« ForrigeFortsett »
particle that has nothing corresponding to it in the original who
is as God,” &c. is so completely gratuitous, so totally unwarranted by any thing that bears the remotest resemblance to principle; nay, so directly inconsistent with that ascription of supremacy and of eternal blessings, which is in the very verse connected with the name; that I should not have thought of mentioning it, had it not been for the sake of showing to what shifts a critic, even of eminent talents, (Wakefield,) may be reduced when, rejecting the plain and obvious meaning of a text, he is desirous to strike out something new, and to give it a turn that is original, and peculiar to himself,
* 1 mention it also, indeed, as being a sufficiently convincing evidence, that this critic did not feel himself satisfied with the other expedient adopted by his friends in general, which, by altering the punctuation, would convert the latter part of the verse into a doxology. And it is not to be wondered at, that he should have felt this ground untenable. For there is not one of these three ways in which this has been attempted, which has not been shewn to involve either a vidlation of a principle of syntax, or a deviation from the ordinary, perhaps I should say, the invariable arrangement of the words, when an ascription of praise is intended (invariably at least in the practice both of the Septuagint and the New Testament writers), or both these anomalies together. But besides these considerations as to the construction of the words in the original, there is something in the antithetical form of the sentence, which alearly indicates the same thing, and confirms, if such confirmation were necessary, the common translation. I allude, as you will perceive, to the phrase, “according to the flesh.” is not this expression intended to distinguish what he was thus, from what he was otherwise? Does it not immediately suggest the question" What was he else ?-What was he not according to the flesh ?". The ordinary translation of the phrase in question conveys the precise meaning of the original :-“as concerning the flesh," that is “as far as respects the flesh;" or, “ as to his human nature," which is thus contrasted with that higher view of his person, according to which he was the possessor of underived and independent existence. Remove from the words this idea of antithesis, and you deprive them of all force and meaning whatever; you convert them into a useless and unnatural pleonasm, which adds weakness ir: stead of strength and propriety to the expression and the sentiment: “He could not be better or greater than Abraham or Isaac <by this fleshly origin, “and to insist so particularly upon it would “ have rendered the matter more marked and certain; but there is « a magnificent rise in the climax when we come to read that this « Christ who came of the fathers according to the flesh was « indeed, and in reality GOD BLESSED FOR EVER!". As to translating the words in question "by natural descent," not only is it liable to the objection in all its force, which has just been stated; but it is likewise a most arbitrary freedom with the words themselves, which is utterly inadmissible, and deserving of the severest reprehension.' pp. 69-72.
To a note, in which are inserted some observations on this text, extracted from one of our former volumes, * is added the following ingenious remark.
Against the conjectural alternative of ó into wv é,--there is another consideration, which I do no not find adverted to by any of the writers above referred to, but which appears to me very decisive. It arises from the situation of the conjunction rad in the dtth verse, In it and the verse preceding, there is evidently an enumeration of articles which constituted the peculiar honour of the Israelitish people. Οι τιμές εισιν Ισραηλίθαι ών η υιοθεσία, και η δόξα, και αι διαθηκαι, και η νομοθεσια και η λατρεία και αι επαγγελία και αν οι ταιερες KAI εξ ών, ο χριστος το κατά σάρκα και ως επί πάντων θεός ευλογήθος εις τους αιώνας, αμήν. Nothing can be more evident, thau that the xxi here brings us to the closing particular in the enumeration.' p. 420, note D.
We could with pleasure extract numerous passages equal to these in rational criticism, and conclusive reasoning. At the same time, we frankly confess, that there is not much novelty or originality in the general arguments; nor is this to be regretted. Novelty in religion is always to be suspected. It cannot be supposed, that after the lapse of seventeen centuries, during which the most ingenious, perspicuous, and devout minds, have been employed in ascertaining the sense of Scripture, that much that is radically and substuntially new, can be discovered. And it is no slight confirmation of our faith, that the identical reasonings in defence of the great peculiarities of Christian truth, which appear in the masterly volume before us, may be found in a host of advocates that have preceded him. Each age, however, has its “ Jannes" and its “ Jambres ;” and it is well that each age has its powerful and eloquent defenders of the “ faith
once delivered to the saints." We rejoice in the aocession of Mr. Wardlaw to this sacred cause.
In our next number we shall willingly prosecute our analysis of his valuable discourses.
(To be concluded in the next Number.)
Art. III. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. For the Year 1813. Part I. 4to. pp. 156. price 14s. G. and W.
Nicholl, Pall.-Mall. 1. On a New detonating Compound. In a Letter from Sir
Humphrey Davy, L.L.D. F. R. S. to the Right Hon. Sir
Joseph Banks, Bart. K. B. P.R S. THIS extraordinary compound was first discovered at Paris ;
but the mode of preparing it was very carefully kept secret. The fact of the discovery was communicated to Sir H. Davy,
* E. R. Vol. V. pp. 331, 332.
by a philosophical correspondent, who merely stated, that it was a combination of azote and chlorine.
Sir H. had made many unsuccessful attenapts to combine these substances, before this fact came to his knowledge ; but on renewing his efforts after he had been made acquainted with it, he had the satisfaction of accomplishing his object; and of producing a compound, which, from its properties, there can be no doubt was the same as that made 'at Paris.
The combination, however, appears to have been made, in this country, in the first instance, by Jno. James Burton, jun. in the course of some experiments on the action of chlorine on nitr te of ammonia ; but he did not examine it, and it was not until Şir H. was reminded of this circumstance by his friend Mr. Cuildren, that the compound was directly formed, and its properties were examined. Sir H. D. found that the combination was formed equally well by exposing a solution of oxalate of ammonia, or a weak solution of pure ammonia, to the action of chlorine, as by a solution of the nitrate; but the combination was less permanent in the solution of ammonia, than in the others. Its preparation, under any circumstances, requires the utmost caution.
This compound has the colour and transparency of olive oil, but it is less viscid. Its smell is extremely offensive, and its effect on the eyes is pungent and distressing. When introduced under water into the receiver of an air pump, the receiver being afterwards exhausted, it assumes the elastic form, and in this state it is rapidly absorbed or decomposed by water. If warm water is poured upon it in a glass vessel, it expands into a globule of elastic fluid, of an orange colour, and which diminishes as it passes through the water.
It explodes at so low a temperature that even the heat of the hand is sufficient for that purpose ; and such is the force of its explosion, that a globule not larger than a grain of mustard seed, when warmed by a spirit lamp, broke the glass tube which contained it, into very minute fragments. A vivid light, and a sharp report, accompany its explosion. A minate globule of it thrown into a glass of olive oil, oil of turpentine, or naphtha, exploded with great violence, and shattered the glass into fragments. Its action with ether is slight, a small quantity of gas being disengaged, and a substance resembling wax formed. The action of alcohol converts it into a wbite, oily substance, destitute of explosive properties. A particle of it brought into contact with a small portion of-phosphorus under water, produces a brilliant light, with disengagement of azotic gas; but if the quantity of the new compound exceed the bulk of a mustard seed, the vessel is uniformly broken. With mercury it forms a substance resembling corrosive sublimate, a portion of gas being at the same time disengaged. It has no action on tin, zinc, sulphur, or resin. It detonated most powerfully when it was thrown into a solution of phosphorus, in alcohol, or ether. In muriatic acid it disappears without explosion, elastic fluid being rapidly disengaged. It exhibits no particular action with dilute sulphuric acid, but it disappears in the liquor of Libavius, to which it imparts a yellow tinge.
From these facts Sir H. Davy concludes, that it is a combination of chlorine and azote, and is probably precisely the same as that discovered at Paris. The extraordinary circumstance of its expansion into an elastic fluid being attended with heat and light, which stands alone among chemical phenomena, Sir H. thinks has the nearest analogy with the evolution of light in the discharge of an air gun, and both have probably the same cause. The mechanical power produced by the detonation of this remarkable compound, and the velocity of its action, appear to be greater than those of any other body yet known. II. Observations relative to the near and distunt Sight of
different Persons. By James Ware, Esq. F. R. S.
The observations contained in this paper, are rather of a miscellaneous nature, and do not involve the investigation of any particular point of inquiry connected with the subjects to which it relates. Some of the facts, however, are curious, and may admit of useful application.
Consiilerable pains have been taken by Mr. Ware, to ascertain the proportion of persons, in the different classes of society, who are affected by near-sightedness; and he finds reason to conclude, that it is very considerably greater in the higher classes, than in the lower. This peculiarity of vision is rarely met with in early life; and, in these cases, Mr. W. condemns the early use of concave glasses, as they have a tendency to fix the imperfection, and render it permanent, while the natural efforts of the eye, unaided by glasses, are frequently capable of correcting the slighter degrees of it. He remarks also, that when the aid of a concave glass is first resorted to, it is important to select the lowest pu:uber which is suited to the eye; for, though the number above that, may afford the most perfect vision, yet, after sometime, it becomes necessary to change it for one still higher, until at last it may become difficult to procure one sufficiently concave to afford the correction requisite for distinct vision.
Mr. Ware gives an account of some experiments with Belladonna, made to determine its effects on the range of distinct vi-' sion, the results of wbich agreed with those obtained by Dr. Wells; these experiments, however, shed no light on the means by which the eye is enabled to accommodate itself, with such It is, per
perfect precision, to near and remote objects; Mr. W. observes, that he has seen many instances of persons of very advanced age, and who had been a long time accustomed to the use of convex glasses of considerable power, having ceased to require their assistance, their eyes having undergone some change which enabled them to see perfectly without them. haps, not easy to determine the nature of the change which produces this alteration. It has been attributed by some to the absorption of adipose substance, which is found in tbe orbit. Mr. W. supposes it to happen from a partial absorption of the vitreous humour, by which the axis of the eye becomes lengthened.
He remarks, also, that from his own experience, near-sighted persons have not so extensive a range of vision as others have; and that, contrary to general belief, the defect of near-sighted ness does not diminislı with the approach of age. Several instances of a change of vision from long to short-sightedness, he informs us, have come under his notice, which were relieved by the use of leeches and evacuant remedies. This change was not connected with age; for though several of the individuals in whom it occurred, were rather advanced in life, others had scarcely arrived at the age of puberty.
V. The Bakerian Lecture. On the elementary Particles
of certain Crystals. By William Hyde Wollaston, M. D, Sec. R. S.
Our knowledge of the figure of the ultimate particles of bodies, can be derived only from theoretical considerations; but their truth or fallacy, as applied to the formation of crystallized bodies, may, in general, be subjected to the test of pretty rigorous demonstration.
There are some forms of crystal, of very frequent occurrence, with respect to which, there is considerable difficulty in determining its primitive form, and, consequently, the figure of its ultimate or elementary particles. This is especially the case with the regular octoedron, a form which is common to a great variety of bodies, in which it is extremely difficult to decide whether the octoedron, or the tetraedron, is entitled to a preference, since they are so easily convertible into each other. And, in either case, the elementary particles assigned to them by Hauy, are but ill adapted to form the basis of any permanent brystal.
The object of Dr. Wollaston, on this occasion, is, to shew with what admirable simplicity the supposition of the elementary particles being perfect spheres, which, by their mutual attraction, have assumed that arrangement which brings them