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While recent emphasis has been on stage crushing and air classification for removal of pyrite from coal, utilizing the experimental pilot-plant apparatus, the microscopic studies have been continued. Detailed data are being collected which will be of value not only in determining the effectiveness of the pilotplant operation, but also will be useful in establishing the behavior of individual pyrite particles in any pulverization and separation process. It is anticipated that a more intimate understanding of the mechanical and chemical relation between coal and the associated sulfur-containing minerals, together with the knowledge developed regarding crushing and separation techniques, will ultimately lead to a feasible method for removing unwanted constituents prior to combustion.
JOINT COMMITTEE SUPERVISION The program is being supervised by the Joint Research Advisory Committee representing each of the sponsoring organizations. Members of the committee include: J. K. Bryan (secretary), Union Electric Co.; M. K. Drewry (chairman), Wisconsin Electric Power Co., representing AEIC; T. T. Frankenberg, American Electric Power Service Corp.; J. G. Koopman, Electric Energy, Inc., representing EEI ; G. L. Barthauer, Consolidation Coal Co.; C. F. Hardy, National Coal Association; J. R. Jones, Peabody Coal Co.; E. C. Payne, consult. ant; and J. E. Tobey, consultant, representing BCR.
BRYN MAWR-HIGGINS COMMUNITY CLUB,
Chicago, Ill., January 29, 1964. Director JAMES V. FITZPATRICK, Department of Air Pollution Control, Chicago, IlI.
DEAR DIRECTOR FITZPATRICK : Please enter the following into the minutes of your Chicago air pollution hearing Friday afternoon, January 31, 1964.
On your tour to the O'Hare Tower, observe the amount of air being polluted by aircraft arriving or departing. This condition exists for many miles away from the airport, both on landing and takeoff.
The aircraft is polluting the air more than the steamship on Erie Street in the Chicago River. The steamship is stationary, whereas, aircraft is flying through every 45 seconds, practically 24 hours around the clock above our thickly populated city of Chicago.
If the polluted air in Chicago impairs the pilot's vision, then direct the pilots to take off to the west and land from the west where the skies are clear. Please consider the residents east of O'Hare Airport with the continual flow of aircraft eliminating dangerous, cancerous fumes, gases, smoke, etc., above their housetops. This is a detriment to everyone's health.
Take into consideration that one industry is monopolizing the whole northwest side of Chicago, Ill., compared to all the industries that are presently located in the city of Chicago. Not only is this one industry polluting the air, but it is invading the peace and tranquillity in our lives. This is unconstitutional and needs your committee's positive action in removing this hazardous condition.
Thanking you for any consideration you do take in this vital matter by alleviating Chicago's air pollution. Sincerely yours,
HELEN J. WOZNIEL, Association President.
CHICAGO, ILL., January 27, 1964. To the Honorable Senator from Maine:
We have a very bad situation in Chicago where a householder is allowed to place a large outdoor air-conditioning unit (that serves an entire building) close to his neighbor without any protection, such as a chimney or even a baffle. There is no law to protect us from the hot, foul air which pours into our windows. This matter has been brought to the attention of every division of the city and county that might have a connection with air pollution, but none of these offices are interested in protecting the public health. A requirement that such a unit be placed near the alley by using long pipes would alleviate the situation. Won't you please have your committee look into this matter, as our local authorities are not interested. Thank you.
(Mrs.) F. W. DUNBAR, Attorney at Law. 30-083-64 -27
MONDAY, FEBRUARY 17, 1964
Boston, Mass. The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 10:30 a.m., Hon. Edmund S. Muskie (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.
Present: Senator Muskie.
The CHAIRMAN. The hearing will be in order. I can begin by apologizing for being late. Even Senate committees can't control the weather. Probably that is a good thing. If we foul up the weather the way we foul up a lot of other things, we will be in a real mess.
It is gratifying to have this opportunity to conduct these public hearings in Boston; one of the great cities of our Nation, and one which has a long and honorable tradition of providing public forums for the airing of opinions on issues of enduring substance. I believe these hearings on air pollution fit well into that tradition, for the struggle against the increasing contamination of our urban civilization with the byproduct wastes of our technological ingenuity poses a problem of the first rank. As such, air pollution must receive a high priority of sustained attention. Otherwise, we will not enjoy the benefits of this amazing age of scientific and industrial achievement without paying harsh and unnecessary penalties in the process.
It is also a personal pleasure to be here today. I am from Maine, and as a fellow New Englander, let me say that it is good to be home.
As a symbol of so much that is worth conserving in the American tradition, Boston is constant and everlasting. But in physical fact it has become a bustling metropolitan area covering almost 1,000 square miles where more than 21,2 million people live and breathe. The physical alterations in the urban geography which have occurred in Greater Boston in recent years make it clear that this city, too, has been subject to the winds of change that have swept our Nation with ever-accelerating force since its very beginning.
They also suggest that the people of Greater Boston are facing up to the complex, contemporary problems of urban civilization. Let me assure you that this subcommittee is holding hearings here today, not to add to your formidable list of problems but rather to see how the newly strengthened Federal air pollution program can best help you in solving one of them. Air pollution is a contemporary urban problem which has been receiving too little attention for too long in every region of the United States.
One of the most pressing needs facing our great urban areas and one which I am sure you have encountered—is the creation of work
able means of cooperation among overlapping governmental jurisdictions which have traditionally moved forward on their own separate roads. We cannot even move traffic by following old roads, nor can we provide the elementary requirements of police and fire protection without pursuing new methods of cooperation in our metropolitan areas. The reason, of course, is that the facts of modern life make for a higher degree of interdependence among a highly mobile citizenry who share the industrial, cultural, and recreational facilities of our spreading cities. These come closer to being regional metropolitan complexes than clearly delineated single city areas as we once knew them.
These regions are becoming more and more dependent on a common regional air resource. The wind blows or does not blow as natural forces dictate. The artificial boundary lines between city and village, village and county, county and State, and even between one State and another State confine it not in the least. It follows that the governmental jurisdictions which share a common air resource must seek a common solution to their mutual problems. This simple fact is not yet widely enough appreciated. It was brought to my attention very emphatically during the week of field hearings this subcommittee recently held. We visited Los Angeles, Denver, and Chicago. Not one of these cities has an air pollution problem' which stops at the city limits.
Judging by the preliminary information that the subcommittee has gathered from its study of air pollution, the Boston problem is comparable to that in Los Angeles in that the sources of pollution are scattered over a multijurisdictional area within one State. This suggests that your problem is somewhat less complicated than Chicago's in that you will not need to be involved in interstate negotiations. At the same time I am sure you are finding it complicated enough to deal with an air pollution problem in an area which extends considerably beyond the confines of old Boston.
We have learned also that shortly after the infamous black rain that fell in South Boston about 4 years ago, the Greater Boston metropolitan air pollution control district was formed. Judging by what the subcommittee learned in Los Angeles, the formation of a broad control district is an essential first step toward the systematic management of an air resource. Beyond this point, however, comparison between the Boston control district and the Los Angeles control district becomes more divergent. In Los Angeles about 57 cents per capita is expended in the fight against air pollution. In your area, according to my latest figures, the per capita expenditure is 2.6 cents. It is unfortunate that the budgetary effort nationally is closer to what is found in Boston than to what is found in Los Angeles. I hope that the recently passed Clean Air Act leads to rather pronounced changes in this gloomy picture.
The Clean Air Act was drafted after extensive hearings in Washington held before this subcommittee and before a similar subcommittee of the House of Representatives. Like the Federal legislation which preceded it, the Clean Air Act developed on the premise that those nearest the problem should shoulder the primary responsibility for its solution. Unlike previous legislation in this field, however, the Clean Air Act enables the Federal Government to provide more fully
the assistance that local and State governments need and deserve to cope with an environmental hazard that is truly national in scope. Passage of the Clean Air Act by unanimous vote in the Senate, by an overwhelming majority in the House, and with strong support from the administration, is concrete proof that the Federal Government is convinced that air pollution is a substantial hazard to the people of this entire Nation.
This act expands the research and assistance programs the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare has conducted for the last 8 years, but it does not stop there. It authorizes the Department, for the first time, to grant Federal funds to help local, State, and regional air pollution control agencies initiate, expand, or improve their programs. This provision of the act brings us one long step closer to that cooperative approach to air pollution control among all levels of government which has so long been endorsed in principle. The Clean Air Act also provides procedures for Federal action in interstate areas in the event that local and State efforts do not succeed in protecting those citizens whose health and welfare are threatened.
The act singles out for special attention two of the major unsolved air pollution problems—both of which are strong concern to all urban areas—motor vehicle exhaust and sulfur air pollutants. The act directs the Secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to appoint a technical committee, with represenatives from the Department and from the automotive vehicle, exhaust control device, and fuel manufacturing industries to evaluate progress in the development of methods in curtailing automotive exhaust emissions. The Secretary is required to present to Congress periodic reports on progress made. The act also directs the Secretary to initiate a program of research directed toward the development of improved low-cost techniques for reducing the emission of sulfur compounds to the atmosphere from sources where sulfur-bearing fuels are burned for heat and power. It authorizes the Federal program to develop criteria of air quality for the guidance of State and local control agencies in the adoption of enforcible air quality standards and source emission limitations. What is just as important, it places all of these varied resources for improved air pollution control in one comprehensive Federal air pollution program. This is extremely important for the several provisions of the act properly combined and properly employed make the total program responsive to local and State needs which can vary greatly from place to place. The administration of its various elements in one comprehensive program gives added assurance that through intelligent cooperation and effort all levels of government, industry, and the public can contribute effectively, toward progress in clearing the air throughout the Nation.
Today, we hope to learn a great deal more about the problems of the Greater Boston area and the progress being made toward their solution. We are grateful for the cooperation we have received from the Government officials, representatives of industry, research and civic groups, who have so generously agreed to testify here. We feel certain that their participation will be of benefit to air pollution control not only because the testimony will shed light on your problem, but also because it will add to our knowledge of air pollution problems faced by scores of other communities in the United States.