« ForrigeFortsett »
of Slane he sets down on April 16, whereas every Irish Martyrology has him on November 2.
On October 16 he notes S. Cyra, Virgin of Muskerry, whereas Ciara or Cera of that day was the mother of a family by her good husband Dubh.
Nor are his Welsh entries any better. S. Cyngar, or Docwin, he inserts on November 5, in place of November 7. S. Paulinus of Ty Gwyn he gives as “a man of God of the Isle of Wight,” converting the Candida Casa into the chalk island ! and he makes him there educate S. David. He gives as his day December 31, in place of December 23. Deiniol of Bangor he puts down on November 23, whereas the Welsh Calendars give September 11. Justinian the Hermit-martyr, near S. David's, he plants on August 23, in place of his proper day, December 5.
The consequence is that we can never trust Challoner. It is better to leave a saint without a day of commemoration rather than follow this reckless martyrologist, of whom one can only predicate this, that he is generally wrong.
6. A Roman and Church Calendar, drawn up by the Rev. Dr. Lingard, but without bearing his name. It was printed by C. P. Cooper in his Account of the Most Important Records, London, 1832, vol. ii, p. 483, and was also used by Sir Harris Nicolas, first of all in his Notitia Historica, London, 1824, and again in his Chronology of History, London, 1838; again by Simms (R.) in his Genealogist's Manual, London, 1861. In all these, misprints, such as on February 9, Telcan for Teleau, i.e. S. Teilo, Bishop of Llandaff, are servilely repeated.
The original work was executed by Dr. Lingard as well as he was able from the scanty materials then available. These were, as he says, the printed York and Salisbury Missals, that of S. Paul's, London (MSS. Harl. 2,787), the above-mentioned English Martyrologies of Wilson and Capgrave.
7. Sir Harris Nicolas not only reprinted Dr. Lingard's Roman and Church Calendar, but he added a valuable “ Alphabetical List of Saints "in his Chronology of History, one of Dr. Lardner's series, 1838. He added many names of Welsh and English saints, having employed for the purpose eleven MS. Calendars in the Harleian Collection, two in the Cottonian, and two in the Arundell Collection of MSS.
It is much to be regretted that he did not specify from which MSS. he drew his information for each entry. Although he doubtless took great pains to be correct, yet in some instances he allowed himself to be misled by Lingard, who in turn was misled by Wilson.
An instance of the manner in which a false attribution perpetuates
itself is that of S. Indract. The Salisbury, Norwich, and Aletemps Calendars give as his day May 8. Now Wilson inserted him on February 5, but put an asterisk to the name to indicate that he had no authority for so doing. Challoner followed suit. So did the Bollandist Fathers in 1648. Lingard followed again, and so Indract has got fairly established on February 5, a day on which he was commemorated in no church in England in ancient times.
Wilson gives S. Guier on April 4, but honestly intimates that this insertion was purely arbitrary. Challoner accepted this, and so did the Bollandists in 1665. Lingard could do no other, and of course has been followed. Even the Truro Church Calendar, 1900, gives Guier on April 4.
Wilson, with an asterisk, enters S. Merwyna, Virgin, on May 13. This did not suit Challoner, who wanted the day for S. Cadoc or Cathmail, who had not the smallest claim to it, so he shifted S. Merwyna to March 30. Lingard followed Wilson as the more trusty of the two, and Sir Harris Nicolas gives May 13 as S. Merwyna's Day. But it must be clearly understood that at Rumsey Abbey, where her body reposed, neither on May 13 nor on March 30 was any commemoration of her made.
From what has been said it will be seen that the Martyrologies and Calendars since Wilson compiled his need a complete overhauling.
8. The Acta Sanctorum of the Bollandists were begun in 1643, and the work is not yet complete. The month of January was composed of 2 vols. at first-Antwerp, 1643 ; February, 3 vols., 1648; March, 3 vols., 1668; April, 3 vols., 1675; May, 8 vols., 1680–8; June, 7 vols., 1695-1717 ; July, 7 vols., 1719-31 ; August, 6 vols., 1733-43 ; September, 8 vols., 1746–62; October, 13 vols., 1765-70, 1780-6, 1794, 1845, 1853, 1858, 1861, 1864, 1867, 1883; November, t. I, 1887, t. 2, pt. i, 1894.
There has been a new edition, ed. by Carnandet, Paris, 16 vols. and incomplete. This edition is not a faithful reproduction; there are additions and excisions.
The great merit of this collection is that the Bollandist Fathers give their authorities for the attribution of the several saints to their particular days. But they have trusted too far to Wilson, who had not the means at his disposal to give to his Martyrology that exactness which he doubtless would have desired, and who was too free in putting down by guesswork obscure local saints on days upon which they never had received a cult.
9. Analecta Bollandiana. A supplement to the Acta Sanctorum, and edited by the Bollandist Fathers. Some thirteen volumes have appeared, and the issue is still in progress.
It contains : (1) hitherto unedited documents on the lives of the saints ; (2) ancient Martyrologies reprinted; (3) lives of saints pretermitted in the earlier volumes of the Acta Sanctorum ; (4) newly discovered texts, better than those already printed ; (5) variants to those published ; (6) critical notes ; (7) descriptive catalogues of MS. collections of hagiographa ; (8) liturgical memorials ; (9) review of hagiographical works annually issuing from the press.
10. Butler (Alban). The Lives of Fathers, Martyrs, and other Principal Saints, 1745 and 1789; repeatedly reprinted.
This collection was written for edification, and the author was devoid of the critical faculty. He touched up and altered the lives as suited his purpose, which was to furnish wholesome reading. He accordingly cut out everything of which he disapproved ; and being entirely destitute of any sense of poetry, he eliminated precisely those incidents in the lives of the heroes of Christianity that give them beauty and arrest the attention. He took no trouble to make sure that he had set down his biographical notices on the days upon which local saints received veneration.
II.“ Britannia Sacra, or the Lives of the Most Celebrated British, English, Scottish, and Irish Saints, who have flourished in these Islands ; Faithfully collected from their Acts and other Records of British History,” London, 1745.
When it is known that this work is by Challoner, we know also how to estimate it.
12. The Menology of England and Wales, by Richard Stanton, of the Oratory, London, Burns and Oates, 1887, with a Supplement, 1892. This is a valuable compilation, if not very critical.
It contains an incomplete list of MS. Calendars in the British Museum and elsewhere.
Father Stanton says : “No fewer than 108 Calendars have been examined for the purpose of ascertaining, as nearly as possible, the names of those servants of God who received from our ancestors the public honours of Sanctity.”
We do not print a Calendar of Cornish Saints, but refer to the Transactions of the Devonshire Association for 1900, pp. 341-389, where there is one fairly complete.
The principal Irish Calendars and Martyrologies are these :
1. The Félire of Oengus. This is a Metrical Calendar, attributed to Oengus the Culdee, a contemporary of Aed Ordnaithe, king of Ireland, 793-817; but it is certainly considerably later, as it includes
a commemoration of the supposed author. It includes also S. Sinchell, who died in 982. It has a gloss by the O'Clerys, and has been published by the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1871, edited by Dr. Whitley Stokes.
2. The Martyrology of Tallagh, attributed to S. Maelruan, who died in 788. He may have made the original calendar, but it has received additions, for it contains the name of Coirpre, abbot of Clonmacnoise, who died about 899. It is imperfect, lacking November, and the first sixteen days of December. It has been published, not very correctly, and uncritically, by Dr. Kelly, the editor ; Dublin, 1857.
3. The Martyrology of Donegal, so called because drawn up by the celebrated Irish scholar and antiquary, Michael O'Clery, one of the Four Masters, 1620. He laid under contribution the Cashel Calendar, which was compiled in 1030, but which is now lost. It has been edited by Dr. James Todd; Dublin, 1864.
4. The Drummond Calendar of the twelfth century. This is an Irish Calendar rather than Scottish. It has been published by Bishop Forbes, of Brechin, in his Kalendars of Scottish Saints, Edinburgh, 1872. This calendar is of the twelfth century.
5. The Book of Obits, of Dublin Cathedral, edited by Crosthwaite and Todd ; Dublin, 1843.
6. The Martyrology of Gorman, abbot of Cnocnan-Apostol; drawn up between 1166 and 1174. It has been edited by Dr. Whitley Stokes, for the Henry Bradshaw Society ; London, 1895.
7. Sanctorum quorumdam Vitæ et Passiones, una cum eorum Diebus Festis, a MS. of the thirteenth or fourteenth century (vi, B. 1, 16), in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Some folios are missing.
8. Officia Dominicalia totius anni, cum Kalendario; Psalterium Latinum, cum Lectionibus e vitis Sanctorum quorundam precipue Hiberniorum. MS. written in 1489 (xii, B. 3, 10), in the same library.
9. Calendar of Down, of the fifteenth century. Bodleian Library, Oxford (MSS. Canonici, Liturg., 215).
10. Catalogus præcipuorum Sanctorum Ibernia, by Henry FitzSimon, S.J., in the sixteenth century, Library of Trinity College, Dublin (MSS. xii, B. 3, 10).
11. John Colgan, Acta Sanctorum Veteris et Majoris Scotia seu Hiberniæ Sanctorum Insula, Louvain, 1645. This is carried to the end of March only.
In 1647 he issued his Triadis Thaumaturgæ, sive Divorum Patricii, Columbæ et Brigidæ . . . Acta. Unhappily he never completed his great Acta Sanctorum of Ireland, as he died at Louvain in 1648.
Most of his MSS., materials laboriously collected, were dispersed when the French revolutionary soldiers swept over the Netherlands.
12. Lives of the Irish Saints, by John Canon O'Hanlon, n.d., volume for September was issued 1900. The failure of the health of the aged author has caused the work to remain incomplete and to break off at October 21. A laborious compilation, and the author is careful to give references, but it is woefully uncritical.
Scottish Calendars may be consulted, but they render assistance only to a limited degree.
Bishop Forbes, of Brechin, has published the most important Kalendars of Scottish Saints ; Edinburgh, 1872. This contains eleven, among these the Drummond Calendar, which is Irish.
Since then the Foulis Breviary of the fifteenth century has been published ; Longmans, London, 1902.
Brittany Calendars are of far greater importance. We refer for these to the monograph on the subject : Bréviaires et Missels des Eglises et Abbayes Bretonnes de France antérieurs au xviie siècle, par l'Abbé F. Duine. Rennes : Plihon et Hommay, 1906.
IV. THE GENEALOGIES OF THE
The principal sources and authorities, in MS. and in print, for the genealogies of the Welsh saints are the following :
1. The Bonedd in Peniarth MS. 16, of the early thirteenth century; imperfect at the end.
2. The Bonedd in Peniarth MS. 45, of the late thirteenth century. These two early Bonedds have never been published.
3. The Bonedd in Peniarth MS. 12, in the fragment of Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch, of the first half of the fourteenth century; printed in Y Cymmrodor, vii, pp. 133-4.
4. The Bonedd in Hafod MS. 16, circa 1400, now in the Cardiff Free Library; a little imperfect towards the end. It is printed, with but few inaccuracies, in the Myvyrian Archaiology, pp. 415-6, and the missing entries supplied from a Mawddwy MS. It is also printed, but very inaccurately, in the Cambro-British Saints, pp. 265-8, from the copy in Harleian MS. 4181, of the early eighteenth century.