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ply of oil or other combustible Aluid for making cards for carding wool, to feed the wick or burner thereof, cotton, flax, silk, and all substances by a fountain in a perpendicular di- capable of being carded. To John rection from a reservoir beneath the Towel Ruff, of Basinghall street, flame, having the quality of burning London, John Tretton, of St Anor consuming the whole of the oil or drew's Hill, and John Webb, of other combustible fluid applied there. Clapton, in the county of Middlesex. to. To John Barton, of Argyle Nov. 28. For certain improvestreet, Westminster, gent. See Re- ments on a machine or press for letpertory of Arts, February 1810, p. ter press printing, and also for print131.

ing various ornaments and figures, Nov. 6. For certain improvements part of which improvements may be in the construction of wheel car. applied to presses now in use. Το riages of every description. To Da. John Brown, of Mile-End town, in vid Meade Randolph, a citizen of the county of Middlesex, stationer. Virginia, in the United States of Nov. 28. For a method whereby America, but now residing in War- heated water, steam, or air, can be wick court, Holborn, merchant. See rendered serviceable, and more serviRepertory of Arts, March 1810, p. ceable for new purposes, and every 192.

purpose for which they have ever Nov. 9. To Edward Griffith of been applied, with less expence of Birmingham, optician, for his new- fuel than is now used, especially for invented air-tight agitable lamp. the purpose of working the steam..

Nov. 14. For a method of making engine, and of warming and heating and manufacturing shives or shivers, buildings and stoves, and also vessels and pulley wheels of every descrip- and coppers for all purposes, by tion, and various other articles, from which water, steam, and air (heated) certain materials or compositions of may be applied to many purposes earths and minerals, which render hitherto unknown. To William Cor. the said articles more durable than nelius English, of Twickenham, in such as are made in wood or metal. the county of Middlesex, Esq. To James Hall, of Newbold, Ast. Nov. 28. For a rotative pump or bury, in the county of Chester, engine for raising and forcing air, bookbinder. See Repertory of Arts, water, and other Auids. To Thomas Sept. 1810, p. 217.

Herbert, officer of the customs at Nov. 21. For certain improve the port of Malden, in the county of ments in the construction of hafts or Essex. handles for razors. To Robert Dec. 5. For improvements on the Wass, of Sheffield, cutler.

apparatus used for rollers for window. Nov. 21. For certain improve. blinds, maps, and other similar obments in the casting of iron roofs for jects. To James Barren, of Well houses, warehouses, and other build- street, in the county of Middlesex, ings, and in covering them with brass-founder, See Repertory of slate. To John Cragg, of Liverpool, Arts, March 1810, p. 211. Esq.

Dec. 5. For apparatus and machiNov. 21. For various improve- nery for the support and excercise of ments in the constructioo of machines, the human frame, and for the prea

vention of bodily deformity. To by means of tubes connected with it, George Ware of the Royal Military the apartments of houses ; and will Academy, Woolwich, gent.

also be useful for ventilating and Dec. 9. For a botanical or medi- heating ships and manufactories, drycinal preparation, being a remedy for ing different articles of manufacture, gravel and stony concretions, which ventilating mines, and for other puris denominated mucilage of marsh- poses. To John Murray, of Nichol. mallows. To Samuel Felton, of son's street, Edinburgh, Esq., and Berwick street, Soho, in the county Adam Anderson, of South Bridge of Middlesex, botanist.

street, Edinburgh, tin-plate worker. Dec. 9. For a new sort of instru- Dec. 14. For an invention com. ment or machine for preparing and municated to him by a foreigner, of cutting cotton and linen candle- snuffers on a new and improved conwicks. To John Jones of Manches. struction. To John Dufi, of Great ter, in the county of Lancaster, cot. Pulteney street, in the county of ton-spinner.

Middlesex, cutler. See Repertory Dec. 11. For an improved lock of Arts, February 1810, p. 145. for guns and pistols. To John Man- Dec. 14. For an improvement on ton, of Dover street, in the county chain and hand pumps, and a new-inof Middlesex, gun-maker. See Re- vented fire extinguishing engine and pertory of Arts, March 1810, p. 217. steam engine. To Mark Noble, of

Dec. 14. For a portable stove or the parish of Battersea, in the county furnace, which may be made of cast of Surrey, Esq. engine-maker. iron, forged or plate iron, or of other Dec. 20. For an improvement in metals or materials, by which a cur- the manufacture of woollen stockingrent of air is heated and discharged, pieces, by raising and producing on so as to distribute the heat more his improved manufacture a nap or equally than by stoves such as are pile in resemblance of kerseymere and in common use, and avoid the un- broad clothes ; and also an improve. pleasant smell which they produce ; ment on the manufacture of kerseyand which air, if necessary, may be mere and broad cloths, by means brought from the external atmos. of transverse elasticity given to his phere, so as to produce ventilation as manufacture, equal in use from its well as warmth. A stove of this con- ease in the woollen manufactures. To struction may be usefully applied in Charles Frederick Davis, of the pa. warming and ventilating churches, rish of Ilchcombe, in the county of public rooms, halls, stair-cases, and, Glocester, clothier.

1

HISTORY OF THE ATMOSPHERE

FOR 1809.

THERE is perhaps no branch of state of the air, during the period natural science which has been cul- which is fixed for this purpose. We tivated with less ardour and success expected to have had it in our power than that of Meteorology. The im. to lay before our readers an instruperfect nature of the instruments em- ment of this kind, but as it has not ployed to measure the variation in yet obtained the sanction of experithe gravity, temperature, and dry- ence, we must reserve the description ness of the air, and the inattention of of it for our next volume. observers to many of the more im- In measuring the quantity of rain portant, though perhaps the less ob- which falls upon the earth, no attenvious phenomena of the atmosphere, tion has yet been paid to the differare two of the leading causes of the ent neights above the level of the sea slow progress of Meteorological Sci- at which the guage is placed, though ence. The observations on the ba- it is a curious fact, that the higher rometer, thermometer, and hygrome. we ascend, the quantity of rain diter, at stated times of the day, are by minishes. A great degree of atten. no means fitted to exhibit the chan- tion should likewise be paid to the ges which are so frequently going on size of the drops at different altiin the atmosphere, and therefore af- tudes ;-to the angle at which they ford us a very trifling assistance in fall;—to the force and direction of discovering their cause. The most the wind at different heights in the correct meteorological journalsindeed atmosphere ;-to the nature and the do not even contain data for deter. certainty of mists and fogs, one spemining the mean state of the atmos. cies of which obstructs the passage phere ; nor could we place any confi- of the most refrangible rays, while dence in the average results, though another transmits the light in its natu. the observations were greatly multi- ral state ;-to the transparency of the plied, and repeated after the shortest atmosphere, and to the undulations intervals, Hence it is an important and changes in its refractive power, desideratum in meteorology to have which often produce optical illusions an instrument which shall record, as of the most singular kind. The it were, at every instant, the changes height and the nature of the clouds in the atmosphere ; and point out,

at when the moon is surrounded with the end of any required period, the halos and luminous rings, ought also cum of all the changes, or the mean to be carefally marked, together with VOL. II. PART. Jl.

2G

466 EDINBURGH ANNUAL REGISTER, 1809. the height of meteors and the state of phere at Edinburgh and London duthe atmosphere when such phenomena ring the year 1809. are seen.

T'he Meteorological Journal for Though accurate and multiplied Edinburgh, which is the most valuaobservations on the various subjects ble and correct that has yet been which we have mentioned are abso- made in Scotland, was kept in the lutely necessary to the formation of house and under the superintendance a theory that pretends to account for of a philosopher of distinguished emi. the numerous phenomena of the at- nence, to whom the writer of the premosphere, yet we can scarcely hope sent article is indebted for the liberty to find any private individual who has of making it public. It contains the both time and abilities to execute such height of the barometer to the thoua task ; and if such a plan is ever car- sandth part of an inch at 9 o'clock ried into effect, it must be done in in the morning ;-the state of the some national establishment, furnish. thermometer attached to the baromeed with the most delicate instruments, ter at the same instant ;-the height and conducted by the most able ob- of the mercury in the thermometer at

8 o'clock in the morning, 12 o'clock

noon, and 10 o'clock in the evening ; In the following Meteorological —the force and the direction of the Tables we have endeavoured to pre. wind; and the state of the weather, sent our readers with an accurate ac- both in the forenoon and in the evencount of the changes in the atmos- ing of each day.

servers.

METEOROLOGICAL JOURNALS

KEPT

AT EDINBURGH AND LONDON

DURING THE YEAR 1809.

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