tively few compounds. These now include: “Oxidant index," carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, and particulate matter. Standards for other compounds are under continuous review by the department and will be adopted when it is concluded that sufficient data exists to support the new standards.

The department has adopted motor vehicle emission standards for crankcase hydrocarbons and for exhaust hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and smoke. These standards provide the basis for the motor vehicle pollution program of testing the performance of control devices. At this time, the department is reevaluating these standards and is considering the need for new standards on oxides of nitrogen and evaporative losses from the fuel tank and carburetor.

I have here copies of reports the department has prepared on standards. I do not know if the committee has copies. This report covers all the technical information that was used by the department in arriving at these standards.

Senator MUSKIE. Without objection, they will be marked “Exhibits 2.3," and "+" and placed in the committee files.

Mr. Mags. In much of this work, the State of California has drawn upon the Public Health Service for advice and assistance. Under prerious legislation we have, in our own right or on behalf of local agencies, sought and obtained grants for research projects in the areas of meteorology, chemistry of atmospheric reactions, and the health effects of air pollution. Valuable research on the photochemistry of auto exhaust has been undertaken at the Taft Sanitary Engineering Center. The Public Health Service participated with the Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District and the department in joint projects to determine the emissions from oil refineries and of oxides of nitrogen. Currently, we are working with the Public Health Service and others on a study of lead in three U.S. cities, including Los Angeles.

It is clear that Public Law 206 is intended to and will stimulate and assist the establishment of both State and local air pollution control agencies. It will further encourage and assist in the development of new knowledge and the application of knowledge in the fields of air pollution control and conservation of the Nation's air resources. It paves the way for more effective handling of interjurisdictional problems. It provides for much-needed training in the sciences associated with air pollution control and the study of air pollution effects. And it specifically provides for Federal encouragement and evaluation of the progress toward control of the vexing problem of motor Vehicle emissions.

All of these aspects of the law will have their effects in the various States depending upon the nature of their present problems and programs. Some parts of this bill will have greater importance outside California than within. Inability to enforce air pollution laws has not been a major problem here. We have achieved etfective control programs in large air pollution control districts covering one or more counties. There is no serious lack of laws or authority for air pollution control or for setting standards for emissions on air quality.

At present, we have no interstate problems, nor do we see such prob)lems developing. Our population and centers of air pollution are, in general, far from our borders common with neighboring States. These neither cause nor receive interstate air pollution. Because Cali

fornia is bounded to the west by the Pacific Ocean its weather is mainly influenced by air masses that have passed over this ocean rather than other States. The northern and eastern boundaries of the State largely comprise mountain and desert areas. It is not expected that large population and industrial centers will be located in these parts of the State.

The new Federal program, is however, of great importance to our State. I would like to emphasize this in my testimony, the emphasis placed by this legislation upon the control of emissions from motor vehicles and upon the health effects of air pollution should have a profound effect upon the course of air pollution control in California. The effort that California can make on motor-vehicle-pollution research and control falls far short of meeting the urgent demand for more data on the role of automobiles in our smog and for more data on control methods. Under this legislation, we look forward to increased research directly applicable to our problems of setting standards for motor-vehicle emissions and, even more important, to progress toward achieving these standards through control of the emissions. Much work, again in excess of our own capabilities to accomplish in a reasonable length of time, is needed in the study of the interrelationship of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen with other aspects of the environment to produce eye irritation, plant damage, haze, and ozone.

More accurate, reliable, and practical methods of measuring the constituents of motor vehicle emissions are needed to improve our standards and our device evaluation techniques. In spite of much activity in the measurement of vehicular emissions, data for many types of vehicles are still unavailable, incomplete, or unsatisfactory. The diesel engine problem is far from solution, with little known as to the composition or control of its unsightly and odorous exhaust.

Nothing we have learned in the past several years concerning the health effects of air pollution suggests that we can become complacent or relax our efforts in studying this problem common to all major cities in the Nation. Furthermore, the health effects of smog, product of our climate and unusual concentration of motor vehicles, demand extensive study. Some 14 million Californians are now exposed some of the time, at least, to this kind of air pollution. Too little is yet known of health effects. Here in Los Angeles the atmosphere of the community and the concentration of people provide the best laboratory to study the health effects of this kind of air pollution. Research within the State department of public health, and research stimulated and supported by the department must be extended if we are to discover in a reasonable length of time the subtle relationships between our photochemical air pollution and the health of our citizens. Our standards for ambient air quality need to be expanded to include any additional compounds. This can only be done by obtaining the information on the effects of specific pollutants and combinations of pollutants. The immeasurable assistance in forwarding this work.

Now we would urge Congress to appropriate the necessary funds to effectively carry out the provisions of Public Law 206.

In addition, we feel that a large part of these funds should be directed at the problem in California. Here we have the most serious motor-vehicle-created air pollution problem and here we have most of the research which has been done today, we believe, and the work being done by California agencies in this area

Thank you.

We look forward, therefore, to the provisions of Public Law 206 as a stimulating and accelerated advance on these several aspects of our campaign to restore air quality in California.

Senator MUSKIE. What is the total budget of the State in this field?

Mr. MAGA. The total budget of the State of California is a little over $2 million.

The budget of everyone in California, State and local agencies, is a little over $6 million.

Senator MUSKIE. What portion of the State's budget is devoted to research?

Mr. Maga. I think the State budget is divided into three areas: money going to the University of California, money going to the State department of public health, and money to the motor vehicle pollution control board. All the money going to the University of California is for research. This is something in excess of $200,000 a vear.

Almost all of the money that goes to the State department of public health is in research or closely related areas, such as investigation and air monitoring and setting air-quality standards.

And the work of the board, their work is essentially that of testing devices, but again here a good part of their budget is research, so I would guess offhand that at least 75 percent of the money that is put in by the State of California is devoted to research or areas in investigation or factfinding.

Senator MUSKIE. How many people do you have working on the State level in this program?

Mr. Mags. At the State level there is approximately, I would say, 125 people, perhaps.

I am guessing now. I could get these figures more accurately for you.

Senator MUSKIE. Now, if on the program grant side, in what respects, if any, will that money be useful to expand the State program or to change it or to add to it?

Mr. Maga. I think the money would be useful in expanding the State program in a variety of areas. I mentioned quite a few of them here, improved methods of measurement, work on the total chemical air pollution problem, health effects, so I think money in this area would be very useful to California in all these areas.

Senator MUSKIE. Do you feel you have a great deal of work yet to do in the establishment of air quality standards?

Mr. MagA. Yes, sir. There are a number of air pollutants, many, many scores of them that are important and the department has only scratched the surface here. I think the department is one of the first agencies in the country anyway to set standards on pollutants and I think we are greatly limited in our efforts by the lack of data and there are a number of compounds for which studies ought to be undertaken. I can name a few-ozone, sulfur dioxide, fluoride, lead, a whole number of other pollutants for which there are no standards.

Senator MUSKIE. Are you limited because of the inadequacies of your own budget in pursuing research as to those !

Mr. Maya. There are a number of limitations; that is one—budgetary limitations are one.

: I think other limitations are a lack of a sufficient number of researchers in this field. So it is somewhat related, both. I think budget is one of the key items, but again there is a lack of enough people working in this area.

Senator MUSKIE. What type of research is best calculated to aid you in setting standards?

Mr. Maga. We are speaking now of air-quality standards rather than motor-vehicle-emission standards?

Senator MUSKIE. Air-quality standards.

Mr. Maga. I think the kind of research setting air quality standards is to determine the concentration of pollutants at which an effect can be observed or noted.

This, in effect, would tell you—you can picture a table of increasing concentration of air pollutants, one, for example, sulfur dioxide; construct a table from zero going to the high level, and in this next column, match with this concentration effects that would be encountered, damages to vegetable matter, interference with visibility, so in effect you would have a matching table of concentration on one hand; and effects on the other, and the various States or local agencies could then decide for themselves what effects they may experience and the air quality they may wish for their community.

Senator MUSKIE. Senator Moss, before we turn to Dr. Askew, did you have some questions you would like to ask Mr. Maga?

Senator Moss. I don't think I have any at this point, Mr. Chairman. Senator MUSKIE. We will then turn next to Dr. Askew.



Mr. Askew. Thank you, Senator.

My name is J. B. Askew, and I represent the motor vehicle board before you today.

California understandably has taken the lead in research, evaluation, and control of photochemical air pollution because of the tremendous problem which developed in the southern California area during and at the close of World War II. For many years, Los Angeles County struggled with this problem alone; however, the State of California became aware of the problem and assisted local areas with study and evaluation of their problems and means of control.

In 1960, the California Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board was created by the State of California, and in June of that year, the 13member board convened for the first time. In the first year of our existence, staff was selected, committees appointed, and the start of the development of the testing criteria was initiated.

During the second year of our operation, device manufacturers filed formal applications on their devices for board review, acceptance, and testing. The early devices were basically those of crankcase blowby control systems-later the exhaust manufacturers commenced submitting their devices. The automobile industry has had years of experience with blowby devices, particularly military vehicles. Before the California Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board approved any crankcase devices, the American Automobile Manufacturers Association decided to voluntarily install crankcase blowby control devices on all new 1961 and 1962 cars sold in California. In 1963, the automobile manufacturers decided to make them standard equipment on all new cars nationwide.

To date some 37 different crankcase control devices have been approved for new car installation and 5 devices for used car installation. At the present time the board has under active testing and evaluation some seven exhaust control devices or systems, and we expect to complete our testing and evaluation of these devices now under test during this calendar year.

The board welcomes creation of the Automobile Vehicle and Fuel Pollution Technical Committee. California motorists have received great benefits from installation of crankcase controls nationally on new cars since 1963. These have been in cleaner air through improved devices because of a wider market and through dollar savings for the same reason. We think that this committee can keep abreast of our pioneer efforts in testing and approving exhaust devices in California. As satisfactory answers are found, this can point the way to further research but more important can lead to national application of successful devices. We need support from all over the United States to give California motorists the benefit of a larger mass market for devices or engine modifications which result in cleaner air.

As your honorable committee may know, California law specifies that when two or more devices or systems are approved and have been certified to the department of vehicles, within 1 year they automatically become mandatory for installation on new cars, during the second

year on commercial vehicles and used cars whose registration is changed, and the third year on used cars in which the ownership is not changed

Our control of device installation and annual services is governed primarily through motor vehicle registration. Today if a car is sold, it cannot have its registration transferred until it is properly equipped. If it is not sold, it cannot be reregistered unless it is properly equipped and also the device must be working properly. To assist the motorist in insuring compliance with the law, private auto service outlets are licensed by the California Highway Patrol as smog installation and inspection stations. Although certificates and windshield stickers are issued by these stations, primary enforcement of proper control of emissions is through motor vehicle registration.

Because of the wide interest of the scientific community and the periodic suffering of the public due to smog episodes, and the intense effort which local, State, and now Federal Government have given this problem, particularly with the full cooperation and understanding of private industry (who must come up with the answers on how this problem will be solved), we feel greatly encouraged that we are nearing the point where the exhaust control phase of the problem will be solved.

Our board has found that applied research in developing devices can be done best by private industry. With the incentive provided by a mandatory market in California, some of the best auto laboratories, engineering, and chemical talent in the world has been applied to deroloping devices. Research is vitally needed in other fields such as reactivity of the hundreds of components of exhaust gas; the reactivity before and after treatment of exhaust gas by devices to re

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