 1640, also by Nicolas Roscarrock, but in the Calendar prefixed to Allwydd Paradwys, 1670, November 29. Browne Willis gives September 26.

The Irish abbot Barri, mentioned in the Life of S. David as having ridden S. David's favourite horse across the sea from Pembrokeshire to Ireland, is Finbar. They have been wrongly identified by some writers.

S. BEDWAS, Confessor

Bedwas was one of the twelve sons of Helig ab Glannog, of Tyno Helig, whose lands the sea overwhelmed. The Lavan Sands of to-day form a portion of the territory, on losing which Helig and his sons devoted themselves to religion and became saints, or monks, in Bangor on Dee. Some of them afterwards went to Bardsey.4 Rees s classes him with the saints of the middle of the seventh century. He may, if he ever existed, have been the original founder of Bedwas, in Monmouthshire. Browne Willis, Coxe, Rees and others ascribe it to S. Barrwg, and the Iolo MSS. to S. Tewdrig.6

In the Book of Llan Ddv 7 a brook called Betguos or Betgues is mentioned as forming the boundary of, apparently, Llangoven, Monmouthshire, on the further side of the county. Betgues would yield later Bedwes, which also occurs for Bedwas.

1 Pp. 45, 63-4; Barren in MS., and not Barreu.

1 P. 220. - ' Welsh Saints, p. 342.

4 Iolo MSS., p. 124. 5 Welsh Saints, p. 302. « P. 14S. » P. 207.

S.BEDWINI or BEDWIN, Bishop, Confessor

How this bishop came to be reckoned among the Welsh Saints it is difficult to say. His name does not occur in any of the usual genealogies, nor does he appear to have been connected in any special manner with Wales. In the references there are to him in Welsh literature he is associated with King Arthur, and generally with Cornwall. "The Triads of Arthur and his Men " state that there were Three Throne-tribes of the Isle of Britain. The one at Celliwig, now Callington, in Cornwall, had Arthur as supreme king, Bishop Bedwini as chief bishop, and Caradog Freichfras as chief elder.1 Another Triad makes Celliwig one of the three archbishoprics of Britain,2 over which Bedwini presided as archbishop. His name occurs again in two of the Mabinogion tales— in that of Culhwch and Olwen (as Bedwini), where he is mentioned as the one " who blessed Arthur's meat and drink," and in the Dream of Rhonabwy (as Bedwin).3 In these tales Arthur figures as the Champion of Britain, and the persons among whom the bishop appears are as mythological as could well be.

One of the " Sayings of the Wise " is attributed to this Saint thus :—

Hast thou heard the saying of Bedwini, Who was a bishop, good and grave?"Consider thy word before uttering it." 4 (Rhagreithia 'th air cyn noi ddodi.)

There was a Badwin, Badwini, or Bedwin, first Bishop (673-80) of the East Anglian see of Elmham, now included in that of Norwich,5 but from Norwich to Callington is a far cry.

There are no churches dedicated to this saint, nor is his festival given.

S. BELERUS, Confessor

In lolo MSS. (p. 134) we read: "The religious foundation of the Emperor Tewdws (Theodosius) and Cystennin of Llydaw was Bangor Illtyd, where Belerus, a man from Rome, was superintendent, and Padrig, the son of Maewon, principal, before he was carried away captive by the Irish." The college mentioned is that of Caerworgorn, which was also called Cor Tewdws.

The only Theodosius who was in Britain was he who was sent thither in 368, by Valentinian, then at Amiens, against the Picts and Scots. He was beheaded in Africa in 370. His son Theodosius the Great was Emperor along with Gratian, 379, sole Emperor, 392, and died 395. His grandson Theodosius II was Emperor of the West, 423-425. The last of these is probably meant, and Cystennin is Constantine, who was proclaimed in Britain 433, and who reigned till 443. The foundation of Caer Worgorn accordingly took place between 423 and 443.

1 Skene, Four Ancient Bhs. of Wales, ii, p. 456; Myv. Arch., p. 407.

2 Myv. Arch., p. 407. 3 Rhys and Evans, Mabinogion, pp. U2, 148.

4 lolo MSS., p. 253. The triplet occurs in a slightly different form in Myv. Arch., p. 129.

5 Bright, Early English Church History 3rd ed., p. 285; Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, iii, p. 126.

The foundation of a college in Britain is by no means as improbable as appears at first sight. One of the first cares of Agricola after he had pacified Britain was to establish schools for the education of the young sons of the chiefs in the liberal arts. "He affected," says Tacitus, "to prefer the national spirit of the Britons to the acquired talents of the Gauls; so that their people, who refused at first to speak the language of the Romans, soon became eager to acquire their eloquence." 1 There was an university at Autun in Gaul as early as the reign of Tiberius; later there were others at Rheims, Toulouse and Treves. Gaul produced from its schools the great rhetoricians Votienus Montanus at Narbonne, Domitius Afer at Nimes, Julius Africanus at Saintes.

In 425 Theodosius II founded the university of Constantinople with thirty professors, three rhetors, ten Latin grammarians, five Greek rhetors and ten Greek grammarians, a philosopher and two legal professors (Cod. Theodos., xiv, 9, 3; xv, 1, 53). The law was signed by Valentinian III as well as by Theodosius. Whether the same was done in the West we do not know. This was the final act in the regulation and organization of public education in the Empire.2

With the schools so extensively developed in Gaul, it is inconceivable that they should not also have been established and encouraged in Britain. And that Theodosius and Valerian should have done something towards this is conceivable enough.

A good deal of discredit has been cast on the Iolo MSS., perhaps undeservedly. Iolo Morganwg was a stonemason, and most assuredly knew nothing of the imperial system of education in the colonies. He cannot have imagined the statement above quoted. The MSS. he copied were in most cases late, but he was a faithful transcriber on the whole.

We are disposed to accept the tradition that Caer Worgorn was a school not founded but favoured by the Emperors Theodosius and Valentinian, and encouraged by the tyrant Constantine.

Belerus, "a man from Rome," has been thought to have been Palladius; but this is phonetically impossible. But as Palladius was either born in Britain, or brought into close relation with it, we may here give an account of him.

1 Agricola, 21.

2 Eoissier, La Fin du Paganism, Paris, 1891, i, pp. 172-231.

A Palladius was " magister officiorum " at the time of Julian's entry into Constantinople, after the death of his cousin and predecessor Constantius, 361. One of Julian's first measures was to send a commission to Calcedon, to try a number of persons implicated in the recent civil war. Among these was Palladius, and the judges banished him to Britain, on the suspicion of his having prejudiced Constantius against Julian's half brother, Gallus, and thus having been the occasion of the death of this young prince.1 Julian perished in 363, when probably Palladius was recalled ; but it is possible that he may have married and settled in Britain, and that there was born Palladius, who was to be the first missionary sent to Ireland. We cannot, of course, offer more than the conjecture that this latter Palladius was the son of the Master of the Offices, banished to Britain, but it would seem not improbable, and would explain his lively interest in British affairs.2

At what time he went to Rome we know not, but we find him urging Pope Celestine to send Germanus and Lupus to Britain, to encounter the Pelagians. This was in 429.* But if he be the Belerus of Welsh tradition, he must have been before this appointed head of Caer Worgorn, supposing such a college to have existed before 423. His abandonment of this monastic college was perhaps due to the Irish marauders who attacked and destroyed it.

The next notice we have of Palladius is of his mission to Ireland. Prosper of Aquitaine in his Chronicle, under 431, says:—" Palladius was consecrated by Pope Celestine, and sent by him to the Scots who believed in Christ, as their first Bishop."

That there were some scattered believers in Ireland at this time is more than probable. Indeed it would be strange if it had not been so, so great was the intercourse between Ireland and Britain and the Continent.

The Book of Armagh, written before 700, says :—" Verily indeed was

1 Ammianus Marcellinus, lib. ii, cap. 3. Zosimus, Hist., lib. ii, cap. ?-,.

» This connexion is suggested by Shearman, Loca Patriciana, p. 403. Archbishop Ussher quotes an ancient authority to the effect that Palladius was a native of Britain.

3 "Agricola Pelagianus Severiani episcopi Pelagiani filius ecclesias Britannia dogmatis sui insinuatione corrumpit. Sed ad actionem Palladii diaconi papa Caelestinus Germanum Autisidorensem episcopum vice sua mittit et deturbatis hereticis Bretannos ad catholicum fidem dirigit." In the Book of Armagh, Palladius is converted into Archdeacon of Ccclestine. For this there is no authority. Muirchu further says that "Palladius was sent ad hanc insulam convertendam," which is a garbling of the words of Prosper, who says that Palladius was sent to those in Ireland " believing in Christ."

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