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II. THE CORNISH CALENDAR No Celtic Calendars for the West of England have been preserved, and the Exeter Calendars almost wholly ignore the local saints whose names are not found in the Roman Martyrology.
1. In 1478, however, William of Worcester made a journey through Devon and Cornwall, and examined the Calendars of Tavistock, Launceston, Bodmin, and S. Michael's Mount. From these he made extracts. His Itinerary has been preserved in Corpus Christi College Library, Cambridge. William wrote an execrable hand, and scribbled rather than wrote in his notebook, which he never transcribed. Nasmith published the Itinerary in 1778, having deciphered the scrawl with great patience, and, on the whole, correctly. But he made many mistakes, and he made occasional slips. Thus, in transcribing the Calendar of Bodmin, he omitted from May 28 to July 31. He saw under May 28 the entry “S. Germanus Episc. Conf.," and the same entry under July 31, the first being the entry of Germanus of Paris, and the latter that of Germanus of Auxerre. By an oversight he did not transcribe all that intervened. Through the courtesy of the Librarian we have been able to collate Nasmith's edition with the original text.
2. A Calendar of Exeter Cathedral of the twelfth century (MS. Harl. 863). In this there are a few Celtic saints, as S. David, S. Cieran, S. Petrock, S. Nectan, S. Sidwell, S. Rumon ; but some are later additions. It is printed by Hampson, i, p. 449.
3. The Calendar of the Leofric Missal. This belonged originally to Glastonbury, but to Glastonbury after it had ceased to be the Rome of the British and Irish Churches, and had been refounded by the West Saxon King Ina, in 708, and given a Romano-Saxon complexion. The Leofric Missal was in use in the Church of Exeter from 1050 to 1072. The MS. is in the Cathedral Library ; but it has been carefully and accurately published, under the editorship of the Rev. F. E. Warren, Oxford, 1883. The Calendar is sadly disappointing, as into it few local and Celtic saints were admitted. Gildas, Patrick, Samson, Aedan—these are about all.
4. A Calendar in the Grandisson Psalter, circ. 1337 (Add. MS. 21,926). This is the same as the Calendar to the Ordinale of Bishop Grandisson, and was in use in the Church of Exeter till 1505, when his Ordinale was superseded by that of Sarum. This Calendar has been edited and published by the Rev. H. E. Reynolds, with the Ordinale, Exeter, 1882.
5. In the Cathedral Library, Exeter, is a thirteenth-century Calendar, but on examination it proves to have belonged to the Church of Worcester. It gives S. Petrock and S. Gudwal, but very few other saints of the Celtic Church.
6. A Martyrology for the Church of Exeter, drawn up by Bishop Grandisson in 1337 ; it is now in the Corpus Christi College Library, Cambridge. It includes some more Celtic names, but not many.
7. A Legendarium for the Church of Exeter was compiled also by Grandisson in 1366. This is preserved in the Library of the Dean and Chapter, Exeter. It is a bitterly disappointing book. Grandisson wrote in 1330 requiring all the clergy of parishes in Cornwall to send three transcripts of the legends of the patron saints of their churches to Exeter for preservation, as many of these legends had been lost by accident or carelessness. One might have expected that he would have made use of the material forwarded to him. On the contrary, he has employed none, with the exception of that concerning S. Samson and S. Melor. Grandisson was a thoroughly Roman-minded prelate, the friend of John XXII at Avignon, who had appointed him to the see of Exeter in contravention of canonical rule, without consulting the chapter. The Bishop drew the material for his Legendarium, and the names of the saints he was pleased to commemorate, almost exclusively from the Roman Martyrology, and from
approved Latin lectionaries. A copy of this Martyrology is in Archbishop Parker's Collection, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
8. A Calendar in the Book of Hours, of Pilton, near Barnstaple, drawn up in 1521 by Thomas Oldeston, who was prior from 1472. It is in the Bodleian Library, Rawlinson Liturg. MSS. (g. 12).
9. The Rev. R. Stanton, in his Menology of England and Wales, Supplement, 1892, refers to a Martyrology written between 1220 and 1224, in the British Museum, MSS. Reg. 2 A. xiii, as“ probably for the South West of England.” However, it proves when examined to have been compiled for the church of Canterbury.
10. Nicolas Roscarrock of Roscarrock, in the parish of Endelion, in Cornwall, a friend of Camden, the antiquary, composed a MS. Lives of the Saints of Britain and Ireland, according to Mr. Horstman's opinion, between the years 1608–1617.1 He enters a number of Cornish saints, and gives the days on which they were locally commemorated, as well as some legends concerning them. The volume is unhappily defective; the MS. from folio 402 to the end has had something like eighty leaves torn out. To the “Lives ” is prefixed a Calendar. Roscarrock relied mainly on Whytford and Demster for his entries, but he was further assisted by a Welsh priest, Edward Powell, for his Welsh entries. The Calendar is complete. So are the Lives as far as Simon Sudbury, which is begun, but the rest torn away. For matter Roscarrock had recourse to Capgrave and to Surius, and easily accessible works, and the bulk of his MS. is therefore of little value. But its worth comes in when he deals with the Cornish and the Welsh saints. He gives the days of these in the body of his work, though not always in the Calendar. The MS. was in the Brent-Eley Collection, having been in the hands of Lord William Howard, in whose house Roscarrock died. It has been acquired by the University Library, Cambridge, and is numbered Addit. MS. 3,041.
We have available for consultation a large number of English Calendars; those in MS. are too numerous to be here recorded, and for the most part serve our purpose but rarely. The principal MSS. and such as are published and accessible are these :
1. The Sarum Missal. Missale in usum . . . ecclesiæ Sarum. Ed. F. H. Dickenson, Burntisland, 1861-83. An English translation, The Sarum Missal, published by the English Church Printing Co., London, 1868.
2. The Hereford Missal, printed in 1502 ; reprinted by W. G. Henderson, Leeds, 1874.
3. The York Missal, published by the Surtees Society, Durham, 1875. ** i Capgrave, Nova Legenda, ed. C. Horstman, Oxford, 1901, i, p. x.