The Life of John, Duke of Marlborough: With Some Account of His Contemporaries and of the War of the Succession, Volum 2

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W. Blackwood and sons, 1855

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Death of the Prince of Denmark
9
Deplorable situation of the French monarch
10
Great concessions offered by Louis
11
Counter proposals of the Allies
12
Progress of the negotiations ib 14 M de Torcy secretly offers bribes to Marlborough which are refused
13
Remarkable conversation of M de Torcy with Marlborough
14
His sentiments expressed to M de Torcy on a peace
15
Ultimatum of the Allies which is rejected by France
16
Marlborough still labours to effect a pacification
17
False accusation against Marlborough of having prevented the peace
18
Resolution of the StatesGeneral on the rupture of the negotiations
19
Reflections on the rupture of this negotiation
20
Noble efforts of Louis to save France
21
Marlborough determines to pass the enemys lines 188
22
Eulogy of M Dumont on the conduct of France on this occasion
23
Forces on both sides at the opening of the campaign ib 25 Marlboroughs efforts to obtain an augmentation of force in the Low Coun tries
24
Which at length are partially successful The forces at his disposal
26
Description of Villars position
27
Marlboroughs measures to deceive Villars
28
Siege and capture of that town
30
It was a sense of this advantage which made Napoleon engage in the Pen
31
Causes which render the alliance of Spain of such vital importance
32
He turns Villars lines and gets between them and France
37
Their respective characteristics 426
40
Result of these deliberations
46
Marlborough hastens to the spot and restores the battle
52
Distinguished officers killed and wounded on both sides
60
Wellingtons policy was more daring but more hazardous than Marl
62
Unjust criticisms and censures on the campaign
66
His magnanimity in judging of others 315
70
Great interests at stake in the bedchamber appointments
80
Extraordinary change in the public mind regarding the war and its hero
81
Cause of this remarkable change
82
Parallel examples in former times
83
CHAPTER VIII
84
Remarkable coincidence of particular battles in both periods
85
Remarkable parallel of the invasions of Russia by Charles XII and Napo leon
86
Proud position of Charles XII at Dresden before he began his march to Poland
87
His march from Dresden to Poland
88
Increasing difficulties of Charles in his march
89
Charles directs his march to the Ukraine to join Mazeppa
90
Defeat of Levenhaupt and capture of his convoy ib 9 March of Charles towards Moscow
91
After a thousand hardships they arrive at Pultowa
92
Preparations for the battle of Pultowa
93
Battle of Pultowa and total defeat of Charles
94
Surrender of fourteen thousand Swedes under Count Piper
95
Reflections on this event and grief it occasioned to Marlborough ib 15 Character of Peter the Great of Russia
96
His errors and delusion regarding him
97
Real character of his changes
99
Campaign on the Rhine and its disasters
100
Operations in Piedmont and their abortive result
101
Affairs of Spain in 1709 Increasing attachment of the Castilians to Philip
102
Independent and dignified tone assumed by Philip in the negotiations at the Hague
103
Operations in Aragon and on the Catalonian frontier
104
Operations on the Portuguese frontier ib 24 Marlboroughs opinion on the Spanish war
105
The government of the Netherlands again refused by Marlborough
106
New confederacy in the north and Marlboroughs advice regarding it
107
Commencement of the conferences of Gertruydenberg
108
Rigorous demands of the Allies
109
Real reasons of the rupture of the conferences
111
General plan of the campaign of 1710
112
Marlboroughs departure for the Continent and arrival at the Hague
113
Commencement of the campaign agreed on between Eugene and Marlbo rough
114
Passage of the lines of the Scarpe
115
Description of Douai
116
Its investment and siege which Villars tries to raise
117
Anecdotes illustrative of the chivalrous character of the age
118
Both armies expect another battle ib 38 Villars retires without fighting
120
The Allies are unable to reach Arras but besiege Bethune
122
Great skill with which Villars averted the invasion of France on this occa sion
123
Siege and fall of Bethune
124
Increasing animosity to Marlborough in England He intends to besiege Calais
125
Siege and capture of St Venant
126
And of Aire
127
Increase of Marlboroughs difficulties at home
129
General alarm at the augmentation of the public burdens ib 48 Argument of Bolingbroke on the subject
130
Real causes of the evils complained of
131
Envy of him among his own party
133
Final interview of the Queen and the Duchess of Marlborough
134
Appointment of the Duke of Shrewsbury as Lord Chamberlain by the Queen alone
135
Progress of the secret intrigue with Shrewsbury
136
Shrewsbury openly joins the Tories
137
Godolphins temporising conduct on hearing of the appointment
138
Marlboroughs views on hearing of the appointment
139
Renewed contest regarding Colonel Hills promotion
140
The Queen resolves to dismiss Lord Sunderland
141
Marlborough in vain applies to the Duke of Shrewsbury
143
The Queen persists in her resolution and Sunderland is dismissed and Lord Dartmouth appointed
145
Marlboroughs anxiety lest Parliament should be dissolved
146
Consequences of these changes in administration in England
147
Their effect on the Continent and the Emperors letter to Marlborough
148
Renewed altercation between the Duchess and the Queen
149
Queen Annes answer to the Duchess
150
Artful measures of Harley to divide the Whigs
151
Secret mission of Mr Cresset to Hanover who dies and Marlboroughs magnanimity on hearing of it
153
Noble conduct of Marlborough and his wise advice to the Duchess at this crisis
154
Harley and Mrs Masham resolve on Godolphins dismissal
156
Patriotic conduct of Godolphin and Marlborough on this occasion
157
Consternation of the Whigs and new ministry
159
Decision of Marlborough on this crisis
160
Sacheverells triumphant progress through the country
161
Parliament is dissolved and the Tories get a decided majority
162
Paltry difficulties thrown in the way of the completion of Blenheim
163
Attempts to gain over Marlborough to the Tories
164
Ungrateful reception of Marlborough by the ministers and the country
165
Dismissal of the Duchess of Marlborough
166
Marlborough with great reluctance withholds his intended resignation
167
Great achievements of Marlborough down to this time
168
CHAPTER IX
170
Commencement of the campaign of 1710 in Spain and defeat of Philip
171
Entry of Charles into Madrid and his cold reception there
172
Efforts of Philip and precarious situation of Charles at Madrid
173
Arrival of Noailles at Valladolid and great efforts of the Spaniards ib 6 Divisions and irresolution on the part of Charles at Madrid
174
The Portuguese government refuse to allow their troops to succour Charles VI
175
Vigorous measures of the French and retreat of Charles from Madrid
176
Attack on Stanhopes division at Brihuerga which is forced to capitu late
177
Battle of Villa Viciosa in which Vendôme is repulsed and subsequent disasters of the Allies
178
Great disasters in the retreat
179
Effects of these disasters on Marlborough who lands in Holland
180
Death of the Emperor Joseph and election of Charles VI as Emperor
181
Great lines constructed by Villars ib 16 Plan of the campaign
183
Appearance of the Pretender in the French army
184
Fatal separation of Eugene with his troops from Marlborough
185
Villars avoids a battle by orders of Louis
186
Who had begun a separate and secret negotiation with England
187
Preparations for executing it and deceiving the enemy
189
He passes the lines with entire success
190
Extraordinary success thus gained
191
Great fame earned by Marlborough by this exploit
193
Opinion of Rousset on this success
194
Commencement of the siege of Bouchain ib 29 Interesting operations on both sides during its progress
195
Fall of Bouchain
197
Reflections on this siege by a Hanoverian officer engaged in it
198
Ostensible preparations for war and real secret negotiations for peace by the ministry
199
Conditions of the preliminaries which were agreed to
200
Infamous libels with which Marlborough is assailed by the Tories
201
Malignant misrepresentation about the campaign of 1711
202
Marlboroughs letter to Oxford on these libels ib 37 Real object of the Tories in these attacks on Marlborough
203
Charges brought against Marlborough of having embezzled public money
204
Marlboroughs decisive refutation of the charge ib 40 Marlborough returns home deeply hurt at the clandestine accommodation
206
Marlboroughs noble speech in the House of Peers
207
Resolution carried against ministers in the Peers
208
Counter address carried in the Commons and irresolution of the Queen
210
Oxford dismisses Marlborough
211
Universal joy among the enemies of England at these measures
212
Marlboroughs noble letter to the Queen on his dismissal
213
Eugenes arrival in England and noble conduct
215
Machinations of the Tories to inflame the Queen against Marlborough
216
Louis rises in his demands at Utrecht which turns into a private treaty between France and England
217
Forces of the Allies and French in Flanders and desperate situation of Louis
218
The defection of Britain saves France
220
Siege and capture of Quesnoy
221
Eloquent speech of Lord Halifax against the Peace in the House of Peers
222
Marlboroughs speech in seconding the motion of Halifax
223
The Ministers falsely declare the Allies to be parties to the negotiation
224
Conditions of the treaty of Utrecht
225
Mournful separation of the English contingent from the Allies
226
Great difficulties now experienced in the negotiation with France
228
Landrecies is ineffectually besieged by Eugene
229
Villars destroys the detachment at Denain ib 62 Conclusion of the war between France and the Dutch at Utrecht
231
Austria continues the struggle and makes peace at Rastadt
232
Marlborough obtains passports and goes abroad
235
Death and character of Godolphin
236
Suspension of the building of Blenheim at the public expense
250
Dissension between Lady Masham and the Duchess of Somerset ib 7 And of Oxford and Bolingbroke in the cabinet
251
Strange mixture of parties in the Houses of Parliament
252
Contradictory measures of the Legislature in contemplation of a rupture
254
Marlboroughs conduct at this crisis
255
Mission of Mr Harley to the court of Hanover
256
Indecision of the court of Hanover and death of the Electress Sophia
257
Prudent conduct of the Elector at this crisis ib 14 Dismissal of Oxford and Bolingbroke intrusted with the formation of a ministry
258
Bolingbroke tries to form a ministry and his measures to bring in James
260
Counter measures of the Whigs and death of the Queen
261
Instantaneous measures of the Whigs to secure the succession
262
Marlborough lands at Dover and arrives in London ib 19 Marlborough resolves to hold no political situation under the new govern ment
263
George I forms a Whig administration and arrives in England
264
Bolingbroke and Ormond are outlawed and Oxford impeached
265
Marlboroughs prompt suppression of disaffection among the Guards ib 24 Commencement of the Rebellion in Scotland in 1715
268
The Earl of Mar raises the standard of rebellion at Braemar
269
Marlboroughs firm and prudent conduct on this crisis
270
Extent of the insurrection and measures of the Government
271
Early success of the insurgents
272
Movements in the south of Scotland and advance into England
274
Advance of the insurgents to Preston and their surrender there
275
Advance of Mar to Sheriffmuir
276
Commencement of the battle and success of Argyll on his right
277
Success of the insurgents on the right and in the centre
278
Indecisive result of the battle but which turns to the advantage of the English
279
Argyll is superseded in the command by Cadogan
280
Arrival of the Pretender in Scotland and his reception at Scone
281
Passing enthusiasm and real difficulties following on his arrival
282
Reembarkation of the Pretender and suppression of the insurrection ib 39 Conviction and sentence of Derwentwater c
284
Noble death of Derwentwater and Kenmure
285
Reflections on this subject and impolicy of death for political crimes
286
True way of dealing with such cases
287
Treachery of the English Government to the Catalans
289
Resolution and heroic efforts of the people
290
Arrival of the Duke of Berwick and forces of the besiegers
291
Preparations on both sides for the siege and opening of the trenches
292
Progress of the siege
293
Dreadful storm of the town ib 49 Humanity of Berwick to the besieged and termination of the War of the Succession
295
Biography of Marshal Berwick ib 51 His character
296
Last years of Louis XIV
297
His death
298
Fall of Bolingbroke at the court of the Pretender
299
Trial and acquittal of Oxford
301
Deaths of the Countess of Bridgewater and Countess of Sunderland
302
Marlborough is struck with palsy and his public life ended
303
His last years and death
304
And funeral
305
His place of interment in Westminster Abbey and at last at Blenheim
306
Marlboroughs fortune and will
307
Descent of the title and estates
308
Anecdote of a descendant of Marlborough at the battle of Fontenoy
309
Remarkable kindness of disposition in Marlborough
310
His character as a husband father and friend ib 66 His suavity of manners to all and its great effects on the Alliance
311
His humanity in war and care of his soldiers
312
His equanimity when assailed by his enemies and dismissed from office
313
Subsequent life and death of the Duchess of Marlborough
317
CHAPTER XI
319
Moral character of the Duke of Marlboroughs wars 819
320
Magnitude of the danger which threatened Europe if France had proved successful
321
Results which might have followed the triumph of France ib 5 Opposite sides on political questions on which the parties were ranged similar to what ...
322
Yet fundamentally the Allies and France were in both cases ranged on the same sides
323
Important difference in the parties by whom the war was opposed in the times of Marlborough and of Napoleon
324
State of the opposite parties in Great Britain since the Great Rebellion
325
The union of parties had brought about the Revolution
327
Dangers which flowed from the Revolution The funding system
328
General terrors it excited in Great Britain
329
Bolingbrokes account of its dangers
330
General corruption which was induced in the country
331
Bolingbrokes account of the general indignation at this demoralising system
333
His alarming picture of its effect on public morals
334
Strong principles of freedom and loyalty in the English character
335
Reaction of generous feelings in favour of the Tories in the advanced 18 Which distinctly appears in the votes and composition of the House of
336
Commons
337
Character of Bolingbroke
338
His inconsistencies and faults
340
Character of Harley Earl of Oxford
341
Swift and the Tory writers in the press
342
Feelings and principles of the High Tories in regard to the war
343
It was these causes which overturned Marlborough
344
Great violations of moral rectitude in the mode of their attack on Marl borough
345
What was the danger to be guarded against in the Peace
347
The result has proved the Tories were wrong in their policy regarding it
348
Disastrous effects and serious dangers to England which followed the leav ing a Bourbon on the Spanish throne
349
Examples of this in later times
350
These dangers have arisen solely from the Spanish alliance
351
France
353
Instance of the same political infatuation in our times
355
Results which have followed from it in the last instance
356
Strange insensibility to national sins which often prevails
357
Analogy between the situation of the Tories in the War of the Succession and the Whigs in that of the Revolution
359
Extraordinary coincidence in the crisis of the two contests
360
Real causes of this identity of conduct of the opposite parties on these occasions
361
Excuses which existed for the policy of the Tories at the Treaty of Utrecht from the dread of Spain
362
Bolingbrokes picture of the ruined state of the Spanish monarchy at this period
363
What course the Tories should have pursued at the Treaty of Utrecht
364
But no excuse can be found for our violation of the Treaty of Utrecht by the Quadruple Alliance in 1834
365
Answer to the common argument used in behalf of the Quadruple Alliance
367
Our active interference to put down Don Carlos and the male line was still more unjustifiable
368
What England should have done on the occasion
369
Just punishment we have now received ib 47 England has lost all title to complain of any violation of the Treaty of Utrecht
370
Great change which the substitution of the female line for the male in Spain made in this respect on the interests of other powers
372
CHAPTER XII
374
Nature of the feudal wars
375
Great change when armies were paid by Government
376
Turenne introduced this system and brought it to perfection
377
Character of Condé
378
Peculiar character of Marlborough as a general
379
His extraordinary prudence and address
380
Though inferior in force he always maintained the initiative
381
Nature of war in the time of Marlborough
382
Circumspection was in him a matter of necessity
383
He was compelled to adopt the system of sieges and fix the war in Flanders
384
Dangers of the opposite system
385
Reasons why Marlboroughs genius was underrated in his life
386
He was the perfection of genius matured by experience
387
His great address and suavity of manner
388
His character as a statesman
389
And in private
390
His political character after the Revolution ib 19 His faults and weaknesses
391
Circumstances which palliate these faults in him
392
2 His private character and elevated ideas in the disposal of money
393
His magnanimity and humanity
394
His character as drawn by Adam Smith and Bolingbroke
395
The five great generals of modern times
396
Leading characteristics of each
397
Character of Prince Eugene ib 27 His astonishing successes over the Turks
398
Narrow escape from ruin and wonderful victory at Belgrade
399
His character as a general and parallel to Napoleon
400
Daring and skill with which he extricated himself from dangers ib 31 Early life of Frederick the Great
401
His accession to the throne and vigorous application to its duties
402
His aggression on and conquest of Silesia and first victory at Mollwitz
404
His glorious successes over the Austrians
405
Who are at length obliged to make peace ib 36 His decided and indomitable character already appears
406
His great services to his kingdom during the next ten years of peace
407
Coalition of Austria Russia France Saxony and Sweden against Prussia
408
Frederick invades Saxony and conquers that country ib 40 Great effects of this stroke
409
He defeats the Austrians at Prague and is defeated at Kolin ib 42 Desperate situation of the Prussian monarchy
410
Fredericks marvellous victories at Rosbach and Leuthen
411
Disasters sustained by his troops in other quarters and victory of Zorndorf
412
Fredericks defeat at Hohenkirchen
413
Terrible battle of Cunnersdorf in which Frederick is defeated
414
Overwhelming misfortunes in other quarters
415
Victory of Frederick over Laudon at Liegnitz ib 49 Dreadful battle and victory of the Prussians at Torgau
416
Desperate state of Prussia at this time ib 51 Operations in the camp of Bunzelwitz in 1761
417
The death of the Empress of Russia restores his affairs
418
Wonderful result of the struggle
419
His character as a general
420
Comparison of Frederick and Napoleon
421
Their points of resemblance
422
Marlborough made more use of cavalry than Wellingtonand why
428
Napoleons and Hannibals opinion of cavalry
429
Marlborough was more successful than Wellington in sieges
430
Causes of this circumstance ib 67 Great and remarkable land triumphs of England over France
431
Long series of land disasters sustained by France from England
432
What have been the causes of this
434
Value of contemporary correspondence in establishing historic truth
435
Of Marlborough and Wellington ib 58 Points in which their situations differed 424
443
Marlborough threatens to resign
450
Its vast effect on Marlboroughs memory ib INDEX 437
458
He determines to resign if Mrs Masham is not removed
459
Increased virulence of the libels against Marlborough 233
460
But is persuaded to yield and is seemingly reconciled to the Queen
471

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Populære avsnitt

Side 87 - His fall was destined to a barren strand, A petty fortress, and a dubious hand; He left the name at which the world grew pale, To point a moral, or adorn a tale.
Side 339 - AWAKE, my St. John ! leave all meaner things To low ambition and the pride of kings.
Side 86 - Condemned a needy supplicant to wait, While ladies interpose, and slaves debate. But did not chance at length her error mend? Did no subverted empire mark his end? Did rival monarchs give the fatal wound? Or hostile millions press him to the ground?
Side 86 - The march begins in military state, And nations on his eye suspended wait; Stern Famine guards the solitary coast, And Winter barricades the realms of Frost; He comes...
Side 212 - Being informed that an information against the duke of Marlborough was laid before the house of commons, by the commissioners of the public accounts, her majesty thought fit to dismiss him from all his employments, that the matter might undergo an impartial investigation.
Side 144 - It is true, indeed, that the turning a son-in-law out of his office may be a mortification to the Duke of Marlborough ; but must the fate of Europe depend on that, and must he be gratified in all his desires, and I not in so reasonable a thing as parting with a man whom I took into my service with all the uneasiness imaginable...
Side 395 - By his death the Duke of Marlborough was raised to the head of the army, and indeed of the confederacy, where he, a new, a private man, a subject, acquired by merit and by management a more deciding influence, than high birth, confirmed authority, and even the crown of Great Britain, had given to King William.
Side 214 - ... my enemies have been able to prevail with your majesty, to do it in the manner that is most injurious to me. And if their malice and inveteracy against me had not been more powerful with them than the consideration of your majesty's honour and justice, they would not have influenced you to impute the occasion of my dismission, to a false and malicious insinuation contrived by themselves, and made public, when there was no opportunity for me to give in my answer...
Side 86 - On what foundation stands the warrior's pride, How just his hopes, let Swedish Charles decide. A frame of adamant, a soul of fire, No dangers fright him, and no...
Side 225 - Ormond's courage; but he was not like a certain general, who led troops to the slaughter, to cause a great number of officers to be knocked on the head, that he might fill his pockets by disposing of their commissions.

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