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successive page of that work, which tention with the other, while an adcontinually contrasts the new system ditional road to distinction will be and the old, which points out the li- opened to youths of readier talents mited application of the latter, enu. or greater application. But on the merates the evils that have arisen from whole, we should be inclined to be sa. its adoption, and states why it is re- tisfied with the examination-statutes, jected, and induction substituted, as at present constituted, if each of " per omnia, et tam ad minores pro. them were to come into operation a positiones quam ad majores.”*' It year sooner, and if the year immeis refuted by the inconsistencies of diately preceding the first degree, with the author himself who advances it, such residence as is afterwards requi. and who by turns admits that Aris. red, were devoted to attendance on totle sought to discover truth and public lectures. acquire knowledge by syllogism, and It has been usual to charge the yields to Bacon, that syllogism is use- Oxford professors with neglect of less for these ends; who one moment duty ; but though it must be owned confesses its barrenness in facts and that this is a defective part of the principles, and the next recurs to the system, the defect often appears to assertion, that it is the “ necessary have been traced to very inadequate foundation on which every solid in
Public lectures are at pretellectual fabric must be raised.” sent read on various subjects ; but the
Enough, we trust, has been said to college exercises and studies preparaexpose the erroneous views by which tory to the public examinations must it is attempted to justify the study of of necessity form the principal occu. the old logic to the exclusion of the pation of under-graduates. When new system recommended by Lord hearing public lectures forms the sole Bacon, and of all the modern acqui- and exclusive occupation, they must sitions that have been made in moral of necessity be in more repute than philosophy by the method of induc. where they are only a secondary and tion. In opposition to the writer al- inferior object of attention. Were ready quoted, it is argued, that if a the examinations for degrees, and the knowledge of the ancient moralists whole system of college instruction continue to be indispensably requi- abolished, the university lectures red in the examinations, the admis- would soon claim their share of posion of the modern writers also, at the pularity ; but it is absurd to expect option of the candidates, will not by that they should at present receive : eomparison diminish, but rather con- the same encouragement as if the time firm their respect for the former when of under-graduates were not devoted it is well founded ; and that those to a different course of more laborious who from any cause find a difficulty study. in mastering the one, will not in this In the year 1809, of twenty-three way be allowed to distract their at- professors, fourteen enjoyed sinc
• " Huic nostræ scientiæ finis proponitur; ut inveniantur non argumenta, sed artes, nec principiis consentanea, sed ipsa principia ; nec rationes probabiles, sed designationes et indicationes operum. Itaque ex intentione diversa diversus sequitur effectis. Illic nim adversarius disputatione itur, hic natura opere.”-Baco
cures; viz. the professors of Hebrew, 'portant branches of knowledge, Os. Greek, Civil Law, Common Law, ford is two thousand years behind Ancient History, Poetry, Music, the rest of the world, and is very deLaud's Arabic, Lord Almoner's Ara- ficient even in the first. Of moral bic, Medicine, Aldrich's Medicine, philosophy enough has been already Aldrich's Anatomy, and the Clini. said. As to political economy, it cal and Anglo-Saxon professors. has been stated, that the leading docThe following nine professorships trines are taught by the professor of were efficient :-Regius Divinity, modern history; but if our informaLady Margaret’s Divinity, Moderá tion be correct, though we entertain History, Botany, Natural Philoso. the highest respect for his labours, phy, Astronomy, Geometry, Tom- and should be extremely sorry to see line's Anatomy, and Chemistry ; that them discontinued, we are inclined to is to say, the professors in these doubt whether this statement of their branches were always ready to lec- subject has not originated in similar ture or teach, though in some in- erroneous views of its nature to those stances a term, or even a whole year, which directed us to the pulpit for might elapse without their being able instruction in moral philosophy. We to obtain an audience. The lectures have heard indeed of the curious and most numerously attended were, we interesting discussions, introduced by believe, those in Divinity, Modern that learned person upon the theoreHistory, and Geometry, though on tical history of modern governments, this point we cannot speak with con- but we never heard that he travelled fidence. Oxford can never be a me. so far from his own province, as to dical school ; but in some of the other explain the general principles of nabranches small classes might perhaps tional wealth and prosperity. It has be formed of those who have been been demonstrated, that the recent examined ; although while the exami- improvements have had the effect of nations continue on their present foot- diminishing the numbers that attend ing, there is not sufficient encourage. even the lectures in natural philosoment to induce professors who have phy, for which the mathematical ex. slept for ages to emerge from their amination is so well calculated to long retirement.
prepare. These branches are less The only exercise required after adapted for examinations than for the examination, is the public reading public lectures, and in all probability of two Latin discourses, or, in place will never receive any effectual en. of one of them, the recitation of some couragement at Oxford, until an obLatin verses composed by the candi- ligation to attend the latter is impodate ; an exercise altogether ineffi- sed. cient, and which will probably soon Education is certainly one of those dwindle into a form. What we subjects, to which the usual arguwould suggest as the best occupa- ments against restraint and monopoly tion during the fourth year and sub- will not apply, and it is generally ad. sequent residence, would be to en- mitted to be an instance in which force attendance on public lectures Doctor Adam Smith's opinions are in natural and moral philosophy and somewhat biassed by a love of syspolitical economy.
tem. The supply of useful knowIn the two last of these most im- ledge to all ranks must have some ар.
other stimulus than the demand, as would not generally fall upon the long as what is most agreeable is not easiest and the worst? The members always synonymous with what is most of a university may be left to thembeneficial. In this point of view, it selves without much detriment, where is apparent that the utility of public they are lodged in private houses, lectures may not be proportionable to scattered through the streets of a potheir celebrity; and the necessity is pulous city, many of them under the obvious of bestowing some authority immediate inspection of relations or and peculiar privileges upon certain private tutors, and a large proportion professors of the different arts and in circumstances of life that render sciences, to remove them above the proficiency in their studies a matter rank of itinerant mountebanks. The of absolute necessity. If they do not proportion which the independent attend the public lectures, where this part of their emoluments ought to is the only mode of acquiring knowbear, to what depends upon the num- ledge, they will not have ber of their pupils, must vary accord- pearance of doing any thing; and ing to circumstances, and may not in there are few young men professedly any case be easily determined. Nei- students who would not, either of ther is it possible to lay down any very their own accord, or by the authority positive rule with respect to the de. of their friends, wish to preserve at gree of compulsion to be used for in- least this connection with learning. suring attendance on public lectures; The members of a university, under but when this principle is extended so these circumstances, having no more far as to sanction the conclusion, that connection with each other than the a student should be allowed to chuse spectators who meet in the pit and his own college tutor, and change him galleries of a theatre, if they are not at his pleasure, it seems to infer the improved by such a system of educaabolition of all that is useful in this tion, are not at least of necessity coroffice. Were several professors to rupted. Where, on the contrary, read public lectures on the same sub- the very reverse of all this is the case, ject, it might happen that the best and the great body of students conwould be forced on the general no- sists of foundation members, to whom tice of young men and their advisers fellowships and livings doneend in reby public opinion, though it is much gular succession, together with the more likely that the greatest share of sons of a wealthy aristocracy, set popularity might not always be uni- loose from all restraints, but those ted with general utility. The qua- which college discipline affords, all lities upon which the former is found- crowded together within the walls of ed are very different from those their respective colleges, the bare which are most conducive to the lat. statement of the fact appears to deter. Besides, party spirit and many clare with the force of demonstraother principles might interfere, and tion, that maxims by which one systhe public approbation might be so tem may flourish may be totally individed, that none of them would ob- applicable to another. Upon these tain much respectability. But in grounds, whatever success may in the private and unambitious inter- certain instances attend the labours of course of a pupil and his tutor, is it public professors who have no authoto be conceived that such a choicerity over their pupils, and whose pų.
pils are under no obligation to at. alluded to are ever studied after they tend their lectures, both reason and are written ; and, if they were, how experience would seem to teach us, great a proportion of what they conthat some compulsion to attend the tain might not be found much bet. public lectures at Oxford is abso- ter told in a hundred books ; and Jutely necessary:
how much of what is new is mis-staMany foreible arguments are sta- ted and unintelligible. • People,' ted in the pamphlets above referred says Doctor Johnson, ' have now-ato in favour of the preference due to days got a strangeidea that every thing the Oxford system of college lectures, is to be taught by lectures ; now I when compared with the mode of in- cannot see that lectures can do so struction from the chair of a public much good as reading the books professor ; while, at the same time, it from which the lectures are taken. I is not denied that Oxford is deficient know nothing that can be best taught in the latter, and that “ the best me. by lectures, except where experithod would be that which should ments are to be shewn. You may unite both more completely than is teach chemistry by lectures ; you the case with any modern university.” may teach making of shoes by lec“ However splendid a spectacle it tures.' Now, although this opinion may be," observes Mr Drummond, is not to be understood as denying “ to see hundreds of young men all advantages to oral over written crowded together in a lecture room, instruction, yet, upon the whole, catching every word that is uttered there is much good sense in the refrom the chair, as if it were an ora- mark. Knowledge is now too gecle, and carrying off volumes of notes, nerally diffused in books to leave far exceeding in size the manuscripts much to be learned at a university, of the professor, I have always doubt. which may not be learned else. ed whether the instruction that is where. The great advantage of an thus collected be not more specious academical education arises chiefly than solid. The utility of this mode from the love of learning which is inof instruction several centuries ago spired by the genius of the place, was manifest, when there were scarce. from the collision of many minds, ly any books, and knowledge was from the ardour which hope of disconfined to a few; but I should be tinction kindles, and from the advice glad to know, wherever the practice and assistance in the use of books prevails at the present day, how ma- which young men derive from those ny of those volumes of notes already of more experience than themselves.
At Edinburgh, the students educated for the church, having been obliged to attend the lectures in natural philosophy, without any previous obligation to attend the mathematical lectures, have in general left the university very ili inforned in both of these departments. The present professor of mathematics has, however, lately obtained a regulation from the Senatus Academicus, enforcing attendance on his lectures, on the part of the students of divinity, which cannot fail to be attended with the most beneficial consequences. Dr Smith's opinions, in truth, in favour of leaving the utility of public instructors entirely dependent on their popularity, have never been acted on even in Scotland. Compulsion is more or less tiscd in all the Scottish universities; and in one of them the professors have lately received 2A increase of salaries.
The knowledge that is actually gain- attempt, in the short period of aca. ed is less to be considered than the demical residence, to convey a few foundation that is laid for future slight and superficial outlines of the improvement. The habits that are whole mass of useful knowledge acquired, the associations that are which learning and genius have accuformed, the bias and turn of mind, mulated in the revolution of ages. are of infinitely more importance Thus it is that the most ingenious than a superficial smattering of the man is frequently the worst tutor or various arts and sciences. The lat professor. Besides, it is obvious that ter may sometimes be more directly a lecture, delivered to a popular' asand immediately useful in the busi- sembly of several hundred persons, ness of life, but it is from the former cannot be adapted to the capacities only that any real and solid advan- of the whole. The professor cannot, tage can ever be derived. The one like the tutor of a college, know the is the seed scattered on the surface previous habits and acquirements of of the earth, which quickly springs his pupils, and separate them into up and ripens, but is withered and small classes accordingly, where he gone before the harvest ; the other can stop to explain every difficulty is the slow, though certain pro- as it occurs. In a public lecture, the duce, which rewards the labour of instruction conveyed may be of great the husbandman. “ Hi sunt, qui service to those who have made some parva facile faciunt : et audacia pro- progress in their studies ; but if the vecti, quidquid illic possunt, statim subject be new to them, and still ostendunt. Possunt autem id de. more, if they either trust to it alto. mum, quod in proximo est: verba gether for information, or, at best, continuant ; haec vultu interrito nul- content themselves with hastily referla tardati verecundia, proferunt : non ring to the books of which they learn multum præstant, sed cito : non the names and characters from the subest vera vis, nec penitus immissis professor, their knowledge may be radicibus nititur: ut quae summo solo extensive, but it must be superficial, sparsa sunt semina, celerius se effun- their principles ill founded, their dedunt: et imitatæ spicas herbulæ ina- ductions rash, and all their habits nibus aristis ante messem flauescunt."* of thinking unsound. The desultory As to discoveries in science, they are acquisition of general knowledge may quite foreign from the instruction of suit some great geniuses, who catch youth. If they are not completely the truth as it were by intuition, and ascertained, they tend only to mis- can snatch at one glance all that is lead ; and as it is at best but the ele. useful and important in the accumuments of knowledge that can be lated wisdom of past ages ; but the taught, it is of importance to teach, evils that arise to the ordinary herd in the first place, those old and esta- of men, from a precocious system of blished principles that are beyond education, are serious and alarming." the reach of controversy ; and, with For other remarks of a similar tenregard to more modernimprovements, dency, we must be content to refer rather to be satisfied with pointing to the pamphlet from which this pasout the best mode of study, than to sage is taken, and to the first Reply
* Quinct. Instit. Lib. I.
VOL. II. PART II.