is sound and that present economics make it competitive with a present large Boston incinerator which handles approximately half of the waste generated within the city. This project provides a fertile area for student study and development on its many aspects.

RECRUITING OF STUDENTS One of the major problems we encounter in establishing training programs for which no simple solution has appeared, is the recruiting of qualified graduate students to enter this field. It must be recognized that the field of environmental health in which air opllution control plays an important role, attracts scientists or engineers interested in public service. Salaries and compensation in public health and related fields are lower than the compensation offered by industry. The majority of our students enter the public sector and will work either for State, municipal, or Federal agencies. Occasionally, a large industry will hire an air pollution control engineer, but only if it can afford a broad program of general coverage in several areas of environmental health. They must necessarily have a large number of facilities in which many air, water, and radiation problems exist.

Attracting qualified students for training and graduate education in Air Pollution Control is one of our major problems. It can be stated at the outset that the greatest difficulty exists in attracting young physicians to this field. Next in order of difficulty is observed in attracting engineers. Both specialties have suffered from similar demands for personnel training in other categories such as water, radiation, and occupational health. Engineering in particular, has suffered from a declining enrollment until recently. In addition, we must compete with industry, in many glamorous fields such as aerospace, etc., which attracts young 4-year graduates with bigh salaries in order to complete organizational demands. Such attractive financial rewards make graduate training seem less desirable to many of these young engineers. They find out somewhat later, to their regret, that they have adjusted to a higher standard of living than will permit them to readjust to full-time graduate study. It is our hope that the present tremendous increase in enrollment in undergraduate schools will appear as a reflection in graduate school enrollment 3 or 4 years hence. Recruiting then may be less of a problem in the engineer and scientist category but at the present time the situation is quite competitive.

One other point on training that I believe is worthwhile to point out to your committee is the fact that the Air Pollution Division is one of the few in environmental health activities of the Public Health Service that has established an expert advisory committee on its training program. This committee, which is composed of educators and practitioners in air pollution control and related subjects, reviews all applications for training grants and fellowships submitted to the Public Health Service. Because such training awards are financially attractive, there is tendency for many schools with quite limited qualifications to apply for air pollution training funds in order to supplement a weak program in sanitary engineering, or to establish a new program with limited matching resources. It is the mission of the advisory committee to screen these applications, evaluate the proposed facilities, the kind of training to be provided, and to ascertain if they meet minimal graduate standards. A recent effort of this advisory committee is to establish criteria for training awards. These criteria will then be used to judge new and renewal applications. At the present time, more than a dozen universities throughout the country have awards for training programs. Less than half of the grants have been to schools of public health. Limited staff and equipment have been provided with most of the funds assigned to fellowship awards to be made by the institutions. Harvard, Pittsburgh, Minnesota, North Carolina, and Michigan have such programs. Most of the remaining awards are to engineering schools. Several schools of public health are well qualified to provide training in air pollution control and related subjects such as biostatistics and epidemiology. They are associated with large universities with engineering and related strengths. Not all students who can become qualified in the field of air pollution control should attend schools of public health. There is a need for training programs in outstanding engineering schools where some biological training can be obtained on campus. Even schools of agriculture and possibly university departments in the social sciences area can help to solve some of the problems developing in air pollution control.

Many members of the training committee feel it is necessary to emphasize that air pollution control is a problem and not a discipline. Therefore, in solving this problem, it will require experts well grounded in fundamentals in medicine, engineering, public health, physics, chemistry, and in a few instances, eco nomics, law, and sociology. With this in mind, most of the training programs, in my opinion, should be oriented toward producing individuals with sound training and with a professional identification. General courses should be limited to those in which a common core of knowledge can be provided.

It is recognize that in air pollution control evaluation as in other fields of public health we are faced with limited manpower. Developments in computer technology for recording and retrieval of information are just as paramount for us as in other fields. For example, a computer program is necessary to ade quately follow air quality data and similar information. These must be assimi. lated rapidly. Hence the use of computers and programing is becoming more and more important in our educational programs in public health. Training in this area becomes important to all scientists working with objective and subjective data.

NEEDED ENGINEERING RESEARCH IN AIR POLLUTION CONTROL In the field of engineering research to meet existing air pollution problems, many long-range studies are needed. I would like to preface my remarks with perhaps a few basic comments. It should be understood that in most instances we have the know-how to solve many of the air pollution problems from the many known sources of air contamination. In this regard I mean engineering treatment of effluents from various processes. The limitation of available or proposed methods of treatment is one of economics. Thus the technical feasibility cannot be separated from the economic requirement. This is probably true in other fields. We have methods and means of controlling contaminants released from most types of industrial operations. However, it appears that small industries, and even some large industries, cannot or do not believe they can afford the investment in equipment in order to correct the problem. Even the level to which contaminants must be reduced is still somewhat a matter of judgment and local evaluation. As in other environmental problems there is no absolute safety value. Safety in terms of the health of the public when exposed to air pollutants must be measured in relative terms. The variations in local environments and in effects of meteorology, topography, and community conditions must be evaluated in regard to most air pollution control problems. The engineering control device may thus have limitations placed upon its performance in order to meet a given application.

In many instances, air or gas cleaning devices have been applied to industrial effluents to eliminate an obvious problem. If the nature, size characteristic, and properties of the effluent are not evaluated in detail by competent investigators the proposed equipment may be improperly selected. As a result a manufacturer invests money in a device which does not adequately solve his problem and may in some cases aggravate an existing situation. Just as important as the problem of engineering research is the importance of getting our present knowledge into the hands of the right people. Engineering salesmen often sell pollution control devices without a complete understanding of the problem. These generalities, I think, should be considered as related to our needs for improvement and development of control methods. If our present knowledge in this field could be brought more effectively to those who should apply the information we would have fewer misapplications and poor investments in control equipment.

In 1958, I presented a paper before the National Conference on Air Pollution held in Washington, D.C. My paper outlined the major technical areas which I believed needled further investigation at that time. The list of topics I (overed are shown in table I. It is of interest to point out that most of the problems stated then still need further study. We can point with some satisfaction to the fact that item 6, which involved further investigations of photo chemical stability and the physical chemistry of aerosols, has received considerable attention. There has been a tremendous amount of work in this area by the U.S. Public Health Service at Cincinnati, particularly with the stimulus provided by the Schenck bill, which specifically identified motor vehicle exhaust as an interstate problem. It may be somewhat discouraging to look at this large list of items and find that none of them has been solved completely. We should recognize, however, that they represent major problem areas for which acceptable economical solutions are desired. In the case of item 11, we have personally devoted efforts to control powerplant effluents by recovering sulfur gases from sulfur fuels. I believe solution of this problem, with the excellent development work by the U.S. Bureau of Mines with Federal air pollution support funds, is approaching an economic solution.

As mentioned earlier, economics is the major factor to consider in all engineering research approaches to effective air pollution control. It is still the major factor in the consideration of suitable devices for motor vehicle exhausts. It is still a factor in getting acceptability by manufacturers and householders alike in regard to both industrial effluents and domestic effluents. In many other areas engineering research is needed. The problem I discussed above in regard to the Harvard-MIT Center for Urban Studies ship approach to the incineration and disposal of solid waste is a good example where air pollution support has helped to generate new concepts and thinking.


SOLUTION OF AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS The final item on which I wish to comment in some detail is how the Clean Air Act can help meet the needs of training and research for minimizing air pollution as an environmental health problem. I have already commented on the graduate training grant program and some of the views of the air pollution training committee on educational problems. On a national scale I believe that a limited number of institutions should be provided with sufficient funds for both staff and fellowships. The kinds of institutions given such support should be limited initially to schools of public health, engineering, and medicine. Not many such programs should be established throughout the country; 15 to 20 should meet our needs in the technical areas. There must be a basic core of competence of two or three equivalent full-time well qualified staff members who are engaged partially in research in problems associated with air pollution control. In addition to the three categories of institutions already mentioned, a need may develop for a few schools of agriculture, or departments of government, social studies, and economics interested in evaluating some aspect of air pollution problem, but still concentrating on training good economists, agronomists, plant pathologists, etc. The use of multiple institutional resources is very desirable. One unique group that the air pollution training committee has recommended support for is the committee on institutional cooperation (CIC) group of Middle Western universities. They have recently established a program in biometeorology taking advantage of special related departments in a dozen large private and State universities.

Students desiring to become specialists in certain disciplines related to biometeorology select institutions with programs or professors concentrating in the proposed subject. They may then spend 6 months or more at one or two institutions at a time obtaining courses and special training. It is likely that they will do their thesis research at one institution but it may involve a field project related to biometeorology. For the benefit of the committee, biometeorology is related to air pollution control and approved for support by the Division of Air Pollution. The effects of meteorological regimes and climatic conditions on human and animal health and behavior with natural and mamade pollution is closely related to air pollution problems. C'sing many sources of talent to provide basic disciplines to help solve air pollution problems is a sound approach in my opinion. The advantages provided by a group of cooperating institutions is also sound. Such broad well-integrated progams involving more than one major institution would provide specialized training at least cost and duplication of effort as well as minimize the needs for locating several programs within a geographical area. Such programs must receive adequate support per traineeship since they involve special travel arrangements in order to handle assignment of students to various institutions. In the case of the CIC program, each of the institutions has agreed to transfer credit and adjust tuition costs on a fully acceptable basis.

In addition to this type of training program, a limited effort should be continued in the training of what might be classified as technicians or to provide in-service training or special courses for public health personnel. It is necessary to provide them with some basic other related concepts and knowledge of the field. The Public Health Service through the Robert A. Taft (enter training program has offered a large number of special air pollution courses. It has met this need in many instances by offering 2-week short courses at Cincinnati to personnel from health departments and industry. Such sessions, however, cannot be attended by any large groups of State or other personnel without considerable loss of time from their jobs as well as travel support. In a few instances the Public Health Service has sent training teams to an area and provided these courses by prearrangement at the local level. I believe that it would be advisable to provide training grant funds for short duration courses in various localities to permit State health departments, air pollution control districts and similar groups to provide such courses to meet its own needs. Such courses could be set up and funded with a combination of State and Federal funds and have a university or college group advise and assist in the training for a given region. The assistance of Public Health Service personnel could also be arranged. It might also be developed as a summer short course or an extension program with a nearby university which has a program or an interest in air pollution control training.

Technical schools training technicians in various categories may also be able to provide some training for the kind of personnel needed to carry out field monitoring and analyses at the operating level. I do not believe there is any need for 2-year air pollution technicians. However, I believe that a chemical, nuclear, or X-ray technician type of training could usefully include some air pollution control and monitoring concepts. The types of instrumentation and analytical techniques necessary for obtaining control data could be discussed in detail in such a course. A comprehensive and sound air pollution control program requires competent individuals qualified at several levels of skill.

In providing support on training grants it has proved desirable to provide fellowship funds directly to the participating institutions. They can thus recruit individuals for their graduate programs. A limited number of traineeships should be awarded directly through the training committee as now done in order to meet special purpose training for related areas such as government, law, economics, and special administrative considerations. A basic program in air pollution control need not exist within each institution. However, the student should have the opportunity to get some air pollution training at cooperating institutions or field experience within an operating program. This still meets the objective of educating people in disciplines where air pollution problem solutions will need related competence. There are, of course, a large variety of problems which must be solved by many disciplines. For example, a critical evaluation of the economic burden created by air pollution on community maintenance.

The last aspect on where the Clean Air Act can help is that of research support. In the research area a division of effort with Federal funds has been in existence for the past 7 years in the air pollution control field. This division of effort has represented about 50 percent of research funds to universities and nonprofit organizations for basic studies in air pollution in categories such as toxicology, epidemiology, chemistry, physics, and engineering. I believe the present grants mechanism with review by expert study committee has been successful. The present practice of unsolicited proposals by qualified institutions to submit problems has developed basic information in many areas. It does not necessarily answer immediate problems.

On the other hand, the Public Health Service through its in-house program, has developed attacks on problems which are more anplied. There is a tendency, I have observed, in recent years for Government laboratories to initiate many hasic studies. This may result from the fact that they could not be encouraged in other places. On the other hand, I believe this tendency exists within many Government research labs in order to keen qualified scientists. Many scientists do not like to work on peripheral problems and desire to explore basic factors. as well as applied factors. I do not know if a simple clear-cut answer exists to this problem. In the field of air pollution control, for examnle, since we are dealing with an applied area, it is difficult to state categorically a division be tween basic and applied problems. A study of chemical structure and aerosols formed in combustion processes may involve physical chemistry and photochemistry of various mixtures and yet requires basic research. The automobile exhaust studies which the Public Health Service has carried out with a great deal of sophistication in order to meet the pressures of the existing legislation and problems, is an example of a project pursued from both basic and applied view points. Basic elements in this problem may not be resolved for several years. Consequently, long-range studies should be supported as well as crash programs to answer immediate problems. The same can be said of the catalytic conversion studies that must be undertaken in order to solve motor vehicle exhaust problems.

I believe the apportionment of Federal funds to the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Weather Bureau, and the Department of Agriculture has worked out effectively. I am not certain that any better mechanism can be developed for in-house research in allied Government laboratories without the effective liaison that has been established. Not much agricultural research has been stimulated within agricultural experiment stations or schools of agriculture with the exception of the Riverside, Calif., group. In time, other areas of the country may develop an interest in this problem and if so should receive support.

It appears that a great deal of effort has been made by the Public Health Service in motor vehicle exhaust problems because the automobile and petroleum industries do not believe it is a general problem. We cannot neglect it on that basis and I hope that portions of this problem can be made attractive to university and other nonprofit research groups. Basic aspects need to be explored in depth in the toxicology and epidemiology areas as well as engineering.

It has been a pleasure to present my comments to you and I shall be happy to answer any questions or make comments as you desire.

TABLE 1. ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS FOR INVESTIGATION AND SOLUTION The technical areas which need further investigation include:

(1) New methods for handling fine metallurgical process fumes at high temperatures.

(2) Methods for controlling acid mists and complex high vapor-pressure organic suspensoids.

(3) New methods for recovering large-volume chemical effluents which are difficult to absorb or remove by contact washing. Nitrogen oxides, ozone, peroxide, are good examples.

(4) New devices for combustion of low levels of gases which create odor problems and yet are too concentrated to absorb on odor canisters but not concentrated enough for a major recovery system.

(5) Continued studies on fundamental particle dynamics as applied to inertial separation, filtration, and electrostatic properties of particulates.

(6) Continued investigations of the photochemical stability and physical chemistry of aerosols.

(7) Fundamental studies on fixed and dynamic filters, with particular reference to life studies with a wide variety of aerosols.

(8) Further studies on graded filter media for low loadings of air contaminants.

(9) The development of temperature-resistant fabrics able to withstand 500° to 1,000° F. and still perform effectively as filter media.

(10) Development of relationships from particle and equipment parameters which will enable the reliable prediction of performance from primary dimensions and rapidly evaluated properties of the particulate material.

(11) New economic methods for removing large volumes of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

(12) Inexpensive methods for eliminating or destroying mobile combustion source hydrocarbon emissions.

Source : Leslie Silverman, Sc. D.. "What Needs To Be Done in the Future (2) Improvement and Development of Control Methods." Proceedings National Conference on Air Pollution, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Washington, D.C., Nov. 18–20, 1958, pp. 331-332.

The CHAIRMAN. Dr. Whittenberger, you may proceed.



Dr. WHITTENBERGER. I will be happy to summarize my statement. My fields are physiology and public health, and I have been particularly interested in problems of respiration. My department has conducted research of several kinds related to the biological and medical aspects of air pollution.

I will report on a little of this later. I would like to emphasize at this time that we consider what we do to be related closely to the engineering and physical science aspect of air pollution. We work

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