N.J. Air Pollution Control Code, Chapter VII, Section 2.15, Basic Emission for Coarse Solid Particles












Tampa, Fla. A public hearing on air and water pollution in Florida was held in the U.S. post office and courthouse, Tampa, Fla., commencing at the hour of 9:30 a.m.

Appearances : Senator Edward S. Muskie, chairman of subcommittee, and Senator Jennings Randolph.

Senator MUSKIE. I do have a prepared statement that I would like to read to set the tone of the hearing today.

First of all I would like to say that on behalf of Senator Randolph and myself, we are grateful for the opportunity to be here in Tampa to conduct these hearings on the air pollution problems of Florida. I appreciate the inconvenience to which many of the witnesses have been put in taking the time to come to Tampa to testify on problems elsewhere in this large and diverse State.

As I have said to the press, this subcommittee has been holding hearings in cities of every part of the country, Los Angeles, Denver, Chicago, Boston, and New York. Earlier next month we plan to conclude the present series of hearings with a visit to Senator Randolph's State in Wheeling, W. Va.

The problems that these cities represent are problems that our modern technology and our urban population growth have created in thousands of cities in every part of the country. The air pollution problems here in Florida are perhaps more striking than those in such cities as Chicago and New York because they are so incongruous. Florida is famous for its magnificent climate, its hundreds of miles of beaches, its resort areas; in short, is an outstanding recreation land which is second, I suspect, only to my own State of Maine.

Senator RANDOLPH. Or West Virginia.

Senator MUSKIE. But Florida is also proud of its industry. The growing of citrus and other agricultural crops, livestock raising, mining, chemical processing, pulp and paper manufacturing and others. Some 75 percent of the U.S. supply of commercial phosphate is produced in Florida's Polk and Hillsborough Counties, and the rate of production in this and other of Florida's industries is certain to rise in the coming decades.

Florida is in a dilemma; can it continue to enjoy an astatic citrus industry which accrues to a State possessing an excellent climate and niche, and at the same time profit from industrial growth which seriously threatens that environment? I think we do know the answer to this question; it is “Yes” if—but the “if” opens the door to a multitude of social, economic, and legal challenges that demand to be met and solved.

If Florida is to preserve its air resources and at the same time encourage increased industrial growth, it will have to work for close cooperation among all levels of Government, industry, and the public. As we have learned elsewhere on this trip, merely to adopt laws and ordinances is not enough. Merely to condemn one segment of society as the villain is fruitless. What is needed is the careful planning of cooperative air resources management programs with enough funds, personnel, facilities, and authority to deal with air pollution probIems now and in the years ahead. How much time, energy, and money would be saved if the forces in Florida which do not agree on the question of air pollution were to decide to work together toward the solution of their mutual problems. I submit this saving would repay the efforts several times over. Federal Government is prepared to devote new resources toward the goal of meaningful cooperation for air pollution control.

We are keenly interested in the testimony to be presented today on the nature and the extent of Florida's air pollution problem, on the efforts being made to control and correct it, and on the extent to which the Federal Government can be of assistance. We are fortunate in having already received some information on the air pollution problems existing in several parts of the State, and about the State and the county programs that have been established to deal with the problem. We look forward to seeing first hand for ourselves and for the public a more current and comprehensive picture of air pollution in Florida.

By passage of the Clean Air Act this past December, Congress has armed the Federal Government with work with this State and every other State willing to meet and conquer the threat of air pollution. The Clean Air Act provides funds for the first time that can be made available to local, State and regional air pollution control agencies, to help them initiate, expand, or improve their programs. It has set up procedure for Federal action in interstate and certain intrastate air pollution problems which may be beyond the control of individual political jurisdictions. It creates new Federal programs of research in the problems of motor vehicle exhaust pollution and pollution created by the burning of sulfur containing fuels. It directs the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to develop and promulgate criteria of air quality which can be used by the State and local agencies in the development of air pollution standards.

The act provides for increases in the existing Federal Government programs of research and technical assistance which have been of value to State and local control programs for the past 8 years. The Clean Air Act places all of these resources for improved air pollution control in one comprehensive air pollution program, the several provisions of the act properly combined and properly administered making the total program responsive to local and State needs which can vary greatly from one part of the country to another.

We, this morning, seek knowledge, knowledge of the support that the Federal Government can provide to the State of Florida, knowledge of the problems that the State faces, and knowledge of the plans this State has to protect its air resources in an age of massive, technological intrusion on our natural environment.

What we learn today will aid us in determining what Government and industry can and must do to keep this State and all others rich in the bounty of nature and rich in the harvest of industrial and agricultural growth.

I am sorry, and the committee regrets, that all those who were invited to attend and testify did not find it possible to do so. We invited the mayor of Jacksonville to come; we are sorry he cannot be here. We invited representatives from Dade County to come; we are sorry they cannot be here. We invited representatives from the paper and pulp industry; we are sorry they cannot be here. I am sure that all of them could have contributed to a more complete record on Florida's problem here this morning. If I may then begin with our schedule of witnesses, we do not have a public address system here this morning, so I would hope that all of the witnesses will speak up in order that those in the courtroom, who are, I assume, here because of interest, may hear the testimony.

And the judge requests that there be no smoking in the courtroom, and I would not break down the barriers between the legislative and judicial branches by violating the judge's mandate.

Our first witnesses are a group of three in a panel. I wish all to come forward at one time: Dr. Wilson T. Sowder, Dr. E. R. Hendrickson of the Florida Air Pollution Control Commission, and Mr. E. N. Lightfoot of the Citizens' Committee on Air Pollution, Lakeland, Fla.

Gentlemen, it is a pleasure to welcome you here this morning, or maybe perhaps I should say be welcomed to be here this morning to hear what you have to say.

Do you each have prepared statements, gentlemen? Then, Dr. Sowder, why don't you proceed with yours. If you can highlight it in any way, that would be helpful, but you don't need to do so. We would like to have as much time for questions as we can.



Dr. Sowder. Thank you, Senator Muskie.

Senator Muskie and Senator Randolph, I am Wilson T. Sowder, State health officer, Florida State Board of Health.

I want to thank you for the invitation to appear here. We, at the State board of health, like all State health departments, are seriously concerned with the increasing amount of pollutants being emitted into our air environment through the continual growth of both population and industry. Now, while we are concerned with this increase yet, I want to ad lib at this point to say we are proud of the general cleanliness of our air in Florida, and although we are concerned about our present condition, we are even more concerned about holding the line and preparing ourselves for preventing the increase in the future.

Our board of health became seriously concerned with this matter in the mid-1950's, at which time there were no statutes on the books authorizing the State board of health to enter into the field of air pollution, although certain smoke and nuisance complaints were handled under the general laws.

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