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In 1965, portable laboratory equipment of our mobile laboratory will be required to conduct special surveys of Chicago's ambient air. This is a necessary adjunct to our air-monitoring network.
In 1965 stack-sampling teams will be established. This will be another field arm of our laboratory. Such teams will be made up of newly acquired and technically qualified personnel. They will require additional field-sampling equipment and laboratory backup to carry out this work. Stack sampling of unknown emissions from Chicago's vast and various manufacturing processes is necessary for the emission inventory program.
Goal five: To determine the transport of pollution.
Meteorology is an integral part of any air pollution control program. Meteorology must be considered in the design of air-sampling networks since such networks are intimately connected with airflow and the stability of the atmosphere. The meteorological or climatogical characteristics of a community play an important role in the accurate interpretation of air-monitoring data.
Realizing this, the City of Chicago Department of Air Pollution Control established in 1963 a meteorological advisory committee headed by the chief of the U.S. Weather Bureau in Chicago. This committee has been extremely active gathering and analyzing local weather data which is correlated with the 20-station air-monitoring network. One result of the work of this committee was the recommendation for the employment of a professional meteorologist to act as the department liaison with the meteorological advisory committee.
One of the first activities of this professional meteorologist will be the instrumentation of an existing communications tower to determine the rate of vertical dispersion of pollutants. The rate at which pollutants disperse in this matter is important in evaluating the results of an air sampling network to determine whether the concentrations measured are the highest concentrations obtainable from the existing sources of pollution.
It is expected that a 2-year study beginning this year and ending in 1966 will provide the basis for a forecasting of high pollution days in our community. Knowing the meteorological characteristics of Chicago's atmosphere, which bring about periods of high pollution, and reviewing history data relating to the climate of Chicago, the department of air pollution control will be able to anticipate concentrations of various pollutants in our atmosphere. With this prediction, a better evaluation of these pollutants on the health and welfare of our community can be accomplished by the air quality standards committee. The meteorological characteristics of Chicago's airspace are an important consideration in establishing air quality standards.
A visibility index will be established this year for Chicago. It is important to know in an air pollution control program whether the haze being experienced over our city is all manmade or is influenced by natural phenomena. An index relating to visibility and its meaning will establish a realistic goal for the Department of Air Pollution Control in increasing visibility in our city. In 1967 a diffusion model of Chicago's atmosphere developed by our meteorologist will be another available tool, allowing Chicago to know more about its atmosphere.
Goal No. 6: To continually recommend effective air pollution control legislation.
A very important aspect of a modern air pollution control law is for a community to meet changing technology by a continual updating of legislation. This has been historically true in Chicago. One of the important amendments that may come to pass by 1968 will be complete prohibition of all improper burning of combustible refuse within the city of Chicago. This could specifically involve leaf burning in the fall and the continual burning of refuse in coal-fired boilers in some 30,000 Chicago apartment houses. Studies are now in progress as part of the emission inventory to determine what contribution these activities make on the pollution of Chicago's atmosphere.
Air monitoring data today reveals that we are experiencing a high level of sulfur dioxide gas in Chicago's atmosphere. The enlarged air monitoring network will produce results to scientifically document the profile of this pollutant. If air quality standards are established which require the reduction of sulfur dioxide in our atmosphere, legislation may then be introduced to limit the sulfur content of fuels burned in our community. All of this is contingent on findings in the study we are proposing. We are all well aware of the economic implications of such legislation. This legislation, if proposed, will be introduced for enactment in 1966.
The Clean Air Act recognizes this problem since the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare is directed to initiate and conduct a program of research toward the development of low-cost techniques for the extraction of sulfur from fuels. Immediate activity is strongly urged in this area.
It is conceivable within the next 5 years, based on air quality data and its effects, that limits on concentration of other gaseous contaminants now being emitted into our atmosphere will be established by legislation.
Goal 7: To increase metropolitan activity in the control of air pollution.
It has been documented through the establishment of our air sampling network that 20 percent of Chicago's pollution is generated outside its corporate limits. Chicago is situated in a metropolitan complex which is interstate in nature. An important action that will affect Chicago's program is the initiation, through the newly formed Illinois State Air Pollution Control Board, of negotiations to develop a compact with the State of Indiana. We understand that preliminary inquiries have been made of the Indiana State Air Pollution Control Board by its counterpart in the State of Illinois.
A 2-year, six-county study to be conducted jointly by the city of Chicago, the Northeastern Illinois Metropolitan Area Planning Commission and the State of Illinois has been proposed. This study recognizes that air pollution by its very nature knows no geographical boundaries. This air resource management study is being considered by the Housing and Home Finance Agency in the form of an urban planning grant. If approved, this 2-year study will begin this year. This study recognizes that the availability of an air supply of good quality is an essential feature of an attractive and healthful living environment for northeastern Illinois. The proposed project will be undertaken to prepare the strategy of an air resource management plan for northeastern Illinois.
This study will involve a relationship to planning such as land use, transportation, waste disposal, and other community facilities, all of which form an important element of a comprehensive metropolitan plan.
Air pollution studies on a metropolitan basis are recognized under section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954. There are 250 municipalities in the northeastern Illinois 6-county metropolitan area that are responsible for controlling air pollution within their geographic boundaries. Experience to date has demonstrated that effective control has not been accomplished.
Within the metropolitan area there is positive need for coordination in policy and standards. Without a coordinated air resource management program, there may be scores of agencies concerned with air pollution control but having different operating procedures and standards. This study would be an important first step in providing common agreement on a basic policy to be incorporated in local air pollution control ordinances by providing the guidelines that relate to the technical, legislative, and administrative aspects of a coordinated air resource management program,
Goal 8: To provide the public with a thorough understanding of air pollution. Information made available to the public in layman's language regarding air pollution, its sources, effects, and control, is an important adjunct to Chicago's program.
A professional information representative will be added to the staff of the department of air pollution control. He will develop and improve the existing department newsletter that is now being circulated to 1,000 persons and groups in our community. In addition to a stepped-up public information activity, technical reports will be published to provide information to those in our community concerned with the design, installation, and operation of air pollution control equipment.
INTERRELATIONSHIP OF GOALS The preceding consists of a series of goals and levels of effort which are considered necessary if effective progress is to be made in the control of air pollution. For convenience, these goals are presented as entities covering individual elements of the total effort contemplated. In reality, these elements cannot be considered as entirely independent of each other. In fact, these goals are heavily dependent upon each other. The goals I have outlined this morning must be flexible and reviewed annually. The economic impact of the installation of controls to reduce particulate matter, the reduction of sulfur oxides in the atmosphere, and the effects of the quality of fuels to be burned, and the alternative for disposal of refuse in our large apartment buildings must be weighed carefully.
The air resource management program, as outlined, will give us air quality standards that will be related to human health effects. It will also give us the nature and levels of pollutants in our atmosphere and, through the emission inventory project, will tell us the sources of pollution. Thus, when air quality standards are exceeded, the sources of the pollutants will be known and appropriate action can be taken to reduce the levels of pollutants to acceptable limits.
As I stated previously, it is the public who much ultimately support this long-range program. Knowing this, Chicago's program and
the completion of goals established will reflect the interest of our community in upgrading its environment.
We find these goals to be consistent with our goals and policies for the entire city: that is, to make Chicago the safest, cleanest, and healthiest city in which to live, work, and play for every man, woman, and child.
This has been our guiding principle in every area of city service: health, welfare, education, sanitation, and police and fire protection.
The department of air pollution control will play an increasingly important role in helping us to realize these goals.
We are dealing here with new areas, with new concepts and with new ideas. We are pioneers, traveling uncharted seas and unmarked paths. Chicagoans take pride in being pioneers, and the pioneering spirit still exists in our great city,
Only lately have we awakened to the dangers of polluted air. Only lately have we begun to realize the harmful effects of polluted air on the health and well-being of our citizens. Only lately have we become aware of the human and physical cost to our people caused by harmful pollutants in the atmosphere.
We now know that only a complete and aggressive program to overcome air pollution can be effective. To us, the department of air pollution control is as important as the air we breathe. We would like to congratulate this committee for its early recognition of these problems and its action in the Congress in finding ways to prevent the wastes of our highly industrialized urban centers from making our great cities uninhabitable and inhospitable.
Senator MUSKIE. Thank you, Mr. Fitzpatrick. Inasmuch as you are to be a witness this afternoon in your own right, I think that we will postpone our questioning until this afternoon.
Mr. FITZPATRICK. All right.
Senator MuskiE. We will do that in order that we may finish with the rest of our witnesses this morning.
Is that agreeable to you, Senator Bayh?
General Davis, it is a real pleasure to welcome you.
STATEMENT OF GEN. CHESTER R. DAVIS, PRESIDENT, NORTH
EASTERN ILLINOIS METROPOLITAN AREA PLANNING COMMISSION
General Davis. I appreciate the opportunity to appear before you, Senator, and the members of your committee.
I am Chester R. Davis. I have been a resident of the Chicago greater community for some 67 years and I have maintained my office and business in Chicago for the past 42 years.
For a time I served as vice president of the Chicago Regional Planning Association, which was a voluntary organization formed after the recommendation of Dan Burnham, and you are familiar with the Burnham plan, I assume, which resulted in the city planning for Chicago and a metropolitan plan for the suburban areas.
That was an entirely voluntary organization and had no authority by statute or otherwise. It required the cooperation of the area around Chicago, the groups in those areas, but it was exclusive of the corporate limits of Chicago. It included not only the five adjoining counties to Cook, but two of the counties in southern Wisconsin and three of the counties in northeastern Indiana.
It devoted itself to trying to solve the problems of mutual interest.
Six years ago the State legislature established an official Northeastern Illinois Metropolitan Area Planning Commission which included Cook County and the five adjoining counties, which are Lake County, which is to the north, Will County, which is to the south, and includes the city of Joliet, DuPage County, Kane County, and McHenry County to the west and the northwest and that is the official Northeastern Illinois Metropolitan Area Planning Commission.
There are 19 members of the commission, of which 8 are appointed by the Governor of the State of Illinois, 5 are appointed by the mayor of the city of Chicago, and 1 each by each of the 6 counties which comprise this Northeastern Illinois Metropolitan Area Planning Commission.
I have been president of the commission for the past 6 years.
This matter of air pollution is one with which we have been familiar for a long time.
We spent considerable time and effort with our staff in trying to develop the fundamental problems which affect the entire area. We have made studies and issued reports on garbage disposal, water supply and water pollution, on land use, on flood drains, all of which has been very helpful to the communities and the counties which we serve.
In establishing the planning commission in 1957, the Illinois Legislature authorized it to prepare and recommend to units of government, generalized plans and policies for solving critical problems that are of metropolitan area scope. These are specified to include draining, flood control, sewage disposal, and we are working toward a metropolitan plan, which plan has placed strong emphasis on the preservation and use, wise use, of our area and its natural resources.
Three years ago we cosponsored with Northwestern University and the U.S. Public Health Service. the Nation's first conference on environmental engineering. Air pollution was an important topic of conversation there. I should be glad to furnish the committee with a copy of the
proceedings of that conference, if you so desire.
I will now proceed with my formal statement.
The Northeastern Illinois Metropolitan Area Planning Commission recognizes that the availability of an air supply of good quality is an essential feature of a healthful, attractive, and economically productive living environment. The legislative mandate of the commission charges it with the responsibility for preparing and recommending to units of government generalized comprehensive plans and policies which are metropolitan in scope and which seek to solve such problems as air and water pollution.