stant stream, and the operator may tened by means of screws to a frame. take his mouth from the pipe at any This frame, when properly adjusted, time for a few seconds, without in. is put in motion, and forces the cutterrupting the current of air. See ters against the board till the veneer Edinburgh Encyclopædia, article is entirely separated, without the smallBlow Pipe.

est loss of wood. See Repertory of A very ingenious method of em- Arts for 1810. ploying a high fall of water for An economical method of evaporadriving machinery, but particularly ting the water of brine springs bas thrashing-mills, has been invented by been invented by Mr Dubutat, and MrGladstanes of Castle-Douglas. It has been employed with great success resembles exactly the common chain- for twenty years, at the salt works pump, which consists of a chain of of Moutiers, in the department of buckets revolving round two wheels. Mont Blanc. The water is conveyThe water is introduced into the buc. ed by troughs to a large reservoir, kets, so that one side of the chain- where it is left to settle ; and thence pump being completely loaded with it passes through other troughs to water, the two wheels upon which it gradation-houses, about 1100 yards moves are thus put in motion. In lower down. In its course, it gives cases where the quantity of water is out bubbles of carbonic acid gas, and small, this contrivance is much su- deposits a reddish sediment, which is perior to an overshot wheel. The at first oxide of iron, then a mixture buckets continue full in every part of 'of this with carbonate of lime, and their descent, and when the machine at length almost wholly calcareous works in back-water, some of the carbonate. It passes through four buckets may be taken out, and the gradation-houses in succession, and lower wheel raised out of the tail- comes out of the last at the strength water. This contrivance can also be of 18°, and sometimes more; it is executed at much less expence than then boiled for about 26 hours, or till an overshot wheel of the same power. the salt begins to crystallize, keep

A machine for beating out hemp- ing the boilers constantly full ; a foulseed and flax-seed has been invented ness that rises is scummed off, and the by Mr Ezekiel Cleill. The seeds sulphate of lime which it contains is thrashed by this machine are not so precipitated. much bruised or injured as by the The sulphate of time being raked common way, and the hemp and flax out, in winter the evaporation is conare preserved from any injuries which tinued with a slow fire till the whole they suffer from the old method. See of the salt is deposited; but in sumTransactions of the Society of Arts, mer a different process is followed, by

which all the fuel consumed in the A very ingenious machine for cut. last stage of the operation is saved. ting wood for the


of When the solution is brought to neering has been constructed by Mr the point of saturation, it is conveyBrunell, the inventor of the block ed to a reservoir, whence it is raised machinery.

by a chain-pump to a trough at the The hardest kinds of wood are cut top of a wooden building, and exinto thin boards, by means of sharp tended its whole length. From this steel cutters held together and fas- trough it runs into a series of very

vol. xxv.


narrow troughs at right angles to it, has been invented by Dr Kirwan. and about two yards long; to each of A piece of wood, one foot square, is these belong 25 double or endless exposed to the action of the wind, ropes, 24 lines in diameter, five inches and is covered over with very thin from each other, and fixed 26 feet be- sheet brass, strongly painted and var. low. The saline water flowing con. nished with copal ; this piece of wood stantly out at notches cut in the sides of is fastened at right angles to a sliding the troughs, trickles down the ropes, horizontal rod, which moves in a round which it forms a very thin coat, wooden pipe or tube 2 inches square, displaying a considerable surface to fastened on the top of an upright the solvent power of the air. As pole : This sliding wood moves upon the water evaporates, the salt is depo. brass rollers, and when it is pressed sited on the ropes : The water that into the tube by the action of the flows down runs into the reservoir, wind upon the wooden frame, it rai. and is pumped up again repeatedly ses a string attached to a number of till it is exhausted, when it is suffer- weights, one pound avoirdupois each ed to run into the bason that contains When the wind blows with small the mother-water. The water of a force, one or two of these weights fresh boiling is treated in a similar are only raised, and when the wind manner, and seventeen boilings are blows with greater force, a greater thus raised in succession, forming one number of the weights is raised, the making, which occupies 40 and 45 number of weights raised being al. days. At the end of this period, the ways a balance to the force of the ropes are encircled with a cylindrical wind upon the wooden frame. covering of salt 2.75 or 3.15 English Though this instrument will evi. inches in diameter, which is broken dently act as an anemometer, we can off by an instrument made for the by no means admire the contrivance purpose. As the preceding process by which a variable resistance is opcan be performed only in summer, posed to the action of the wind. This two makings only take place in the has usually been done by the comprescourse of a year.' Every boiling be- sion of a spiral spring, or by the elefore it reaches this building, deposits vation of a weight round a centre act. 2205 pounds of salt in the boilers, ing at the arm of a variable lever, and while about 14332 pounds are taken we cannot allow ourselves to think from the ropes, the whole produce of that the contrivance of Dr Kirwan is one boiling being about 17332 pounds. in any respect an improvement upon This process does not yield so much these instruments. The compression salt as the one commonly used, for of a bag of air, and the weight of a the product of the evaporation of a si. column of water, have been successmilar quantity of water by two boilings fully employed to measure the resistwould be 17332 pounds; but, what ance of the wind. We conceive, howis of greater consequence, the salt it. ever, that a variable resistance arising self is obtained more pure, and there from the elevation of a solid out of a is a very considerable saving of time Auid lighter than itself, or from the and labour as well as of fuel. See depression of a solid into a fluid heaJournal des Mines, No. 120. vier than itself, will be found of con

A new anemometer, for measuring siderable advantage in the construca the force and velocity of the wind, tion of anemometers. A complete


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account of Dr Kirwan's anemometer the seeds of the Iris pseudacorus. will be found in the Transactions of flower de luce, or common yellowthe Royal Irish Academy for 1808. water fag, a British plant, which

A new musical instrument, called grows in great abundance in some the Clavi-cylinder, has been invented marshes, and by the sides of ditches by the celebrated M. Chladni, who has and rivers. The seeds may be obtainalready distinguished himself by his ed in great abundance, and when de. valuable work on the subject of acous- posited in a dry place, will keep well tics. The Imperial Conservatory of for a long time. When they are roaste Music at Paris have drawn up afavour. ed in the same manner as coffee, able report of this invention, which they resemble it much in colour and they describe as resembling the flute flavour, but have rather more of a sacand clarirrette in high notes, and the bas- charine odour, approaching to that soon in the lower keys ; they observe, of the extract of liquorice. Though however, that it is more adapted for the fresh root is a very powerful casolemn music than for lively strains. thartic, yet the seeds of the plant According to Chladni's own descrip- are completely destitute of this protion, the clavi-cylinder contains a set perty. The aroma of these seeds of keys, and behind this a glass cy- may be preserved in the greatest per. linder, seven centimeters in diameter, fection by roasting them in the husks. which is turned by means of a pedal M. Blavier has discovered that and a loaded wheel. This cylinder some ferruginous rocks may be sucis not the sounding body, but it pro- cessfully employed as substitutes for duces the sound by friction on the in- emery. The rock which he conceives terior mechanism. The sounds may best fitted for the purpose of polish. be prolonged at pleasure, with all ing metals, marbles, granites, &c. is the shades of crescendo and diminu. the micaceous iron ore, which occurs endo, in proportion as the pressure in the hollows and on the summit of on the keys is increased or diminish- the granitic table land, between the ed. This instrument is never out of left bank of the Aveyron and the tune ; it contains four octaves and a Viaur. Its colour is sometimes grey, half, from ut, the lowest in the harp- at others of a deeper or lighter red, sichord, up to fa.

but in either case its fracture is steel. A new kind of oil, called oil of grained. These ferruginous rocks cabbage-seed, has been manufactured exist in the hollows in rounded noby M. Francois du Salingre of Hal. dules and in masses, the weight of verstadt, from the seeds of the bras. which sometimes amounts to upwards sica campestris, or cabbage plant. of 1 cwt. ; after the rock was poundIt is said to equal, in point of purity, ed, and the coarser emery extracted, and yellow colour, the finest oil of the last deposit of the washing would Provence ; it is inodorous, and has a yield a substance capable of supply, taste of almonds, which distinguish- ing the place of the red oxide of es it from the oil of rape-seed; it iron, for the last polish given to memay be substituted for olive oil in sala tals and even glass. By repeating lads, and when used as lamp oil, it the washings, this powder may be regives a bright flame without smoke. duced to any degree of fineness. See

Mr William Skrimshire has propo- the Journal des Mines, No. 111, sed to substitute, instead of coffee, page 201.

A new machine, called the Pyreo- proposed and successfully practised. lophorus, which is wrought by the Two drams of camphor, with consiforce of air suddenly expanded by derable empyreumatic smell and dirheat, has been invented by Messrs ty, were mixed with one of olive oil Lenieps, and approved by the class and eight of sand, after which 20 of the Sciences of the National Insti- grains of pure potash were added, tute of France. This machine is and heat applied; but though it was said to have carried up the Soane, with greater than was necessary for its su. a velocity of double that of the blimation, the product was perfectly stream, a boat loaded with five quin- free from empyreumatic smell, and a tals, and presenting to the water a little whiter than it generally is. prow of the area of six square feet. A guage or measure for standing In another experiment, the pressure timber has been invented by Mr exerted on a piston of three square James Broad of Downing-street. inches was in equilibrio with one The instrument is composed of two ounce, while the fuel consumed was straight pieces of well-seasoned deal, only six grains. It appears from about 13 feet loog, joined together another part of the description, that by a pin going through them. A the stroke of the piston takes up five little way from the larger end, is a seconds, so that the six grains were brass arch, called the index, on which the fuel consumed in that time. are engraven figures, denoting the

We have in our possession a draw- quarter girth in feet and inches. In ing of a machine of this kind, which using this instrument, it is only newas invented by an ingenious artisan cessary to take hold of the large end, of this country before any account of and apply the other to that part of Messrs Lenieps' invention was recei- the tree where the girth is required, ved here. The air is driven by a for- the instrument being opened so wide cing pump into a vessel analogous to as just to touch at the same time both the boiler of a steam-engine, where sides of the tree without straining it ; it is heated and discharged into a the girth will be shewn after allowing steam-cylinder. The heated air for. for the bark, by the inner edge of ces up the piston, and operates exact- the brass on the right-hand leg. A ly like steam, with this difference on. drawing and description of this inly, that the air, after having spent its strument will be found in the Transforce, is allowed to escape through actions of the Society of Arts, vol. a pipe carried up the chimney. The xxv. ingenious author of this contrivance An improvement on tram-plates has constructed a small working mo. for carriages on rail-roads has been del of the machine ; but it affords us invented by Mr Charles le Caan. As no ground for believing that it will we cannot easily convey to our readever be substituted for the steam-en. ers an account of this invention, we gine, except in cases where water must refer them to the Transactions cannot be obtained. We should not of the Society of Arts, vol. xxv. be surprised to see the explosive A method of rendering common force of gun-powder employed as the alum as good for dyeing as Roman first mover of machinery.

alum, has been discovered by M. SeA method of purifying camphor, guin, corresponding member of the by means of potash, has been sately National Institute. In order to free

it from the iron which it contains, he with water. When the velocity of dissolves 16 parts of common alum, the vessel increases, this cylindrical and 24 parts of water, crystallises, weight will rise from the fluid till the and thus obtains 14 parts of alum additional weight which it thus gains equal to the Roman, and two nearly becomes a balance to the increasing equal to that of Liege. This process resistance of the water. In this case, might be employed in the manufac- the length of the scale may be eviture of the alum, so as to obtain at dently varied at pleasure by employ. first an alum worth one-third more ing different weights. than in its impure state.

M. Le Normand has invented a A new method of measuring a ship's method of making excellent copal rate of sailing has been proposed by varnish without colour. In order to James Burney, Esq. A line towing select the copal, each piece must be astern of a vessel which is passing tried by letting full on it a single through the water, will evidently drop of very pure essential oil of pull against her head-way, and as the rosemary, not altered by keeping. ship's way increases or decreases, the Those pieces which soften at the part pull of the line will also increase or that imbibes the oil are fit for madecrease. Mr Burney therefore pro- king the varnish, and the others are poses, that a line of about 20 fathoms to be rejected. The pieces of copal should be passed through a pully, so are then to be powdered, and the as to go clear out at the stern-port or powder sifted through a fine haircabin window, while the inner end of sieve, and put into a glass, on the the line is fastened to a loose chain of bottom of which it must not lie more sufficient weight, on the deck under than half an inch thick. Essence the pully, or to a number of small of rosemary being poured upon it to weights made consecutive by short in the height of half an inch, and the tervals of line. Hence, when the ship whole stirred together with a stick for sails, the chain or weights will be a few minutes, the copal will dissolve drawn up more or less according to into a viscous substance, and the the ship's velocity. It appeared whole will form a very thick fluid. from a trial made with about 20 fa. Let it now stand for a couple of thoms of line rather larger than log hours, after which pour on gently two line, the inner end of which was fas- or three drops of very pure alcohol, tened to a spring steel-yard, that the which you will distribute over the strength of the pull varied with the oily mass, by inclining he glass in rate of sailing. When the boat mo- different directions with a very gen. ved at about 24 and 5 knots an hour, tle motion. In this way their incor. the pull of the line upon the steel. poration will be effected. Repeat yard was observed to be equal from this operation by little and little, till 24 to 54 lbs., a variation sufficient for the varnish is reduced to a proper the construction of a scale. Instead degree of Auidity. The first drops of of measuring the variable resistance of alcohol are the most difficult, and rethe water by the compression of a quire the longest time to incorpospring, it would certainly be prefer- rate ; but the difficulty diminishes as able to attach the inner end of the each successive addition is incorpo. line to a long cylinder immersed al. rated, or as the mass approaches the most wholly in vertical tube filled state of saturation. When the var

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