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don't take that name in vain, Senator, because as Mr. Tibbetts said a while ago, sure enough we don't want industry to leave the State of Maine, let alone the town of Lincoln. We want it there.
We come down here specifically to ask for assistance if we can get it from your committee to help us alleviate a situation in Lincoln that gives us a very bad odor, and it does do damage to our property, and there is a question of health involved.
I know, I have experienced certain things myself; so I am not going to refer to other people, but I will briefly state I have experienced watering of my eyes as a result of the odor that comes from the mill over there, and I also have experienced at different times nosebleeds and, of course, the odor is very, very strong. It is very obnoxious to the sense of smell.
The Town Council of the Town of Lincoln, they don't necessarily want to stir up the mill. We want to keep the mill there. There are some people that get the rumor around that if you do something, you are going to have the mill moved out of Lincoln. Well, the mill does employ some 400 or 500 people, and it is of great benefit to the town of Lincoln.
We wouldn't want to lose Standard Packaging Co. If there is any way that the situation could be helped, of course, we would appreciate it. We have with us here, although he didn't come along on the same means of transportation with the town manager and myself, Town Manager Carleton Holmes here, and we have with us Mr. Eben Whitcomb, who is the superintendent of Standard Packaging there at Lincoln.
I think a great deal of Mr. Whitcomb. He is a very nice person. I don't say that to keep the mill in town or anything like that, but he is. He understands the situation. Perhaps maybe if we would sit down and talk with either Mr. Whitcomb or some of the representatives, the New York representatives of Standard Packaging Co., perhaps maybe in a friendly amicable discussion of the situation, some of these things might be able to be cleared.
On the other hand, if it is possible that we could get some assistance from your committee, Senator, we most certainly would appreciate it.
In the reports we have submitted, one is from the U.S. Public Health Service. They came to Lincoln at our request back in February of 1960, at which time I wrote to the congressional delegation for the Town Council of Lincoln, and if I am not mistaken they sent you a letter, Senator, as well as Senator Margaret Chase Smith, and the three Members of Congress, and we called attention to a letter that was directed to Dr. Burney, Surgeon General of the United States, and particularly to title 42, chapter 15B, of the United States Code, wherein it provides for conducting an investigation and perhaps giving us a report as to what could be done; bearing in mind, however, and not that we are interested in losing the mill; we want to keep the mill there.
As one of our neighbors in an adjoining town made a statement, well, if you didn't like the stink up in Lincoln, you could just bring it all down to Enfield. I guess I could retort and say to them, maybe we would pipe it down, but we would keep the mill.
However, I have some house numbers here, and you will observe on the back that these were bronze numerals. You notice on the back how bright they are? They were put on the house sometime during the year of 1958 and taken off here this past summer. You notice how black they are on the front? Here's another one, that happens to be 43, the house number. We also brought with us some clapboards that were taken from a house across the street to show you what happens to the paint on the houses.
This house was painted white. You notice how it has been discolored. That is what usually happens after that odor or whatever comes out of the stack settles on a damp day, not on a sunshiny day, when the sun comes out this will all bleach out and it will be white again, but the paint will start to peel.
The CHAIRMAN. Is that a lead-base paint, do you happen to know?
The CHAIRMAN. Would you want the people who are with you to come up and share the table with you?
Mr. BRIOLA. Be glad to, Senator.
The CHAIRMAN. I think it would be well to identify them for the record.
Mr. BRIOLA. Carleton Holmes and Mr. Eben Whitcomb.
The CHAIRMAN. Give their full names and associations for the record, Peter.
Mr. BRIOLA, Mr. Carleton Holmes, town manager of the town of Lincoln; and Mr. Eben Whitcomb, superintendent of the mill, Standard Packaging Co., there at Lincoln. If the Senator would have any questions?
The CHAIRMAN. Yes, let me ask one or two before I invite the other two gentlemen to comment as they may like.
Glancing through the attached report and, incidentally, all the material attached to the statement will also be printed in the record. The report indicates that you really need some more research done up there to identify the nature of the problem before you can come up with some control measures. This would seem to be the thrust of the report. Is that the Public Health Service report?
Mr. BRIOLA. There is one from the U.S. Public Health Service, and one from the State of Maine, Department of Health and Welfare.
The CHAIRMAN. Well, the State, did the State people do an independent analysis of their own?
Mr. BRIOLA. Yes, they did; they were up there first, and then the U.S. Public Health Service came. They brought some members from Cincinnati, Ohio, and some from New York, and one thing, I may say, they were at that time conducting a study at Berlin, N.H., which they said was similar to the situation at Lincoln, and as soon as they completed that report, they would send us a copy, and I referred to that in this transmittal letter, technical report A-62-9 in request of clean air for Berlin, N.H.
The CHAIRMAN. We have a copy of that report, and will mark it appropriately as an exhibit. It will not be printed but will be available in the committee files.
As I understand it-any one of you can comment on this—as I understand it no control measures have yet been identified so that before you talk about control, you have got to find the technological and scientific means to do so; am I right there?
Mr. BRIOLA. Yes.
The CHAIRMAN. In these terms, the Clean Air Act does provide research funds and also program grants which will be available to the State and community if they wanted to set up programs for the purpose of handling this research problem, and, in addition, of course, the Federal Government itself is engaged in research. I am curious as to why it was not possible for the Public Health Service to finish the research job.
Mr. BRIOLA. Well, Senator, the reason for that was they were conducting the survey at Berlin, and they said the same situation would exist at Lincoln, and as soon as they got through with that survey at Berlin, they would send us a copy.
The CHAIRMAN. Let me quote from the report which is attached to your statement, toward the end of that report the following appears, and I quote:
To summarize this evaluation it may be stated : Potential control of the odorous gases from the digester appears good. To establish whether it is actually so, we need information on the control equipment, residual chlorine content of the washer affluent before and after mixing with the digester gases, sulfur content of the digester gases, and relative volumes of digester and washer streams.
Information is also needed on control of lime kiln emissions, and on the evaporators.
The emissions from the recovery furnace cannot be satisfactorily evaluated because of the lack of supplied information. It would be necessary to know the type of wet scrubber utilized in the type of scrubbing medium.
A flow diagram indicating process streams, equipment, control equipment or methods, and points of atmospheric release for exposure would be necessary to evaluate the miscellaneous sources.
That is the end of the quotation. So that summary seems to indicate that there is a lot of basic information lacking which was needed in order to identify the nature of the problem and the control methods; is that information lacking because of failure on the part of the industry to cooperate, or was it lacking because of lack of the necessary research effort ? Do you know?
Mr. BRIOLA. Well, Senator, that was submitted to the council and sent to the Standard Packaging Co., and they gave us a report on that, and that was forwarded to the U.S. Public Health Service, and they said it was incomplete.
The CHAIRMAN. Well, now, we ought to include that in the record for whatever it may be worth.
The CHAIRMAN. What I am interested in knowing really, I guess, I haven't pinpointed my point is the industry itself, does it have a cooperative attitude toward the solution of this problem?
Mr. BRIOLA. Well, frankly, I would say so. I would say “Yes” to that, Senator.
The CHAIRMAN. So their problem is that they don't yet have the answer, is that it?
Mr. Briola. Well, perhaps maybe I had better let Mr. Whitcomb answer that question.
The CHAIRMAN. That is all I wanted to establish for the record is whether or not this is a problem which is, an answer which isn't being used or whether there isn't an answer yet, and in order to find one we must engage in extensive research efforts.
STATEMENT OF EBEN WHITCOMB, MANUFACTURING MANAGER,
STANDARD PACKAGING CO., LINCOLN, MAINE Mr. WHITCOMB. I am Eben Whitcomb, manufacturing manager at the Standard Packaging Co. Unfortunately I didn't come prepared to make statements or to even testify. I really appeared here to represent our interests in this type of legislation, and the interest in the pollution problem. I think if I did make a statement it would be to say that you have put your finger on the problem as it applies to the sulfate pulping industry, that we have certain problems of which we are all well aware, that fundamental and basic research is a prerequisite to any substantial improvement. I think that sums it up.
The CHAIRMAN. Do you suppose, and I don't want you to say any. thing that you shouldn't be saying for lack of preparation; you were not on the witness list, and I appreciate your willingness to come forward and say anything at all, but I think it would be very useful for the record if we could have from your company some evaluation of the possibilities of getting results from additional research. That is, are there possibilities for correcting this situation within practical economic limits; for example, do you suppose your company would be in a position to supply that kind of information for us or if you are not in a position to answer that, would you let us know later whether or not it is possible.
Mr. WHITCOMB. Well, as a matter of fact, I think that I can say that my company is only one facet of a rather large industry, and this industry as a whole supports research by various groups, and I think that rather than the Standard Packaging Corp. supplying this bibliography of corrective measures, I think that perhaps we could call upon these research groups to supply your committee with suggestions or the results of their efforts.
The CHAIRMAN. The reason I asked the question, let me put it in blunt layman's language, I get the impression from some sources this kraft process inevitably carries this problem with it that it might be alleviated to some degree, but that fundamentally you either take that kraft process and the mill, or you get rid of that kraft process and the mill.
Now, that is stating it very bluntly, and frankly, and I do so only because I want the record to reflect possibilities here. I don't think
people ought to be fooled; we ought to know what we are dealing with. Is this the kind of odor and are these emissions, whatever they may be, inevitably attached to the kraft process of these papermills, and if we could get some kind of an answer to that question, subsequently, from either your immediate company or the industry, I think it would be very useful so that when as a Member of the Senate I get a letter from a constituent saying whatever if anything can be done about this problem, then I can give an intelligent answer. I say this in the friendliest possible way, because I can understand there might not be a technological answer to this problem, and if there are possibilities, I would like to know what they are.
Mr. WHITCOMB. Well, I think as an individual, I can say the current state of the art about sums it up, I don't think it is a lost cause.
The CHAIRMAN. You say you don't think it is a lost cause?
Mr. WHITCOMB. No, I don't; I do think it would be only right that the industry supply you with the current outlook.
The CHAIRMAN. Do you suppose you could do anything about getting that information for us!
Mr. WHITCOMB. I think that I can.
(Subsequently, the following communication was received, containing the requested information :)
Lincoln, Maine, April 6, 1964.
DEAR SENATOR MUSKIE: We are still working on a compilation of the work done in the reduction of air pollution as promised you during the February 17 meeting in Boston. I expect this will be completed in about 2 weeks.
Mr. Mutz, of your committee, advised me that the initial review of your findings would be printed this week, so in order to be represented at least in part I am forwarding two articles together with a bibliography which demonstrates the complexity of the problem but which deals with accomplishments made. The first paper, by Mr. E. T. Guest, of B. C. Forest Products, Ltd., Crofton, British Columbia, won the 1963 award of the technical section of the Canadian Pulp & Paper Association.
The second paper, by Mr. J. 0. Julson, describes important contributions by the Weyerhaeuser Co., and I call special attention to the comments on Federal participation.
With reference to the report from the U.S. Public Health Service, the report which Judge Briola referred to was made by the State of Maine Department of Health and Welfare with our full cooperation in 1960. Shortly afterward further study was made by the Federal Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Both of their findings were included in Judge Briola's submissions for your February 17 hearing. Sincerely,
EBEN M. WHITCOMB, Jr.,