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in want, his master must supply him with the necessary provisions.
The exhibition which introduced this subject was as follows:- I was walking on the Boulevard with Mand her uncle, when the latter proposed to us to see the fire-establishment, which was close by; we readily assented, expecting merely to be shewn over the place, and to hear the system explained: as we entered the yard, however, the general made a sign to the watchman on the look-out tower, the latter touched the alarm-bell, and instantly all was in a state of activity. Men sprung out from every quarter, the engines were run out of the houses, horses were brought full trot out of the stables ready harnessed, and put to, and in the space of four minutes and a half from the original signal, fourteen vehicles, with thirty-three or thirty-four horses to them, were drawn up in a line in the yard ready to start. The machines consisted of fire engines, carriages conveying barrels full of water, ladders, and an apparatus for covering the walls and roofs of houses adjacent to the fire, with sail-cloth to protect them: the water-barrels are necessary, since there are no pipes and fire-plugs in a Russian town.
At a second signal from the Governor, the engines, &c., filed one after another out of the yard, and went slowly down the street, the men having taken their proper places upon them: at the further end of the street they turned, and came thundering back at full
- gallop: some of the machines were drawn by two, and others by three horses abreast, all strong and serviceable animals. When we expressed our admiration at the rapidity and alertness shown in getting the horses and engines ready for action, the General assured us, that so far from any preparation having been made, his appearance was totally unexpected, and that the day being a fête, all the men were absent who could be spared from duty; and the truth of this was proved by the arrival of the master of police at a gallop in his droschka, he being the chief of the fire-establishment, and having just been informed that the engines were rattling through the town, though whether for actual service, or, as was the case, merely for inspection by the Governor, he did not know till he arrived on the scene of action.
A few days after this we were invited to see an exhibition of the manner of proceeding and working the engines in case of a fire : but the display on this occasion was not nearlyso interesting to me, since every thing was prepared beforehand; while the activity on the former day furnished a proof of the real utility and good organization of the establishment, and of the efficiency and alertness of the men in a case of emergency. The powers of the engines, and the manner in which they were worked as displayed in this second exhibition, certainly could not be compared to the performances of London engines in the hands of London firemen; but I think that few
vincial towns in England could boast of superiority in these respects over Yaroslav. Besides the engines, the chief implements to be remarked were ladders divided for the convenience of packing like the parts of a telescope, and drawn out by pulleys, so as to reach when required to a very considerable height; grappling-irons for pulling down walls; and the apparatus which I have already mentioned of sail-cloth stretched on poles, which could be hoisted up like the sails of a ship, and placed in front of a house: there were also other pieces of sail-cloth for laying over roofs. These cloths, being kept constantly wet by means of the engines, form of course a great protection to the timber walls and boarded roofs which are so common in a Russian town: the houses are easily covered, being generally low, and frequently not more than one story in elevation. In St. Petersburg, the building wooden houses is now wisely forbidden
On the morning of the 21st, a gentleman, who was, like myself, on a visit here, proposed to me at breakfast to accompany him to the monastery of Tolga, about seven miles hence, where he was going to pay a visit to the ex-archbishop of Yaroslav,* a prelate who has resigned his episcopal functions, and who now lives in retirement in the convent. We went in a light low calêche belonging to my companion
* Every government in Russia is an episcopal or archiepiscopal See. No one but a monk can become a bishop.
with three horses abreast, or, as this is called in Russian, a troika. The horses had cost but five pounds each, yet we went sometimes at the rate of eighteen, and never less than fifteen miles an hour, the middle horse trotting all the time while the others galloped. A light open calèche is, in some respects, much better for Russian travelling than a close carriage, as it is less liable to upset in bad roads; and three or four horses being always sufficient to draw it no leaders are required, and, therefore, in going fast, the life of a postillion is not risked: for a long journey, however, especially with a lady, the comfort of a close carriage is very requisite.
The monastery being on the further side of the Volga, we crossed the river in a boat, and landed at the gate of the convent: the reaches of the river in both directions are here extremely fine, and the banks handsome and well wooded.
We were received by the archbishop, with whom we sat some time; however, as he only spoke Russ. the conversation lay entirely between him and my companion : he was dressed in a caftan or wrapper of darkcoloured silk, with a shawl sash round his waist, and a monk's cap of black velvet on his head: the monk's cap is in the shape of a hat without a rim, and is covered by a black hood hanging down behind. A Russian, on saluting or taking leave of a priest, always kisses his hand, while the priest in return makes the sign of the cross, and blesses him. After our visit to
the ex-archbishop, we proceeded to the church, which is old and curious, the walls and roof being entirely covered with paintings of saints, &c. In the corner of the church stood a man with wax candles for sale, two or three of which my companion, who is a very devout person, bought, and having lighted them before an image, he ordered a Te Deum,-a short service, which was performed by three monks, and for which he paid a fee of ten roubles. During the reading of a passage from the gospel, he bent himself in an attitude of the utmost humility under the book, so that it rested on his shoulders like the globe on an Atlas, and he continued in that position till the monk had done reading : he also paid great adoration to an image of the Virgin, which was over the altar, and to which he afterwards called my attention, it being remarkable, not only from its extreme richness, being set in a broad frame of pearls, the value of which must have been very great,—but still more in the eyes of the faithful, from a miraculous account of its origin.
After the service, some of the monks took us to see the treasures of the convent, consisting of robes for the archbishop, of velvet embroidered with gold, and others of cloth of gold, with mitres to match; many of them were very handsome, and some curious from their antiquity. There were also Bibles bound with gold and decorated with jewels; and gold chalices and crosses, with other