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Dr. J. F. McCahan, works medical director, Western Electric Co.,
also representing Chicago Medical Society. Dr. Mark H. Lepper, professor of preventive medicine, University of
Illinois. Dr. Joseph R. Christian, chairman, Department of Pediatrics, Pres
byterian-St. Lukes Hospital. Dr. J. Geil, Assistant Chief, Division of Air Pollution, U.S. Depart
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare. Mr. Austin Heller, deputy chief, technical assistance branch, division
of air pollution, Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center. Dr. Franklin D. Yoder, Illinois Department of Public Health. Mr. James V. Fitzpatrick, director, department of air pollution con
trol, city of Chicago Dr. Samuel L. Andelman, commissioner, Chicago Board of Health.
It was our belief that a committee to function properly in this area should be representative of the entire medical profession and its many disciplines. The committee was activated early in 1963, and has met at monthly intervals with its most recent meeting having been held on January 23, 1964. The committee has made a determined and successful attempt to evaluate the latest research information available with respect to air quality standards and to put to best use its multidiscipline membership with respect to developing procedures for institution of a scientific program of air quality standards for Chicago. The medical advisory committee to the board of health now has proposals for the institution of two research projects which, it is hoped, will result in the development of a sound basis for the promulgation of air quality standards designed to help protect the health of the city's 372 million population. The committee is not concerned primarily with the acute episodes of air pollution, but rather with the actual and potential long-term hazards to the human organism arising in a highly industrialized urban community. The first of these two studies is a tentative 3-year program to determine the relationship between the incidence of lead poisoning in children and the varying levels of lead in the atmosphere.
Chicago, in 1963, showed some improvement with respect to morbidity and mortality from lead poisoning. Notwithstanding, the board of health recorded 194 cases of lead poisoning, with 19 deaths. In 1963, while the majority of these cases were revealed to have resulted from the ingestion of lead-bearing paints and plaster chips, it is the position of responsible investigators that lead bearing atmospheric pollution may also have a role in the development of illness in certain segments of the population. Potential sources of atmospheric lead, in addition to the internal combustion engine and industrial emissions, include the open burning of lead paint coated wood. The latter was a problem that accompanied vast urban renewal programs in our urban communities, and in this respect positive action has been taken by the city of Chicago by ordinances which will outlaw such practices after July 1, 1964.
The second major research program encompasses a statistical and field study aimed at connecting, if possible, morbidity and mortality from diseases of the upper respiratory system and other vital organs with air pollution levels on a community by community basis. Important significance is attached to the effects of moderate to low
level exposure to gaseous and particulate pollutants, and their influence upon the development of pathological conditions among the children, adults, and particularly the chronically ill in this city. It is planned to utilize the expanding air sampling network operated by the department of air pollution control and the U.S. Public Health Service in both research projects. Particular emphasis will be placed upon the role of the sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons and metals, including lead, cadmium, and zinc.
It is with these proposals in mind that I take this opportunity to point out the important role that has been assigned to the U.S. Public Health Service in rendering technical assistance to the Chicago program and the essential requirement for the provision of funds for the support of the necessary research programs which will give information for the establishment of specific air quality standards in this community. We note that under Public Law 88–206, entitled “Clean Air Act," the Secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare is authorized to make grants to air pollution control agencies in an amount not to exceed two-thirds of the cost of developing, establishing, or improving such programs. It is our belief that the success of our pilot programs will bear heavily upon the ability of Chicago's air pollution control program to obtain the necessary Federal support for further extensive studies. It is our further view that the above outlined research will cover the years 1964–65, and that by mid-1966, sufficient information will be available to establish meaningful controls through the promulgation of workable air quality standards.
All segments of Chicago's population including our enlightened Chicago industries will support a program that has as its basis a thoroughly researched and scientifically documented study. The hoped-for benefits resulting from the city's program for clean air, I am sure, will help reverse many of the present morbidity and mortality trends in respiratory and other diseases.
Our next witness is Mr. James V. Fitzpatrick.
Mr. FITZPATRICK. Senator Muskie, Senator Bayh, my name is James V. Fitzpatrick, director, city of Chicago Department of Air Pollution Control.
The purpose of this statement is to outline Chicago's program and to request specific action on the part of this committee to initiate an air pollution control program in the metropolitan bistate area.
Topics to be discussed are:
I. OUR PRESENT FEDERAL AID AND ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
In 1962 the Chicago Department of Air Pollution Control entered into a 5-year technical assistance program with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, U.S. Public Health Service, Division of Air Pollution. The express purposes of this program are:
1. To assist in establishing a monitoring program to determine Chicago's present air quality.
2. To assist in designing and implementing a comprehensive survey of Chicago's stationary sources of air pollution.
3. To assist in retraining existing personnel and rapidly upgrading new persons in air pollution control proficiencies.
The department has called directly on the technical assistance branch of the division of air pollution to assist in several important projects:
1. In October 1962, a team of meteorologists, chemical engineers, and technicians was sent here to select sites for a 20-station suspended particulate monitoring network. This network became operational in February, 1963.
2. An eight-station sulfur dioxide monitoring network was added in July, 1963. The data obtained from this monitoring program provided an insight into the Chicago air pollution problem.
3. Late in 1962, an engineer from the technical assistance branch was assigned on a full-time basis to the department to design and pretest an emission inventory program. The project has been approved and tested ; 7,500 questionnaires will be sent out this February.
4. The U.S. Public Health Service has provided a guide to the formation of a meteorological advisory committee and an air quality standards committee to further evaluate and study the Chicago problem.
The aid and assistance given to this department by the U.S. Public Health Service has been invaluable in developing our program. Further assistance must be obtained under provisions of the "Clean Air Act” so that Chicago will proceed rapidly to satisfy the demands of its citizens.
II. CHICAGO's 5-YEAR GOALS Chicago's long-range program was explained this morning in Mayor Richard J. Daley's 5-year goals for Chicago's air resource management program. Additional Federal aid and assistance will be needed to finance specific programs to achieve these goals. Goal I: To determine the effects of air pollution on the health of Chi
cagoans This department is requesting a program to evaluate the effects of air pollution on children and adults.
The epidemiological and clinical survey will require approximately $430,000 over a 3-year period to staff and equip a team of medical, statistical, and technical personnel. This program will be completed in four important phases; I and II will begin in 1964.
Phase 1.—Lead poisoning in children, $112,000. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the incidence and degree of lead poisoning in children with the varying levels of lead in the atmosphere. To accomplish this phase, it will be necessary to examine 3,000 schoolchildren. This will require a public health nurse, a statistician, and two laboratory chemists at a cost of $68,000; in addition $14,000 is needed for supplies and equipment to conduct blood, urine, and X-ray examinations on these children.
Phase 11.-Effect of air pollution on excess mortality, $105,000. The second phase will determine, in a retrospective manner, whether any significant correlation can be found between air pollution and excess mortality. To accomplish this, a physician, fieldworkers, a statistician, and a secretary will be needed at a cost of $75,000; in addition, $30,000 is needed for equipment and supplies to obtain supporting aerometric data.
Phase III.-Study of acute morbidity and air pollution, $98,000. In 1965, a research team will investigate the association of acute respiratory diseases with a polluted air environment. Physicians, statisticians, field interviewers, and data processing equipment will be needed. The estimated $98,000 will be required over a 1-year period.
Phase IV.—Chronic disease pilot study, $115,000. In 1966, the research team will engage in a series of pilot studies with various population groups to determine the methods and instruments that can be effectively used in the study to evaluate the role of air pollution as a cofactor in chronic pulmonary diseases. The estimated cost of this phase is $115,000 for personnel, supplies, and equipment. Goal II: To inventory all potential sources of air pollution
The department will send out 7,500 questionnaires to locate the sources of fuel burning, refuse burning, and process emissions within the next month. To accelerate this program, additional professionally trained engineers will be required to visit and evaluate these locations.
To step up this program 10 engineers with clerical support (at a cost of $100,000 to provide field analysis of all process operations) will be required. Goal III: To improve the monitoring of pollutants in our atmosphere
We are presently operating three monitoring networks: dust fall, suspended particulate, and sulfur dioxide gas. An additional $123,000 will be required to develop fully our monitoring program in the following areas:
1. Expand sulfur dioxide gas monitoring network: An additional $5,000 will be needed this year to equip 12 new stations to regularly determine the concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas in the atmosphere.
2. Automatic gas sampling equipment: To supplement existing data $110,000 will be needed to purchase automatic equipment to sample hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, and other gases.
3. Suspended metals monitoring network: A network of eight sampling stations will be needed to collect samples of lead, nickel, and chromium particulate matter present in our atmosphere. An estimated $8,000 will be needed to equip our present stations for collecting such samples. Goal IV: To improve the analysis of pollutants in our atmosphere,
$ 109,000 The department now has essential working space and laboratory facilities to provide further analysis of pollutants; however, new equipment and personnel will be necessary to fully utilize these facilities.
1. New laboratory equipment: Modern equipment and two trained chemists will be needed to conduct further analysis of gas pollutants and suspended metal particulate in the area. To supplement our existing staff, $88,000 will be needed for trained personnel and modern analytical equipment.
2. Stack sampling team: A two-man stack sampling team, using our mobile laboratory and equipment now available will be necessary to accurately determine the emissions from specialized manufacturing processes. Such a team can be trained and equipped for $21,000 and are necessary to investigate special cases of presently unknown emissions. Goal V: To determine the transport of pollution
The department, working with a professional committee and a staff meteorologist, will evaluate the results of our present air monitoring program. Additional funds in the amount of $89,000 will be required over a 3-year period to accelerate the gathering and processing of micrometeorological data. This program will require two trained technicians and special meteorological instrumentation. Goal VI: To continually recommend effective air pollution control
legislation Evidence to date indicates that Chicago is experiencing high levels of sulfur dioxide. We are requesting that the Government begin immediately a research program on methods to extract sulfur from fuels as prescribed in the "Clean Air Act." We are requesting at this time that a special social-economic study be conducted in the Chicago area to evaluate the economic impact of fuel substitution. Goal VII: To increase metropolitan activity in the control of air pollu
tion The $200,000 air resource management study under consideration by the Housing and Home Financing Agency will be a step forward in defining the metropolitan air pollution problem. Additional funds will be necessary to stimulate activities in 250 separate municipalities comprising our northeastern Illinois metropolitan area. These funds should be made available now to encourage and assist in the development of local air pollution control programs. A special program is needed to investigate the bistate problem and provide a positive course of action. Goal VIII: To provide the public with a thorough understanding of
air pollution This department has in the past made every effort to keep the citizens of Chicago informed of our plans and progress. There are, however, several areas in which the Federal Government can best supplement our efforts:
1. By providing publications, and circulating information on recent developments in the control of emissions.
2. By making studies and circulating information on recent knowledge of the health implications of persons living in a polluted air environment.
III. THE METROPOLITAN BISTATE PROBLEM The city of Chicago is making every effort to move positively on all fronts of our air pollution control program. We are, therefore,