But I might mention that we are cooperating in this study with people from the National Center of Atmospheric Research in Boulder who have been conducting gas sampling problems, and it has turned out that some of the pollutants here contain gases which may be considered hazardous, such as the nitrogen oxides, the sulfur dioxide, and also, of course, carbon monoxide, especially at street level with traffic, and from this point of view I would have to say that certainly the health hazards will be present already, at the present level of pollution, especially in some areas of the city, mainly along what we call the Valley Highway. That is a 4-lane highway leading out north of town into the South Platte River Valley, which happens to be the lowest point of town where most of the air pollution will be occurring during most of the day and especially densely at nighttime.

Senator MUSKIE. What are the principal sources of air pollution in the Denver area?

Mr. REITER. Well, I would say we do have a few industrial sources, unfortunately located in the bottom of the valley where the free exchange of air is already inhibited, and then, of course, we have traffic sources.

We have another source of air pollution which is common to this part of the country and I understand probably also some eastern counties, namely, the trashburner. You will find an incinerator in the backyard of almost any suburban home around here, and that, of course, will aggravate the air pollution situation.

Senator MUSKIE. Do you have a lot of fall leaf burning?
Mr. REITER. Oh yes; that, too.

Senator MUSKIE. The data to which you directed your testimony, was that accumulated in connection with your program against air pollution?

Mr. REITER. This data, as contained in this pamphlet here, has been a study to just find out whether there is a Denver air pollution problem, and as the results of this study indicated, the problem is a grave reality in the Denver area already. As pointed out in this short statement here, we are preparing a more extensive study to see, first of all, where the main offenders to the air pollution program are located, and it would then be up to the legislature or the offenders themselves to augment and alleviate this situation. Secondly, which areas of the city are most affected by air pollution, firstly, due to the fact they are located in the vicinity of the offenders; secondly, due to the meterological situation in the Denver area the bottom of the valley would receive more air pollution at certain times of the day, and in certain weather conditions at some of the higher located suburbs, and then the third point which we want to study here is how the air pollution is traveling. We have made a study here which was very interesting to see, namely, that usually in the afternoon when the mountains are heated up to the west of the city the air pollution tends to travel upstream in the path of the valley, in the general direction from northeast to southwest. On days where we have very weak winds this migration is rather slow. It takes almost half a day for the air pollution to travel from the north end of town into the south along the Valley Highway, in the South Platte River Valley, to the south end of town. By that time, by the time the air pollution may

reach the south end of town the sun would have sunk and


the ground is cooling off. That means we now have cold air draining out the valley and the flow is reversed, which means the polluted air which should be moving out of the city is really coming back over the city, and in addition to the air pollution, which is steadily generated over the city, there will be a rather cumulative effect in the evening and during the night hours. In other words, other cities which may be located differently will get rid of the air pollution during the daytime and will import fresh air, and toward the night when the stagnant air will accumulate this pollution will be put into clean air.

In the Denver region we will have situations where the polluted air will be pushed into already polluted air, creating rather high concentrations.

Senator MUSKIE. So what you have in effect is a pendulum?

Mr. REITER. A pendulum of low velocity winds which are generated by the mountains west of town and by the valleys and gullies which run through the Denver area.

Senator MUSKIE. So the net effect is to accumulate a residual of air pollutants?

Mr. REITER. That's right.
Senator MUSKIE. That in other cities is swept away occasionally?

Mr. REITER. That is correct. Now, this only holds for special weather situations. This is not the case every day, not maybe even throughout the major portion of the year, but it is the case in some of the winter situations which you have here, and you have seen a sample of it probably today, sir. I might point out that east of the Rocky Mountains, in the area where the winds are relatively slow, we have poor ventilation conditions here throughout. If you go farther east into cities like Chicago, which is known as the Windy City anyway, you do have a much better ventilation. You have higher winds than you have in the Denver region.

Senator MUSKIE. What is your average wind velocity?

Mr. REITER. This I could not say off the cuff here, but it is in the order, I think, of about 5 or so miles per hour. Now, we do have statistics—well, actually statistics wouldn't give any valuable information because we do have days where we have very strong winds, 50 and 60 miles per hour, associated with what we call here the Chinnook weather conditions. These days would have to be discarded for this kind of study because that would falsify the record. We would have rather high average winds if we include the high velocity days, which are only present during a few days of the year.

Senator MUSKIE. As a matter of fact, with air pollution average statistics are defective and even harmful, are they not?

Mr. REITER. That is right.

Senator MUSKIE. Because of the peculiar aspect of the problem, as I understand it, because of the meterological conditions, and because of wind conditions you can get sudden concentrations of pollutants that can be harmful and even fatal even though the average would suggest the absence of damage, is that not so?

Mr. REITER. This is correct. This has to be specifically applied to meteorological data. You cannot take a gross arc. You have to select the cities which you have to arc and throw out the cases which would falsify the record.

Senator MUSKIE. You have to be concerned with the exceptions and not the averages?

Mr. REITER. Well, in certain ways, yes; I mean if we are talking about the meteorological conditions we should throw out the chinook situation, for instance. If we throw these out, then we are left with rather quiet days, and among these we have to select the days which have radiation conditions or temperature conditions which would form low inversions. Of course, during the summertime if we have low winds the radiation of the sun is very powerful. We have a very dry atmosphere so the radiation can react immediately and rather strongly. So most of the days during the summer the air above the city will be heated up, so the inversion is just growing and we get the mass exchange and the pollution exchange of a rather deep layer of the asmosphere.

Senator MUSKIE. What time of the day do you get the inversion situation?

Mr. REITER. Oh, it should be pretty well broken up by 11 a.m. Senator MUSKIE. But you have it during the heavy morning traffic?

Mr. REITER. You have it during the heavy morning traffic, that is correct.

Senator MUSKIE. Do you have it also during the heavy afternoon traffic?

Mr. REITER. That is correct.

Senator MUSKIE. So when you need the maximum ventilation you have the minimum ventilation ?

Mr. REITER. It is not there.

Senator MUSKIE. How many areas in the State of Colorado have problems of this kind ?

Mr. REITER. Well, I think there is Pueblo and then specifically Grand Junction, which is rather badly located in a rather steep basin, and so the ventilation conditions are rather poor to begin with. These, I think, are the major areas of concern in the Colorado region.

Senator MUSKIE. The Colorado Legislature, as I understand it, has enacted legislation authorizing the development of standards, quality, is that correct?

Mr. REITER. That is correct.

Senator MUSKIE. What is the nature of that legislation, is it mandatory or simply permissive!

Mr. REITER. Well, this I am in no position to testify on. Senator MUSKIE. Is any of your work being conducted as a result of that legislation?

Mr. REITER. No; our studies are primarily conducted to advise as to the nature of the air pollution, then leave it up to the legislature to do something about it. Ours is only an advisory capacity.

Senator MUSKIE. You are the factfinders, and the legislators are the policywriters? Mr. REITER. Yes, sir.

Senator MUSKIE. What is the nature and extent of Federal aid and participation in meteorological research in Colorado? Mr. ŘEITER. In general? Senator MUSKIE. Yes.

Mr. REITER. Well, most of our funds are Federal, I would say. This is not only concerned with the air pollution. We have grants on

air traffic control systems, and, oh, practically every phase of meteorology, I might say. Most of the grants are Federal, from the Weather Bureau, from the Atomic Energy Commission, from NASA and the National Science Foundation.

Senator MUSKIE. Do you consider them adequate for dealing with this problem?

Mr. REITER. For the air pollution problem?
Senator MUSKIE. Do you think the resources are adequate?

Mr. REITER. The grant which we obtained recently, which is supposed to include a study of the Denver air pollution problem, we are adequately funded on that. This is provided, of course, that we can get some cooperation from agencies like the Public Health Service and the city of Denver, and so on, but they have promised to participate in that, so that should be rather adequate.

Senator MUSKIE. Thank you very much, Professor Reiter.
Senator Moss, do you have any questions?

Senator Moss. I just have one question. Is this inversion situation common, really, through all of the cold months of the year?

Mr. REITER. Yes. Not only during the cold months, it is common almost on every day except for days when we do have strong winds throughout the day and the night. At nighttime, with the sun gone, the air cools off very rapidly, or I should say the ground cools off more rapidly than the air, so there will be a shallow layer of cold air on the ground and warmer air on top. As soon as you have the cooling conditions you have an inversion.

Senator Moss. This occurs in the summer as well?

Mr. REITER. This occurs in the summer as well. In summer as soon as the sun rises this inversion will be eaten away from us, the ground gets very warm, so sometimes during the late morning the inversion completely will be destroyed and we will have quite a bit of exchange of higher air with lower air and that alleviates the problem of pollution on most of the summer days.

Senator Moss. It is more prolonged in summer than in winter?

Mr. REITER. More prolonged because we get cold air masses in from Canada and the colder regions and they are so cold even the sun's radiation in winter does not suffice to heat it up enough.

Senator Moss. Well, a late-rising sun, also.
Mr. REITER. Yes.

Senator Moss. This condition is rather common, I guess, in all of the mountain areas, this would be similar conditions to what we would have over in Utah in the Salt Lake Valley; is that right!

Mr. REITER. Yes. It is characteristic of mountain areas and for dry areas, where you have only a little moisture in the air, the fluctuation between noontime temperatures and early morning temperatures is largest, and as soon as you have these dry conditions you have aggravated the inversion situations. This would hold true throughout the Middle West, or the Rocky Mountain West, I should say, and especially down in the Southwest where you have desert conditions.

Senator Moss. Thank you.

Senator MUSKIE. Thank you very much, Professor Reiter. We are most appreciative for your very useful testimony.

Senator MUSKIE. I understand we have a representative of the Governor present who would like to extend greetings to the committee.

Since we like to feel welcome I think we will welcome Mr. Eckles, Mr. R. T. Eckles, national resources coordinator of the State of Colorado. It is a pleasure to have you here to welcome us, sir.



Mr. ECKLES. I apologize, Mr. Chairman. I was informed that this meeting was to start at 9:30 and I have been directed by Governor Love to welcome you and your committee to Denver to enable us in Colorado to inform you of our pollution problems. Unfortunately, Governor Love is ill and unable to attend this morning, but he directed me to tell you that Mr. Robert Haver, who is the chairman of his advisory group on air pollution, and also Dr. Cleere, who is the head of our Colorado Public Health Department, will bring you up to date on Colorado's activities in the area and problems of air pollution.

I also wanted to tell you and your staff that while you are in Denver, whatever the Governor's office can do to help you in any way, feel free to call.

I apologize again for being late. I thought I was going to be 10 minutes early.

Senator MUSKIE. There is no apology needed. It is not at all unusual to be surprised that Senators are awake at 9 o'clock. [Laughter.]

Our next witness is Mr. Robert Haver, to whom Mr. Eckles made reference. Mr. Haver is chairman of the air pollution advisory committee.

Mr. Haver, we welcome you this morning, sir. We appreciate your coming to give us your testimony.

Mr. HAVER. Thank you, Senator Muskie.
Senator MUSKIE. Do you have a prepared statement?
Mr. HAVER. Yes, sir.

I would also like to call Dr. Richard Reese, who is a member of the advisory committee, to sit with me, and Joe Palomba, who is a member of the Colorado State Health Department. They have both spent many years working on the air pollution problem in Colorado, and if we get into some questions and answers I am certain that they are better qualified than I to give you some answers that they have spent several years working on.

Senator MUSKIE. All right. Will you identify them fully? Mr. HAVER. Dr. Richard Reese, member of the air pollution advisory committee and also a member of the State health department, and Mr. Joe Palomba, member of the State health department.

Senator MUSKIE. We appreciate your being here. Why don't you proceed with your statement, Mr. Haver. STATEMENT OF ROBERT HAVER, CHAIRMAN, COLORADO AIR

POLLUTION ADVISORY COMMITTEE Mr. HAVER. I am Robert Haver, chairman of the Colorado Air Pollution Advisory Committee. When the Colorado Legislature undertook consideration of air pollution legislation last year, it soon became evident that there were many areas of disagreement among the interested groups. In order to insure broad public representation in

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