Speaking for my husband the inventor, myself, our stockholders, club members, and public at large, there is needed some assurance of fair treatment and truth. A sole testing laboratory is employed and their conclusions are the basis for certification of device. This seems unwise considering the Frankenstein past actions and results.

It is my suggestion-inasmuch as the Federal Government has expended huge sums in past and recently set up tremendous sums for research in this program, that the U.S. Bureau of Standards check each certification of device in their laboratory to insure the public that the antismog device is that in fact.

THE COW, AN ANALOGY TO AIR POLLUTION CONTROL The cow has two stomachs. It has a sweet breath as a consequence. This is not a miracle but a lesson in air pollution control.

The cow gives milk and cream ; steaks and hamburgers; its hide for leather; and eventually reverts to pet food and fertilizer. A motor vehicle gives transportation and pleasure, disease and death.

That which is not digested in cow's first stomach goes on to second stomach for further digestion. A direct-flame afterburner combusts materials and gases from engine and crankcase as second stomach, performing further combustion.

What more do you want? Must it be garlanded with redtape? Time is of the essence.




Denver, Colo. The special subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 9 a.m., College of Law Auditorium, University of Denver, Senator Edmund Muskie presiding.

Present: Senators Muskie (presiding) and Moss.
Senator MUSKIE. The committee will be in order.

For the purpose of the committee record I will read a prepared statement to indicate why we are here and what we hope to learn and what we hope may emerge from these hearings and those in Los Angeles.

It is a pleasure to be here in Denver, Colo., a city and State which only a few short years ago no one associated with air pollution, a problem which is already serious or threatening to become serious in thousands of communities throughout the Nation. We look forward to the testimony we will hear today from representatives of government, industry, and the public, and sincerely regret that Governor Love is unable to join us. We wish him a speedy recovery.

During the 2 days prior to our arrival here last night we held public hearings in Los Angeles similar to those we are holding here in Denver today. We also conducted a field inspection trip, during which the lovely mountains that we had observed upon our arrival utterly disappeared from view.

If smog could do no worse than to isolate us from the fresh beauty of our natural environment there would be reason enough to fight it. But we learned during our study of the problem and the hearings that we held in Washington last year that air pollution adds injury to insult by destroying our property and threatening our health.

The Senate Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution is determined to do all it can to insure that the States and communities who are on the firing line in the fight against air pollution receive the Federal support they need.

The passage of the Clean Air Act by unanimous vote in the Senate, by an overwhelming majority in the House, and with the strong support of the administration, gives concrete proof that the Federal Government has taken a new look at air pollution and has seen that it is a serious threat to the entire Nation.

The Clean Air Act authorizes the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, for the first time, to grant Federal funds to help local, State, and regional air pollution agencies initiate, expand, or improve their programs. It outlines procedures for Federal action to cope with interstate as well as certain intrastate problems; and it expands the research, training, and technical assistance programs the Department has conducted and supported for the last 8 years. The Clean Air Act reaffirms and gives impetus to the point of view that the solution of the problem can best be reached through the constructive cooperative efforts of all levels of government, industry, and the public, all of whom contribute to and suffer the consequences of polluted air.

Before the month of February is over, we will have examined, at firsthand, local and State air pollution problems in seven American cities—Los Angeles, Denver, Chicago, Wheeling, Boston, New York, and Tampa. The air pollution problems in these cities are representative of those suffered by thousands of communities throughout every region and State of our country. Our purpose is simply to gather as much on-the-spot knowledge as possible about how the recently passed Clean Air Act can help lead to more effective control of air pollution throughout the Nation.

Your problem has by no means reached the dimensions of the problem suffered by the citizens of Los Angeles, but your city and dozens of others throughout every region of the country will continue to travel down the same smoggy road wless adequate control action is taken at the earliest possible moment. We hope to learn more about your problems and the progress made toward their solution today. I feel certain that we will not be disappointed.

I have a letter from the Professional Photographers of America. It contains a number of very striking aerial photographs taken over some cities of Colorado. They show very well the bad situation that exists over cities such as Denver. I will have the staff examine these photos carefully and will place several of them in the hearing record.' (The letter is as follows:)


Milicaukee, Wis., January 23, 1964. DEAR SENATOR MUSKIE: Professional Photographers of America, Inc., represents 8,000 professional photographers in every State of the Union and Canada. Many of these members are engaged in aerial photography where air pollution can materially affect the results they obtain. For satisfactory aerial photography, it is necessary to have as clear an atmosphere as possible. Haze. smoke, and other man-made air pollution make accurate and clear aerial photography almost impossible during much of the year.

Additionally, all professional photographers are American citizens and as such are keenly aware of the hazards to health involved in air pollution.

It is the hope of the Professional Photographers of America that prompt and effective action will be taken by Government to alleviate as much as possible this problem. With thanks for your interest and all best wishes. Cordially,

FREDERICK QUELLMALZ, Erecutive Manager. Senator MUSKIE. Our first witness this morning, Mr. Elmar R. Reiter, associated professor, department of atmospheric science, Colorado State University. Professor Reiter, do you have a prepared statement ?

Mr. REITER. Yes, I do, sir.
Senator MUSKIE. Do you have copies of it?
Mr. REITER. Yes; they have been passed out.
Senator MUSKIE. Proceed, Professor Reiter.

1 See pp. 163-165 for photos selected.

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