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sand. At the height of about fifty feet from the sea the rocks have veins of red, yellow, and green 'stone, running horizontally and parallel, and sometimes in an undulated form. Above these they present the appearance of a magnificent colonnade, or rather of buttresses, supporting a gothic building varying in height and thickness, and here and there intersected by wide and deep chasms and glens running far inland between the mountains. Loose stones above have in some places the appearance of statues, and the superior region exhibits various kinds of grotesque shapes. It is by far the most singular and picturesque chain of mountains on this coast. To the highest part of it we gave the name of St. Paul's, as it is not unlike that cathedral, when viewed at a distance, with its dome and two towers.' p. 14.
On the day following they met with some of the believing Esquimaux, who were on their summer excursion, at which time they have many opportunities of mingling with the unconverted of their own nation It refreshes our hearts to hear, that the wilds of a savage country exhibit a scene so soothing as that which these worthy men realized upon this occasion.
• The number of the congregation, including our boat's company' amounted to about fifty. Brother Kohlmeister first addressed them by greeting them from their Brethren at Okkak, and expressing our joy at finding them well in health, and our hopes that they were all walking worthy of their christian profession, as a good example to their heathen neighbours. Then the litany was read, and a spirit of true devotion pervaded the whole assembly.
Our very hearts rejoiced in this place, which had but lately been à den of murderers, dedicated, as it were, by the angekoks, or sorcerers, to the service of the devil, to hear the cheerful voices of convert:d heathen most melodiously sounding forth the praises of God, and giving glory to the name of Jesus, their Redeemer. Peace and cheerful countenances dwelt in the tents of the believing Esquimaux.' p. 16.
What else is it than the spreading of this moral cultivation over the vast and dreary extent of that Pagan wilderness, which is every where around us, that can lead to the accomplishment of the following prophecies? “ Israel shall blossom and budand fill the “ face of the world with fruit.” “The wilderness and solitary place “ shall be glad for them, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom
as the rose." “ In the wilderness shall waters break out, and “ streams in the desert, and the parched ground shall become a
pool, and the thirsty land springs of water. In the habitation 6 of dragons where each lay, shall be grass with reeds and 66 rushes."
They were detained from the 3d to the 15th of July, in Nullatartok bay, by the quantity of drift ice wbich set in upon the coast. This gave them time for exploring the neighbourhood; and these observaut men neglect nothing in their power that can
be turned to useful information for future travellers. They make minutes of the bays, points, and islands, with which they are made acquainted by the natives. They record the face of the country, and the appearance of its mineralogical productions.
They take great interest in relating the manners and peculiar practices of the people. They make collections of plants, and are amused with the examination of them. In a word, they notice all and record all, which can give interest to the narrative of an accomplished traveller; and the only additions which they graft upon all this, are a constant recognition of God, and an eye steadily fixed on his glory. Can it be this which has so long repelled the attention of worldly men from their labours and enterprises ? which made their good be evil spoken of? and which, till within these few years, restrained them from offering to the public a mass of solid information that has vow perished from the memory, and cannot be recalled ?
The following is a specimen of the manner in whicli they mingle the business of piety, with the business of ordinary travellers.
• Perceiving that our abode in this place might be of some duration, we for the first time pitched our tents on shore. Our morning and evening devotion was attended by the whole party, and on Sundays we read the Litany and conducted the service in the usual way, which proved to us and our Esquimaux, of great comfort and encouragement in all difficulties. We were detained here by the ice from the 3d to the 15th, and our faith and patience were frequently put to the trial. Meanwhile we found much pleasure in walking up the acclivities of the hills and into the fine green and flowery vallies around us. p. 22.
• 6th. In the evening we met in Jonathan's tent. Brother Kohlmeister addressed the company, and reminded them that to day the holy communion would be celebrated in our congregations, which we could not do in this place under present circumstances. Then, kneeling down, he offered up a fervent prayer, entreating the Lord not to forget us in this wilderness, but to give us to feel his all reviving presence, and to feed our hungry and thirsty souls out of the fulness of his grace. A comfortable sense of his love and peace, filled all our hearts on this occasion.'
On the 16th, they advanced to Nachvak, and the scene of magnificence which opened upon them liere, is well described by our travellers.
16th, The view we had of the magnificent mountains of Nachvak, especially about sun rise, afforded us and our Esquimaux great gratification. Their south east extremity much resembles Saddle island, near Okkak, being high, steep, and of singular shape. These mountains in general are not unlike those of Kanmayok for picturesque outline. In one place tremendous precipices form a vast amphitheatre surmounted by a ledge of green sod which seemed to be the resort of an immense number of sea-gulls and other fowls never interrupted by the intrusion of man. They flew with loud screams backwards and forwards over our heads, as if to warn off such unwelcome visitors. In another place a narrow chasm opens into the mountain widening into a lagoon, the surrounding rocks resembling the ruins of a large Gothic building, with the green ocean for its pavement and the sky for its dome. The weather being fine, and the sun cheering us with his bright rays, after a cold and sleepless night, we seemed to acquire new vigour by the contemplation of 66
the grand features of nature around us. We now perceived some Esquimaux with a woman's boat in a small bay, preparing to steer for Nachvak. They fired their pieces, and called to us to join them as they had discovered a stranded whale. Going on shore to survey the remains of this huge animal, we found it by no means a pleasant sight. It lay upon the rocks, occupying a space thirty feet in diameter, but was much shattered, and in a decaying state. Our people however cut off a quantity of blubber from its lips. The greater part of the blubber of this fish was lost, as the Esquimaux had no means of con- ' veying it to Okkak.' p. 26.
The following description of the manner in which the Esquimaux catch salmon-truut, is, we believe, a novelty.
• The Esquimaux about Okkak and Saèglek, catch them in winter under the ice by spearing. For this purpose they make two holes in the ice about eight inches in diameter, and six et asunder in a direction from north to south. The northern hole they screen from the sun by a bank of snow about four feet in height, raised in a semi-circle round its southern edge, and form another similar bank on the northside of the southern hole, sloped in such a manner as to reflect the rays of the sun into it. The Esquimaux then lies down with his face close to the northern aperture, beneath which the water is strongly illuminated by the sun beams entering at the southern. In his left hand he holds a red string with which he plays in the water to allure the fish, and in his right a spear ready to strike them as they approach. In this manner they soon take as many as they want. p. 28.
At Nachvak they had frequent opportunities of converse with the natives, and we know of no question more interesting than that which proposes the consideration of the best method of addressing Christianity to the minds of men totally unfurnished with any preparatory conceptions upon the subject. On other subjects of inquiry, the rashness of the theorizing spirit is exploded, and all speculation is made to vanish before the evidence of experiment. To the evidence on this question the Moravians are making daily additions ; and the whole history of their proceedings, bears testimony to the fact that the Gospel is never preached in power but when it is preached in simplicity; that the refinements of men do but enfeeble the impression of it; and that the word of truth, as it came pure from the mouth of Christ, and
of his Apostles, may be addressed to Savages at the very lowest degree in the scale of civilization. When taken in connexion with this principle, we look upon the first meeting of a Christian missionary with Savages, as a circumstance possessing a higher interest than any other thing that can be recorded of the intercourse of man with
and the interest is considerably heightened, when, instead of the accomplished missionary, it is the Christianized Heathen, who has himself lately experienced the love of the truth, and is become subject to its power, that addresses the words of salvation to the unawakened among bis own countrymen. The following is a specimen.
They (the natives) received the discourses and exhortations of the missionary with reverential attention, but those of their own countrymen with still greater eagerness, and, we hope, not without henefit. Jonas once addressed them thus. “ We were but lately as
ignorant as you are now : we were long unable to understand the 66 comfortable words of the Gospel: we had neither ears to hear, nor « hearts to receive them, till Jesus by his power opened our hearts and
Now we know what Jesus has done for us, and how great “ the happiness of those souls is, who come unto Him, who love him
as their Saviour, and know that they shall not be lost when this life " is past.
Without this we live in constant fear of death. You will enjoy the same happiness if you turn to and believe in Jesus. We
are not surprised that you do not yet understand us. We were once " like you, but now thank Jesus, our Redeemer, with tears of joy, “ that He has revealed Himself unto us." Thus, with cheerful countenances and great energy, did these Christian Esquimaux praise and glorify the name of Christ our Saviour, and declare what he had done for their souls exhorting the Heathen likewise to believe.
• The above address seemed to make a deep impression on the minds of all present. One of their leaders or captains exclaimed with great eagerness
presence of them all," I am determined to be converted " to Jesus ” His name is Onalik. He afterwards called
Brother Kohlmeister, and inquired whether it was the same to which of the three settlements he removed, as it was his firm determination to become a true believer. Brother Kohlmeister answered, That it was indifferent where he lived, if he were only converted and became a child of God and an heir of life eternal. Another named Fullugaksoak made the same declaration, and added that he would no longer live among the Heathen.
• Though the very fickle disposition of the heathen Esquimaux might cause some doubts to arise in our minds as to their putting these good resolutions into practice, yet we hope that the seed of the word of God sown in this place, may not have altogether fallen upon barren ground. p. 30.
In their progress northward to Cape Chudleigh, they fall in with other parties of the natives; and on the 22d of July we have the following description of an Esquimaux feast, at which the missionary himself addressed the Heathen.
• 22d. The contrary wind forbidding our departure, Brother Kohl. meister, accompanied by Jonathan Jonas, and Kukekina, walked across the country to the N. W. bay to return their visit. When they saw them coming at a distance, they fired their pieces to direct them to the tents, and came joyfully to meet the missionary and his party. Nothing could exceed the cordiality with which they received them. A kettle was immediately put on the fire to cook salmon trout, and all were invited to partake, which was the more readily accepted, as the length of the walk had created an appetite, the keenness of which overcame all squeamishness. To do these good people justice, their kettle was rather cleaner than usual, the dogs having licked it well, and the fish was fresh and well dressed. To honour the missionary, a box was placed for him to sit upon, and the fish were served up to each upon a fat stone instead of a plate. After dinner Brother Kohlmeister in acknowledgement for their civility, gave to each of the women two needles, and a small portion of tobacco to each man, with which they were highly delighted.
• All of them being seated, a very lively and unreserved conversation took place concerning the only way of salvation through Jesus Christ, and the necessity of conversion. With John and his mother Mary, Brother Kohlmeister spoke very seriously, and represented to them the danger of their state as apostates from the faith, bu: they seem blinded by Satan, and determined to persist in their heathenish Jife. The Esquimaux now offered to convey the party across the bay in their skin-boat, which was accepted. Almost all of them accompanied the boat, and met with a very friendly reception from our boat's company. In the evening, after some hymns had been sung by our people, Jonas addressed them and the heathen Esquimaux, in a short nervous discourse on the blessedness of being reconciled unto God.
• Kummaktorvik bay runs N. E. and S. W. and is defended by some islands from the sea, It is about four or five miles long, and surrounded by high mountains, with some pleasant plains at their foot covered with verdure. It's distance from Nachvak is about twelve miles. This chain of mountains, as will be hereafter mentioned, may be seen from Kangertlualuksoak, in Ungava Bay, which is a collateral proof that the neck of land terminated to the N. by Cape Chudleigh, is of no great width. Both the Nain and Okkak Esquimaux frequently penetrate far enough inland to find the rivers taking a westerly direction, consequently towards the Ungava country. They even now and then have reached the woods skirting the estuaries of George and South rivers.' p. 35.
On the 2d of August, they passed a strait among the islands off Cape Chudleigh, when the coast takes a S. S. W. direction. At this place the tides rise to an uncommon height. The coast is low, with gently sloping bills, and the country looks pleasant, with many berry-bearing plants and bushes. It is from this point of the voyage, that they seem to enter upon new ground, for at a very great distance to the N. W. they descried a large island