the Saturday and other evenings preceding any festival, when the music for the services of the following day is sung under my own direction. On the evenings of Mondays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, I also superintend the practising of the same body of pupils, except the last class of the young men, which is withdrawn to another room for more elementary instruction and practice, under the care of one of the senior pupils. At these times various exercises for the improvement of the voice are carefully practised, as well as the chants, services, anthems, &c., for use in the chapel, where we daily assemble at nine o'clock A.M. for morning prayer, after the use of cathedrals and other places where they sing.

On Tuesdays and Fridays Mr. Hullah gives his lessons in thorough bass and counterpoint to the more advanced pupils, examining and correcting their exercises, and occasionally practising difficult music with them; while Mr. May grounds the rest in the elements of the science and in singing from the notes.

The instruction of the children of our school is intrusted to the young men in training, subject to Mr. Hullah's supervision; the first six classes being each taught, for about half an hour twice in the week, separately, and all for nearly an hour on Wednesdays and Saturdays simultaneously.

The twelve choristers, ir. addition to this general course of training, have the benefit of the constant practice in the evenings of at least four days in the week, before spoken of; and twice a week I give them separate lessons, both theoretical and practical, at my own house.

In stating the general results of this laborious routine, it is with great satisfaction that I bear witness to the zeal and good feeling which have animated the young men and children of our choir ever since its commencement; and I cannot but express my devout thankfulness to God that our labours have been blessed beyond our most sanguine expectations in rendering the services of our little sanctuary, in some degree, expressive of our hearts' desire that we should not offer to God that which has cost us nothing; and, with regard to their mode of performance, as near akin as our powers will allow to the inspired descriptions of the worship of Heaven, the practice of the ancient churches, and the theory of our own.

Our progress in the art lias hitherto been regular and constant, notwithstanding the changes and fluctuations to which we have been subject. A youth or child, on his first entrance into the college or school, is now placed at once, as it were, in a musical atmosphere, and in the ordinary routine of his daily life has continual means of forining and improving his ear and taste, independently of the direct scientific instruction which he is also receiving. The range of compositions, too, with which the choir is continually growing more and more familiar, has hitherto gone on gradually expanding; so that, independently of exercises and secular music, such as glees and madrigals, with which their study is occasionally varied, they are now prepared to sing in the chapel ten entire cathedral services, each including six or seven pieces of music adapted to the “Te Deum," " Benedictus," "Kyrie Eleeson,"

" Nicene Creed,“ Sanctus,” “Magnificat,” and “ Nunc dimittis.” These are by Tallis, Farrant, Byrd, Gibbons, Bevin, Batten, Chreytoleton, Rogers, Aldrich, and Boyce; with two other morning services by Bar

croft and Travers, a communion service adapted from Vittoria, and another from Palestrina.

They chant the Psalms, on festivals and ordinary days, to between fifty and sixty harmonized chants of a truly ecclesiastical cast; while, upon Fridays and other fast-days, they use the severer style of the ancient Canto Fermo and the Gregorian Tones.

They have upwards of seventy anthems in continual use, including all our English compositions, which are generally known to cathedralists, of what has been justly called the sublime style ; as well as adaptations from some of the finest productions of Palestrina, Orlando di Lasso, Morales, Lupi, Anerio, Croce, Willaert, &c. They sing also upwards of seventy metrical psalm-tunes; as well as some of the choruses from Handel's “ Messiah."

The degree of excellence with which these various compositions are sung may be best learned by attending the services of our chapel; and when it is considered that our music there is purely vocal, and of course sulject to a variety of casualties—such as a general relaxation of voice from change of temperature, or an influx of new pupils, and the loss of efficient old ones I think a severe critic would allow to our service an average of unusual choral efficiency, and admit that it rises occasionally into extreme grandeur and beauty.

The individual attainment of our pupils is greater than the skilful and less than the unskilful would suppose. Of those who have already left the institution, several have been very useful in assisting the clergy in the improvement of the music in iheir schools and churches. Others there are whose situations have given little scope to their musical acquirements.

uirements. About in five of those resident in the college at any one time would be found able to sing at sight, and about the same proportion would not be able to sing at all without help from others, while the rest would be sufficiently grounded in the art to become, by their own future exertions, good practical musicians. Few indeed leave the college without having exceeded the minimum of attainment mentioned in the beginning of this letter, while by far the greater number go out with a practical acquaintance with the subject, which, if properly encouraged hereafter, cannot but increase their value as teachers of the poor in the eyes of all but those who are insensible to the manifold advantages of music as an element in Christian National Education: and I may close this statement by remarking, that, in the experience of the last four years, I bave always found the most clever and dependable choristers to be also the most successful in every other branch of their school routine.

I remain, my dear Sir,
Yours very faithfully,


Precentor of St. Mark's, and Master of the Children To the Rev. H. Moseley.

of Her Majesty's Chapels Royal.


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St. Mark's College, December, 1846. The system of drawing pursued in this institution has been adapted to its peculiar character, viz.-with the view of making the subjects taught available in the National Schools, and at the same time of the most simple kind to suit the capacities of those who it is hoped will ultimately benefit by it.

The primary efforts are directed to qualify teachers for drawing classes in the principles of model-drawing, practical geometry, and perspective; which, with pencil-drawing, form the most prominent portions of the system. But as the period of the student's residence at the college not only allows of sufficient time to accomplish these, but also to receive other instruction, some subjects have been gradually introduced as a stimulus to exertion on the part of the students, regard being paid “ to the specific character of the college."

Three years being the usual time allotted for the residence at the college, the system is divided into three courses, each, as far as may be, of annual duration, and each of which are again subdivided as follows:First Year .. 1. Simple Model-Drawing and Use of Instruments,

and Practical Geometry.
2. Practical Perspective.

3. Pencil Drawing.
Second Year. 1. Architectural Drawing in Sepia.

2. Scrolls and Figures; being a continuation of

First Class, First Year.

3. Trees, in Pencil and Sepia.
Third Year. . 1. Surveying and Levelling in the Grounds, prac-

2. Colours applied to Architecture, &c.

3. Portions of Steam-Engine, in Colours, &c. As the different courses proceed simultaneously in three separate rooms, the organization of the classes is particularly attended to; the senior student in the room having charge of it, and monitors or teachers appointed to each of the classes.

First Year's COURSE. 1. Simple Model-Drawing is first taught from the “Manual," by Mr. B. Williams, sanctioned by the Committee of the Privy Council on Education. This work is strictly adhered to, and from its cheapness is within the reach of all schools forming classes. Mechanics, however, require something more; to prepare the teachers for which,

The uses of Scales and Instruments are taught, to give them greater facility in constructing diagrams, &c. Some idea is also conveyed to the class of the method of obtaining the proportion of forces in designs of framing without the trouble of calculation, by the use of the scale of equal parts. The application of the sector in resolving perspective is also pointed out. The centrolinead also.

2. Practical Geometry follows; the problems for which are selected from Nicholson's work, with a few from Malortie's “Fortification.”

3. Practical Perspective, divested of all technicalities, is next in


troduced by a peculiar ocular demonstration, by which the system becomes apparent to the most obtuse intellect. The small work herewith sent is then proceeded with; and, to guard against inattention therein, the student is continually kept alive to what is going forward by the teacher (one of the advanced pupils) merely drawing, on the black board, one line and its connexion at a time, which is then done by the class; no fresh matter being given until the part already drawn on the board is completed by all, which is particularly necessary from the complex nature of the lines.

The black board is also used for scales and instruments, practical geometry, and virâ voce explanations of different subjects. As it is continually used by teachers, who are changed every afternoon, the students in succession acquire some confidence in the use of it, when required to “illustrate their lessons by the representation of objects and by diagrams ;” and it is a standing rule not to advance any student until he shall not only have produced a satisfactory drawing, but be also competent to teach what he has been instructed in.

3. Pencil Drawing.The eye having been now instructed, and the mind furnished with rules, the use of the pencil is taught, wherein its analogy to writing is pointed out, and the value of lines impressed. As the hand usually has a tendency to draw all lines at the angles of writing, to counteract this habit all the shadow parts of the drawings used are a succession of lines or curves (as in preliminary writing-books) following the real outline; and thus, while shading, the pupil has actually to draw the subject several times. All the drawings used are from buildings of the ecclesiastical orrler extant, and, as they have the acknowledged dates written thereon, some knowledge of style is obtained while drawing.

Should a pupil not be able to teach all the above, he is directed to join the particular class he is not competent to instruct, until he has attained the requisite knowledge; and in certain cases, where a diffidence appears to exist, he is much oftener placed in a position to accustom himself to tuition.

This course tisually occupies twelve months; but it has sometimes occurred that individuals do not pass well, not from want of attention, but from a deficiency in the faculty necessary to be employed in drawing, though in other respects they are highly intelligent.' It is worthy of remark, that some of the best teachers of the foregoing classes have been some among the worst draughtsmen in the college.

Second Year's COURSE. 1. As the system now depends entirely upon the talent already exhibited, and the “ aim not being to make artists, but teachers of drawing," the student is generally allowed to pursue the bent of his inclination in any portion of this course, but he is principally directed to architectural drawing, such as plans, elevations, and perspective of the same in sepia, together with detail. These, with a lesson or two in isometrical drawing, enable him to assist mechanics, or the class of persons among whom he is destined to move.

2. Scrolls, 8c.-The system of hatching lines that is pointed out in Mr. B. Williams's “Manual” would require the undivided attention of a master every afternoon that the class was employed in modeldrawing; which, as six or seven classes have continually to be super


vised, would be impossible. To obviate any inconvenience therefrom, and as the work does “not give any general rule," some of the best chalk scrolis, &c., are provided, which, as they are procurable all over the kingdom, enable the students to perfect themselves even when away from the college, and ensure an uniformity of style to a certain extent in the classes. If these drawings were introduced in the model class, it is feared practical geometry and perspective would not be so well attended to by the classes.

3. Trees, fc.—Some (not all) of the students endeavour to obtain the method of sketching trees, both from copies easily obtainable and the trees in the grounds. But few of the youths, except an occasional one of more than ordinary abilities, produce good subjects.

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THIRD YEAR'S COURSE. Many of the pupils, at this stage of their residence, being continually or partially required to perfect themselves as teachers, practically, in different schools, the system is not so apparent in its results as heretofore. But, to prevent the mind from being unoccupied,

1. Surveying and Levelling, in the college grounds, have been introduced. The system is a thoroughly practical one, with chain and tape in the first instance, and by angles with theodolite in the next. Its connexion with trigonometry enables the class to test their experience therein. Nesbit's “Land Surveying" is a book they are referred to, as being the most simple for their purpose.

2. Colours as applied to Architecture, Sc.-These have been introduced in a few, very few cases, as a stimulus to exertion in other branches, or as a reward for diligence and attention as teachers; the number allowed in this class being never more than four or five, who must be able to draw the college chapel, practising school, &c., from actual measurement. These subjects, with the necessary trees to complete, form the range of lessons in this department. In one instance, from peculiar circumstances, flowers were introduced. Prout's

Drawing-Book" is recommended.

3. The Steam-Engine.--A few of the students are occasionally employed in drawing and colouring the above; but, froin want of time, not to much extent. Tredgold, and Blunt's “ Mechanical DrawingBook,'' are used herein.

“ It will be seen from this sketch that nothing is less intended than to cultivate drawing in the college for ornamental or artistic purposes. The whole is of a scientific character ; lectures, in connexion with those of the tutor, being given by the drawing-master. .... intimated above, few of the youths go through all the courses. One takes one line, and one another; and what they learn they teach: the system of mutual instruction (so called) being here carried out."

One object aimed at, also, is to enable the student at any future period to increase his knowledge, by giving him some instruction in the fundamental principles of different sorts of drawings; as it would be utterly impossible to give complete courses in some of the subjects laid down, from want of time.


* Vide Rev, Derwent Coleridge's Letter in the National Sur

”port for 1844,

p. 63,

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