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very curious description follows, from the Abbé Gédoyn, of the personal and judicial habits and manners of the great law officers of that previous better age. Equity, severe industry, strict morals, plainness in the economy of life, and elegant literature, form its prominent features. All the virtues, the dignity, and the accomplishments, however, of that better period, descended in full measure to l'Hôpital.

One of the offices which he filled in succession in his progress up to the chancellorship, was that of superintendent of the finances; on which our Author observes,

* This is a remarkable era in the history of France, as it was during l'Hôpital's administration of the finances that the French monarch first attempted to check that spirit of resistance to the royal will, which the Parliament of Paris had for some time shewed, and which at different times afterwards it exerted with so much effect, as frequently to paralyse the government, and ultimately to precipitate it into the revolution.'

The most unqualified encomiums are pronounced, and doubtless with the greatest justice, on his conduct in all his public employments thus far. But there is generally some weakness in the greatest personages that history has vaunted, to help our endeavours to be content at least, if not to make us actually vain, in thinking of the leading performers of our own times. This man, of capacities so ample, of activity 80 indefatigable, had not art enough, not sense enough, in twenty years of important public employment, during six of which he had the management of the finances, to make a fortune for himself! Though the reverse of every thing sumptuous in his habits of life, he had not at the end of that period money enough to be able to afford a tolerable portion with his daughter, his only child. What noble improvements in statesmanship were reserved for later times!

However imperfectly l'Hôpital had deserved it, his next ascent was to the highest honour, the chancellorship, to which he was appointed just at the time that the religious troubles in

France had begun.' The doctrines of Calvin had made proselytes in the south of France; the ministers of Francis I. and Henry II. combated the heresy by persecution ; the usual

co:sequences,' says Mr. B. “ of persecution followed; the fa'vourers of the new opinions rapidly increased : the spirit of • fanaticism became general, and the whole kingdom was divided into the odious distinctions of Papist and Huguenot.'

All the remainder of this great statesman's official life was employed in the most earnest exertions to restrain the fury of popish bigotry, which rankled and raged in the royal house,

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in the powerful family and party of the Guises, as an adjunct to their political ambition, in the general body of the ecclesiastics, and in a very large proportion of the nation. On several critical occasions his great talents and authoritative virtues had the effect of suspending or moderating the cruel measures which have rendered that portion of the French history, and of the history of the Romish Church, so infamous.

But at length he found his opposition unavailing, and resigned his office. He lived to see, three or four years afterwards, the supreme triumph of the cause he had opposed, in the massacre of St. Bartholomew, which imbittered all his hours during the few subsequent months of his life. He died at Vignay, on the 13th of March, 1573, having in his highest as well as all his other public employments, so much forgotten the concern of personal emolument, that, says our Author, the small provision which • be should leave behind him for his grand-children, afflicted his • last moments ;'-which we think, if there is a Providence, was the least founded of all the sorrows of such a man.

Considering to what Church our very learned and intelligent Author adheres, we think that much applause is due to the manner in which he has related the odious history of that period, and the emphatical condemnation he has pronounced on the Inquisition, and some other of the appointments and proceedings which consigned such multitudes of the best citizens of France to the grave. He even pronounces the censure of intolerance on a law which l'Hôpital himself was compelled in some sort to sanction, as the only way of preventing the establishment of the Inquisition in France, namely, the confirmation to the bishops of the cognizance of heretics in their dioceses. "This,' says Mr. B., was too great a sacrifice to

intolerance; but it gave the bishops no new power, and completely eluded the project of the Inquisition, after the Guises had obtained a resolution of the royal council in its favour.

We cannot much wonder that our Author should let fall some expressions tending to extenuate the atrocity of the persecution of the Huguenots, by insinuating that it was not solely and purely by their religion that they made themselves obnoxious to the hostility of the popish government. It is not at all necessary for a protestant to maintain that none of their active leaders were, at any time, incited by any feelings or schemes of political ambition. It is too evident that some aspiring men, more intent on objects of personaland secular aggrandizement than on the vindication of religious liberty, did endeavour, and sometimes with a degree of success, to implicate the protestant cause with their schemes. It was, unfortunately, impossible for the Huguenots to have leaders of high rank and great weight in the state, without constant danger of being betrayed into more than they wished of the character of political partisans. But it is still more glaringly evident that the Huguenots had a grand cause and object simply as Protestants ; and that to this the great body of them were infinitely more devoted at all times than they ever were, at any moment, to any merely political object. In fact, the great body of them were devoted to this alone, insomuch, that if they did at any time support the personal designs of any distinguished leader, it was from being led to believe that this was the most direct way to their great object. Religious liberty, or so much of liberty as is comprehended in full toleration, was uniformly that object. It was for this that they were driven by relentless and aggravated oppressions to take up arms.

It was because they were placed by a popish government, in the alternative of returning to a Church which they solemnly believed they had convicted of the grossest errors, impositions, and iniquities; and which courted them with anathemas, inquisitors, and denunciations of fire and sword ;—the alternative of returning to such a Church, or of being exterminated. They thought it their duty to expose themselves to the not greater perils of the field of battle, in the solemn experiment, whether Providence would not enable them to deliver themselves from this condition, and to vindicate for themselves, and secure for their posterity, the freedom of religious opinions and worship. And brave as they were, quite to the romantic pitch, they gladly threw down their arms the very first moment the concessions of their enemies allowed them to believe that object attained. But the hatred of the popish party, burned without intermission ; and it was not long before the inefficacy of the enactments in their favour, unredressed outrages, and a universal, urgent sense of insecurity, compelled the Huguenots again to the last resort. Again they were readily disarmed by concessions and promises; too readily, we have always thought, in contemplating the history of those times; and again it was not long before the non-fulfilment of the most formal stipulations, numerous assassinations, for which no one was punished, and unequivocal signs of the most deadly intentions, would bring them once more into the field, to be yet again too readily disarmed by the treacherous professions and engagements of those whose power had failed to disarin them. That, with the great body of them, the sole object of all their zeal and exertions, was that religious liberty which they had avowed as their end, and that, this being granted them, they would have been zealously loyal to a popish government, is attested by l'Hôpital and Mr. Butler, who celebrate the unreserved fidelity and gallantry they displayed in its service, in one of the intervals in which the required toleration appeared to be ranted.

Through this long period, down to the massacre of St. Bartholomew, whatever uncertain proportion of more liberal and humane adherents to the Church of Rome there might be in France, the Protestants experienced from the predominant por-tion, from that which effectively constituted the state, a conduct systematically bigoted, treacherous, and sanguinary. And that infernal tragedy itself-did it excite in the Catholic part of the nation any loud and extensive manifestations of abhorrence ? Were not the executioners in the provinces as prompt and numerous as in the metropolis ? Was there any indignant commotion through the grand mass of the ecclesiastics of France, bursting out into solemn anathemas on all the designers and actors ? Was there ever one of the miscreants, from the King, that fired from his windows, and cried out-Kill them, kill them,-down to the butcher, who boasted how effectually he had executed this mandate, touched by the Holy Office, which had tortured so many victims for a few words of scepticism or disrespect to the Church? And the grand metropolis of that Church, which had sent forth so many vindictive fulminations, did Rome issue any of its tr mendous denunciations ? Was there in any portion of the Catholic world, any grand public manifesto to consign, in the name of the Church and its religion, all persons concerned in the transaction to infamy? Was there even any prohibition or repression of public rejoicings on the occasion ? Was there, in short, any thing in the iransaction itself so perfectly in opposition to the spirit which the Church of Rome had displayed, in innumerable instances, in the preceding times ? On what ground could that Church be required to look, from its proud eininence, over the world, with a diferent visage from that which had been beheld by the Waldenses and Albigenses ?

It is not without some degree of compassion, mingling with harsher feelings, that we view the lot of such men as Nir. Butler and Mr. Eustace. It is rather a melancholy destiny, we think, to be fascinated to a Church, which rises to view, on the great field of history, like a mountain beset almost all over with gibbets, fires, racks, black orifices of dungeons, savages for inflicting torments and death, and graves of martyrs. melancholy to see such men labouring to soothe and coax the revolting, struggling repugnance of their better feelings, striving to qualify the characteristic facts with which their Church gi res upon them, and seeking for any occasional or collateral cuses to charge such facts upon, ratuer than the genuine iniicrent spirit of that Church. When driven to condemn, unequivocally and emphatically, some of the enormities which resulted from the intrinsic quality of the Church, they contrive, with admirable dexterity, to obey the precept of hating the sin and yet loving

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the sinner. They would be smitten with horror at the sugges-
tion of execrating and abandoning the Church, which not only
has perpetrated such things, but has never been induced to
avow, in any public solemn form, its repentance of them, and to
enjoin, at length, on all its adherents, the duty of giving a full
toleration to Protestants. How would any suggestion of this
kind be received at the Court of Rome? How would it, at any
moment, for half a millennium past, have been there received
How would it be received by the vast majority of ecclesiastics of
all Catholic Europe, excepting France ? These gentlemen know
perfectly well that in those countries where the Catholic Church
retains its full prevalence, the most furious hatred is still enter-
tained against what they call the heretics; and that, in a large
portion of Europe, the attempt to form a congregation of protes-
tant worshippers, would infallibly draw down the instant ran-
courous vengeance of ecclesiastics, of magistrates, and of the
populace. Such is, palpably, the Church which these intelli-
gent persons revere as representative of heaven upon earth. We
cannot allow them to make another Church of their own,
with ever so much liberality, tolerance, and so forth, among its
constituent qualities, and to let themselves fancy they are
good Catholics, while they adhere to such an imaginary
Church. The plain question for them is,-Are you of the actual
Church of Rome, or not? The real, essential nature of that
Church is still palpable in its spirit and works ;-do you adopt
that Church or not? If you are really the friends of religious
freedom, by what paltering with conscience do you elude the con-
viction of the duty of becoming Protestants? In how many
centuries do you expect that the actual Church of Rome will
come to that liberality and charity, which you to profess to ad-
mire, and the contraries of which you must, therefore, abhor?

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Art. IV. Journal of a Voyage from Okkak on the coast of Labra

dor, to Ungava Bay, westward of Cape Chudleigh ; undertaken to
explore the Coast, and visit the Esquimaux in that unknown Re-
gion. By Benjamin Kohlmeister and George Kmoch, Missionaries
of the Church of the Unitas Fratrum, or United Brethren. Le
Fevre. 2, Chapel place. Seeley 1814.

(Concluded from our last.)
IN reading their own account of these and similar enterprises,

we cannot avoid being struck with the activity and perse-
verance of the missionaries; and the mere philosopher of second
causes, would look upon these, aided as they frequently are by
the most. fortunate and unlooked for conjuncture of circum

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