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Maelgwn. But this family is only represented in Morbihan and Côtes du Nord by Gildas and his sons.
The principal Welsh saints who have made their mark in Brittany are Brioc, of Irish origin, but born in Ceredigion, Cadoc, Curig, Carannog, David, Paulus Aurelianus, Arthmael, Edeyrn, Teilo, Tyssilio, Gudwal, and Non. There were others, of Armorican extraction on one side or the other, who had their education in Wales, as Illtyd, Samson, Malo, Maglorius, Meven, Tudwal, and Leonore.
Other founders were natives of Armorica, but of British origin, as James (Jacut), Gwethenoc and Winwaloe, Gwenael and Goulven. Of the chieftains who held rule we know but little, and almost nothing of whence they came. But we do know that Rhiwal of Domnonia was from South Wales, for he was a kinsman of Brioc of Ceredigion and of Hywel. Withur of Léon was cousin of Paul, who came from Penychen in Glamorganshire. Budic of Cornubia was for some years a refugee in South Wales, where he married. Possibly enough, he went to the land whence his forefathers had come.
As in Wales and in Cornwall, so has it been for long an accepted procedure in Brittany that the national saints should be displaced from their niches to make way for others who are foreign, Italian for the most part, but who have received the imprimatur of Rome ; so also have the diocesan calendars been weeded of the Celtic saints. S. Avée, though she gives her name to a parish, has had her church transferred to SS. Gervasius and Protessus. S. Cynan (Kenan) has been rejected where lie his bones, for Caius, the pope. S. Derrien has retired to make room for Pope S. Adrian; S. Budoc or Bieuzy, the friend and disciple of Gildas, has been supplanted by S. Eusebius. At Laurenan, the titular saint Renan has been set aside for S. Renatus, and at Audierne, S. Rumon is replaced by S. Raymond Nonnatus. At S. Brieuc, the founder fades before the more modern S. Guillaume Pichon.
In the united dioceses of Tréguier and S. Brieuc not a Celtic saint is admitted into the calendar during the months of January, February, June, July, August, September and December. In March only one, Paul of Léon. On the other hand, the calendar is invaded by foreigners. Of Italians there are fourteen in January and February, whereas of early Breton saints but five are admitted in the entire year.
In that striking story of Ferdinand Fabre, L'Abbé Tigrane, the Bishop of Lormières is represented in his Grand Seminary turning out the Professors as not sufficiently ultramontane to please him, and when the teachers murmur, he blandly asks with what do they reproach him. “With what ? ” asks the Professor of Ecclesiasticall History. : “In your passion for reform you have, so to speak, abolished the Proper of the Diocese, one of the most ancient and most glorious of the Martyrologies of France.”
At Tréguier, the founder, S. Tudwal, is eclipsed by the Advocate S. Yves “advocatus sed non latro"; yet everywhere, to the Breton people, each saintly founder might appeal in the words of the apostle, inscribed under the statue of Tudwal at Tréguier : “Et si aliis non sum apostolus, sed tamen vobis sum; scitis quæ præcepta dedi. derim vobis per Dominum Jesum.” 57
III. ON WELSH AND CORNISH CALENDARS
In drawing up calendars of the Celtic saints of Wales and Cornwall considerable difficulties have to be encountered. A good many of the saints who founded churches, or to whom churches have been dedicated, do not find their places in any extant ancient calendars ; and it is not possible to rely on many of the modern calendars that do insert the names of the early Celtic saints, as trustworthy. Too often these names have been inserted arbitrarily and without authority. We will give a list of such calendars as exist, and which have served more or less for the composition of the calendar that we have drawn up; and for attribution of day to each Saint,
1. THE WELSH CALENDAR The Patronal Festival or Wake of a parish was ordinarily called in Welsh Gwyl Mabsant, “The Feast of the Patron,” and in more recent times it began on the Sunday following the festival proper, and lasted the whole of the week, though in the early part of last century it seldom exceeded the third or fourth day. There were but few, if any, parishes wherein its observance survived the sixth decade of last century. It lost its distinctively religious character with the Reformation, and thenceforth became merely an occasion for a fair, rustic games and sports, and every kind of merry-making. Where there are to-day several fairs held in a parish, that on the Feast of the Patron is frequently spoken of as the Fair of such-and-such a Saint's Festival, e.g. Ffair Wyl Deilo at Llandeilo Fawr. The fair was held, Old Style, on the Saint's Festival, as entered in the calendar; New Style, it is eleven days later. To take S. Teilo's Fair at Llandeilo. It was formerly held on his day, the 9th of February; now it is on the 20th.
57 1 Cor. ix, 2; 1 Thess. iv, 2.
There are, however, instances of the fairs being held, or, more correctly, begun, on the eve of the Saint's Festival; e.g. at Llanrwst (S. Grwst, December 1), a fair was held November 30, O.S., now it is December 11; at Tregaron (S. Caron, March 5), fairs are now, or were, held on March 15, 16 and 17; and at Llanrhaiadr ym Mochnant (S. Dogfan, July 13), fairs are held on July 23 and 24. Similarly, fairs were held at Nevin (S. Mary) on eves of the Festivals of the B.V.M., and at Abergele (S. Michael) on Michaelmas Eve. Sometimes the fair date was not altered, N.S., as at Llanwnen (S. Gwynen, December 13) and Llandaff (S. Teilo, February 9); and in like manner, old fairs on Festivals of the B.V.M. were still kept, N.S., on those days at Rhuddlan and Swansea.
From this it will be seen that one cannot always rely upon the fair day in fixing the Saint's Day when the calendars are at variance, as they not infrequently are.
The following Welsh calendars have been made use of in the present work :
A. British Museum Cotton MS. Vespasian A. xiv, of the early thirteenth century. The calendar, which is at the beginning of the MS., is a very legible one. The festivals entered are not many, but they are those of the principal Welsh Saints.
B. British Museum Additional MS. 14,912, of the fourteenth century, prefixed to a copy of Meddygon Myddfai. Imperfect ; begins with March, which is indistinct, and the months of November and December have been transposed. It contains the festivals of but few Welsh saints.
C. British Museum Additional MS. 22,720, of about the fifteenth century. The festivals of Welsh Saints are but few, and are in a somewhat later hand. The Welsh entries are in the earlier part of it.
D. Peniarth MS. 40, written circa 1469. It is printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans' Catalogue of Welsh MSS., i, pp. 374-5. It contains but few festivals of Welsh Saints.
E. Peniarth MS. 191, of about the middle of the fifteenth century. It is printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., i, p. 1019. December is wanting. Sometimes the festivals are a day late.
F. A calendar in the Grammar of John Edwards, Junior, of Chirkeslande, now in the Plâs Llanstephan Library. It is dated 1481, and occurs at fo. 83 of the MS.
G. Peniarth MS. 27, part i, of the late fifteenth century, by Gutyn Owain. It is in part stained ; January very illegible ; a somewhat full calendar.
H. Peniarth MS. 186, of the late fifteenth century, also by Gutyn
Owain. Printed in part in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., i, p. 1013. It is considerably fuller than G.
1. Mostyn MS. 88, written 1488–9, also by Gutyn Owain. It is printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., i, pp. 16–17. These three calendars are not mere copies of each other.
J. Jesus College (Oxford) MS. cxli=6, of the fifteenth century, printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., ii, p. 36. Imperfect, only May—October. It is apparently one of Gutyn Owain's calendars.
K. Jesus College MS. xxii=7, of the late fifteenth century, printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., ii, p. 38.
L. Iolo MSS., pp. 152-3, taken from “a MS. written circa 1500, in the possession of Mr. Thomas Davies, of Dolgelley.” December is imperfect. This is one of the fullest of the Welsh calendars.
M. Sir John Prys, Yny lhyvyr hwnn, London, 1546, reprinted Bangor, 1902, under the editorship of Mr. J. H. Davies, M.A., for the Guild of Graduates of the University of Wales, from the unique copy in the Plâs Llanstephan Library. The work is to all intents and purposes a Prymer, and was probably the first book ever printed in the Welsh language. The calendar is often inaccurate, but contains a few rare entries.
N. Peniarth MS. 60, of the sixteenth century. This does not contain many entries.
O. Peniarth MS. 172, of the sixteenth century, printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., i, pp. 967–8.
P. Peniarth MS. 192, of the sixteenth century. It begins with December 17, and is followed by January to September 15. The remainder is lost. The entries are not many.
Q. Plâs Llanstephan MS. 117, of the middle of the sixteenth century, printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., ii, pp. 571-2.
R. Plâs Llanstephan MS. 181, written circa 1556, and printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., ii, pp. 770-1. It is a complete calendar, but begins with May and ends with April. It belongs to North Wales.
S. A Demetian calendar, of which there are three MS. copies : (a) Cwrtmawr MS. 44, of the second half of the sixteenth century, and (b and c) Panton MSS. 10 and 66, of the eighteenth century ; and four printed copies : (a) Y Greal, 1806, pp. 287–8, (b) Cambrian Register, 1818, iii, pp. 219-21, (c) Y Gwyliedydd, 1825, pp. 343–4, and (d) Archæologia Cambrensis, 1854, pp. 30–2. This is a list, not a calendar proper, and the entries are not arranged in any order, except in the Cwrtmawr MS. as printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., ii, p. 936. November, with its fifteen entries, is by much the fullest month. July and September have no entries. Some of the entries are peculiar to this calendar ; others supply details of the saints that are not found elsewhere. The following, among others, are noteworthy festivals : Rhystyd, Padarn and Teilo (movable), “Fidalis and Bidofydd ” (April 26), Pumpsaint, Cynddilig, Gwryd Frawd (the three on All Saints' Day), “ the Festival of the man who died on Trinity Sunday, preceded by a great vigil on the Saturday night, when it is customary to bathe for the cure of the tertian ague.” The words“ Gwyl y gwr a fu farw” (probably the correct reading) of the last quoted entry are converted in some of the copies into "S. Gwry. farn” and “ Y Gwyryfon ” (the Virgins). The list may be described as a Demetian calendar, as most of the saints commemorated belong to Dyfed, but more especially Cardiganshire. The first entry is “Gwyl Geitho,” which probably gives a clue to its origin.
T. British Museum Additional MS. 14,882, written in 1591 by “ William ap Wm.” This is a perfect calendar.
U. Peniarth MS. 187, written in 1596, and printed, but only in part, in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., i, p. 1014. This is a full calendar. Some of the entries are curious, e.g. for January, “The first day of this month the tops of the mountains appeared to Noah "; 7th, “ Christ turned the water into wine”; ioth, “Nebuchadnezzar's war against Jerusalem.”
V. Hafod MS. 8, of the late sixteenth century, printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., ii, p. 311. It is a meagre calendar.
W. MS. marginal entries in the calendar to a copy of the Preces Privatæ, published in 1573, in the Library of S. Beuno's Jesuit College, near S. Asaph. The entries are in at least three different hands, of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and are by persons who lived in north, or rather north-east, Wales, for the majority of the festivals, as well as fairs, entered belong to that part.
X. Peniarth MS. 219, circa 1615, in the handwriting of John Jones of Gelli Lyfdy. It is printed in Dr. J. Gwenogfryn Evans, ibid., i, pp. 1043-5, where its festivals are entered with those of Peniarth MSS. 27, 186 and 187.
Y. The calendar prefixed to the Llyfr Plygain, or Prymer, of 1618 (fifth edition). This is a full calendar, but a leaf was missing for April and May in the copy seen. It frequently corroborates L in some of its isolated entries.
2. The calendar prefixed to the Llyfr Plygain, or Prymer, of 1633. edited by Dr. John Davies.
ZA. The calendar prefixed to Allwydd neu Agoriad Paradwys i'r Cymrv, a Roman manual published at Liège in 1670. The Welsh