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able powers of annoyance, and fly from the Proof, 31. + 41. + 5l. = 121. the whole sight of man with the greatest rapidity and gain. alarm. But between man and the feline That is, if the total of all their particular tribe a contest for domivion is kept up gains amounts to the whole gain, the work over extensive regions of the globe, many is true ; if not, some mistake has been com. of them highly ornamented and productive, mitted. and calculated to become the abodes of Fellowship with time, usually called harmony and civilization,
the Double Rule of Fellowship, because FELLOWSHIP, or Company, in arith- every man's money is to be considered with metic, is when two or more join their stocks relation to the time of its continuance in and trade together, dividing their gain or the joint stock. It is worked thus: multiloss proportionably.
ply each man's stock by the respective time Fellowship is either with or without time, he puts it in for, and add all the products, Questions without time, or in the single
the total of which must be your tirst numrule of fellowship, as it is frequently called, her through all the statings; the gain or are wrought by the following proportion. loss the second, as before, and each man's
As the whole stock to the whole gain or particular stock, multiplied by its time, the loss, so is each man's particular stock to his
third. particular share of gain or loss.
Note, the times, and sams, (if not so Suppose three partners, A, B, and c, given) must be reduced into one denominamake a joint stock in this manner: A puts tion, i, e. all years, all months, all weeks, or in 241.; B, 32.; and C, 401.; in all 961.; all days, &c. with which they trade, and gain 121.; re- Ex. Three merchants, A, B, and C, enquired each man's true share of that gain? ter into partnership thus: A puts into the The first operation for A's part of the gain stock 65l. for cight months ; B puts in 781. will stand thus :
for twelve months; and C puts in 84l, for
six months: with this joint stock they traf£. £. £. £.
fic, and gain 1661. 128. : it is required to 96 : 12 :: 24 : 3 = A's gain.
find each man's strase of the gain propor96 : 12 :: 32 : 4 = B's gain.
tionable to his stock and time of employ96 : 12 :: 40 : 5 = C's gain.
The sum of all those products is 1960
The whole gain = 166 .. 12 .. 0
FELO de se, in law, one who is felon of it by survivorship. The Coroner must find himself; i. e. being of sound memory, and the fact upon an inquest, on view of the of the age of discretion, or 14 years, kills body, in order to vest the goods in the himself. All his chattels, real and personal, King. are forfeited to the crown, when it is found This law is, in our opinion, hard and unby the Coroner that he is felo de se; a will, just: if a man is determined to commit suitherefore, made by him, is void as to his cide, human laws can have no hold upon personal estate, but not as to his land or him; and the cruelty of punishing the dereal estate; nor is his wife barred of her scendant for the act of the father, is so gedower. If a man and his wife are possessed nerally acknowledged, that where the party of a term, and the man commit suicide, the has any thing to forfeit, it is either found hiterm is forfeited, and the wife shall not have nacy, or the crowo gives up the forfeiture
upon petition. The further punishment of formed with greater difficulty. The hair a felo de se is, to be buried in a highway, intended for the manufacturing of hats is and a stake run through the body. This always cut off with a sharp instrument, and being never practised but upon the poor, is not pulled out by the roots, because the become merely an odious distinction. The bulb of the hair, which would come out law of the Romans seems more reasonable, with it in the latter case, would render the which only forfeited the estate where the end which was fixed in the skin very obparty killed himself to avoid punishment tuse, and nearly destroy its disposition to for a crime.
unite with the adjacent hairs. The hairs FELONY, in the general acceptation of should not be straight like needles, for then law, comprises every species of crime which there would be no compactness in the stuff. occasions, at common law, the forfeiture of The fibres of wool baving naturally a crook. land or goods. The punishment of a per- ed form, that substance is well adapted to son for felony, by our ancient books, is, ist, the operation of felting. The hair of bea. to lose his life; 2dly, to lose his blood, as vers, rabbits, hares, &c., being straight, can. to his ancestry, and so to have neither heir
not be used in felting, till it has been prenor posterity; 3dly, to lose his goods; pared for the purpose. Athly, to lose his lands, and the King shall FEMME covert, in law, a married wo• have year, day, and waste, to the intent man, so called from being under the cover, that his wife and children be cast out of the protection, and influence of her husband. honse, his house pulled down, and all that FEMME sole, in law, a single or unmarhe had for his comfort and delight destroy. ried woman. ed. A felony, by statute, incidentally im- FEMME sole truder, a married woman plies, that the offender shall be subject to wbo, by the custom of London, trades on the like attainder and forfeiture, &c., as is her own account, independent of her hus. incident to a felon at common law. This band; who, by the same custom, is anis now the punishment in case of a capital swerable for her own debts, and may be felony only; but for some offences benefit made a bankrupt. of clergy is allowed, when the offence is pu- FEMININE, in grammar, one of the nished only with transportation, imprison- genders of nouns. As there are but two ment, &c. which are called felonies with sexes, so, in fact, there can be but two genbenefit of clergy; but the goods and estate ders. of the felon are forfeited as in cases of capi. The feminine gender serves to intimate tal felony.
that the noun belongs to the female. In FELT, in commerce, a sort of stuff, de. Latin, the feminine gender is most comriving all its consistence merely from being monly distinguished by the article hæc, as fulled, or wrought with lees and size, with it is in the Greek by the article In the out either spinning or weaving. Felt is made French, the article la commonly denotes either of wool alone, or of wool and hair. this gender; but we have no such distinc
FELTING, the method of working up tion by articles in the English language. hair or wool into a species of cloth, inde- FEMINEUS fos, a female flower. By pendently of either spinning or weaving. A this name Linnæus den nates a flower hatter separates the hairs from each other which is furnished with the pistillum, or feby striking the wool with the string of his male organ of generation, but wants the bow, causing them to spring up in the air, stamina or male organ. Female flowers which fall on the table in every direction, may be produced apart from the male, eiwhich is covered by the workman with ther on the same root, or on distinct plants. cloth, pressing it with his hands, and mov- The birch and mulberry are exainples of ing the hairs backwards and forwards in the first case; willow and poplar of the sedifferent directions. In this manner the cond. Male and female flowers separated hairs are brought against each other, and on the same plant, constitute the class Motheir points of contact considerably multi- noecia of Linnæus ; separated on distinct plied, and the agitation gives each hair a roots, the class Dioecia. progressive motion towards the root, in FEN, a place overflowed with water, or consequence of which the hairs become abounding with bogs; the term is also aptwisted together. As the mass becomes plied to such boggy lands as are naturally compact, the pressure should be increased, disposed to produce coarse vegetables from in order to keep up the progressive motion the retention of water. In many parts of and twisting of the hairs, which is then per the kingdom since the introduction of a
laudable spirit of improvement in agricul- physical properties of their bodies. Their ture, much valuable land has been redeemed teachers and their imitators have, therefore, both in England and Ireland from bogs and been loud in its praises, asserting that the fens. There are, however, vast tracts of art should be tauglit in every polite acadeland of this kind still in different districts, my, that the figure may be formed into comin Lincolnshire, Lancashire, Cambridge- plete grace by the active movements of the shire, and the West of England. In short, limbs and body in every possible position. there are but few counties without them, The professors divide fencing inlo two which, by proper inclosing, draining, pair- paris, which they distinguish from each ing and burning, and the growth of suitable other by terming the first simple, and the crops, might be rendered highly valuable; second compound, the first they perform but which at present afford little except instantaneously and actively on the same reeds, sedge, or rusbes and coarse grass. line, either on the offensive or defensive.
FENCE, in country affairs, a hedge, wall, The principle on which they act, in this inditch, bank, or other inclosure, made around stance, is to push or make passes in any gardens, woods, corn-fields, &c. See Agri direction, to strike the least guarded part
of the adversary, at the same time endeaFENCING, is the manner of attacking vouring to parry his thrusts. an adversary with the sword, and defending Compound fencing consists of every dethe person from his thrusts. It is necessary scription of feint appeals, entangling of in acquiring this difficult art to use foils, foils, slashing, half thrusts, &c. contrived to or small thin swords, which being blunted distract the attention of the enemy, and at the points, and bending readily, prevents thus suddenly and unexpectedly to reach accidental wounds. The gladiators, who that spot which he skilfully defends in simwere compelled to sacrifice their lives for ple fencing; but the utmost care must be the amusement of the Romans, received in- used to push at the proper moment when structions in the use of the sword in order parrying. to lengthen the diversion of their cruel mas- FEND, in the sea language, imports the ters, who were fearful that sudden rage same as defend : thus, fending the boat, is might otherwise prompt an abrupt termina saving it from being dashed to pieces against tion of the combat. Kennet says, “Before the rocks, shore, ship's sides. And hence the combatants fell to it in earnest they FENDERS are pieces of old hawsers, tried their skill against one another with cable-ropes, or billets of wood, hung over more harmless weapons, as the rudes, and the ship's sides, to keep other ships from the spears without heads, the blunted rubbing against and injuring her. swords, the foils, and such like.” To this FENNEL. See ANETHUM. Cicero admirably alludes, “ If in the mor- FEODAL, or Feudal system. This tal combats of the glavliators, where the vic- system griginated from an assumed right tory is decided by arms, before they actually obtained by conquest. When the Roman engage, there are several flourishes given empire began to decline and that governmore for a shew of art than a design of ment became too feeble to support its most hurting; how much more proper would this distant possessions, the Celtic nations taklook in the contention of an orator."
ing advantage of the reduced state of their Fencing was indispensible to almost all various military posts marched in such numranks of people, long after armies had bers through the southern parts of Europe ceased to use swords in the field of battle, that opposition was deemed vain, and these. through the absurd fashion of wearing side northern hordes of Lombards, Franks, Huns, arms; when men of turbulent dispositions Goths, and Vandals conquered them with. might have immediate recourse to weapons out difficulty. Acting upon their previous it becamie necessary for the peaceable citi. policy, they immediately introduced the zen to learn the best mode of defence, that military practice they had adopted towards he might not perish for an offence which their enemies, which was the general confiswould end at present in altercation. Dur. cation of land to the use of the most powering the long period this supposed ornament fal chiefs ; those for obvious motives distriof the person was worn, numerous masters buted portions to enterprising subordinates, brought the art of using it to great perfec- and even to the common soldier who had tion; but the French appear to have excel. earned laurels in their predatory wars. The led every other nation in fencing, which may grants thus made were conditional, and be attributed in a great measure to the called feoda, feuds, fiefs, or fees, which words
imply the receipt of a reward given for past, that as they were scattered at remote disand to secure future services ; it might, in- tances throughout the country, and forbid. deed, be considered an actual sale of the den by law from committing hostilities, they person for military purposes, and the bar- had nothing to apprehend from their resentgain became void by the land reverting to ment. The folly and barbarity of this con the first possessor, if the party refused to duct can only be accounted for by the conmarch, or fled from his chief in battle; but summate ignorance and brutality of all this, or similard ishonourable conduct, was classes of men, who inured to rapine, infurther guarded against by an oath of justice, and bloodshed, paid homage to fealty.
power alone, rejecting the sacred claims of Viewing this system only in the light of a property, and despising all other merit be. firm bond of union subsisting between bar- sides that of courage; the necessary consebarians, it must be admitted that a better quence was, that the prince courted the could not well be devised, as the chief held most valiant and powerful of his chiefs, and officers of trust to his interest, by combin- neglected the allodial proprietors in proporing it with their own, and the vassals of the tion, because he could derive no advantage latter had an equally just reason to rely on from them; they in return became com. the fidelity of others, who held land under pletely disgusted with their situation, and their fee. The necessity of preserving wearied by the neglect of the monarch, their conquests rather than any generous the destruction of their property without principle towards each other, evidently hope of redress, and continual insults, they dictated the feodal system, and it was ren- finally determined to solicit common protecdered almost impossible by this means that tion, by resigning their lands to those lords insurrections of the conquered nations who would deign to return them as feodal should succeed, or that foreign armies tenures; such was the effect of this cruel could have the least chance of success when system of plunder which made ficfs uniopposed to a prince at the head of his feu- versal. datories; hence the nations thus constituted, The advocates for a state of society so became powerful in the aggregate, and constituted, urge with some degree of jus. every individual, oppressed by his lord, bad tice, that a feudal lord, surrounded by his a common claim for redress from the low vassals, resembled the father of a numerous est feudatory in gradation to the chief, family, each reciprocally benefiting the otherwise the whole fabric must have fallen other, and this was certainly the fact in into ruin. Exclusive of the feodal grants, some particular cases, when the lord hapthere were others, termed allodial, which, pened to be of a benevolent disposition and though not free from military service, were dispensed his favours liberally, such a man given upon more liberal principles than the deserved, and perhaps received, gratitude former, by those all free men had a right to equivalent, and hence originated feodal inci. dispose of their territory. In order to se- dents. The expectants of fiefs, before they cure the prompt assistance of this descrip- were hereditary, and the heirs afterwards, tion of persons, they were invited by a sort educated under his immediate inspection, of honourable liberty to defend the country were attached to him as if they had been in battle, which was denied to the slaves, his own offspring, and received their lands who were compelled to follow what was when of age, with a determination to dethen thought the inglorious arts of peace, fend luis interest to the utmost of their abi. These allodial proprietors composed a nati- lity, in return for his careful and paternal onal militia, and had the privilege of pos- wardship, which they further demonstrated sessing moveables and money, a circun- by a grateful present on taking possession. stance which compelled them to take the The former was called the incident of wardfield at the requisition of the sovereign, ship, and the latter the incident of relief. when the country was in danger; but they There was also an incident of marriage, were exempt from interfering in the dis- which was founded upon the same principle putes of feudal lords, and this exemption as that of reliefs ; this operated to prevent operated at length in subverting all their alliances with the family or vassals of inimiadvantages, being independent of either cal chiefs, and induced the lord to find party, both the lords and their vassals viewed such persons for his wards as would promote them with jealousy, and each presuming his own future advantage. npon their inability to protect themselves, The incident of aid, is explained by the injured and insulted them, well knowing term; in this case all vassals were com
pelled to assist their lord, whether his mis- no means perfected. There remains a very fortupes were caused by extravagance, or material ceremony to be performed, called losses by war,
livery of seisin, without which the feoffee The incident of escheat has been already hath but a mere estate at will. Livery in poticed, and took place upon the default of deed is the actual tradition of the land, and the vassal in his customary service.
is made either by the delivery of a branch of It will be observed, that this system de. a tree or a turf of the land, or some other pended solely on high conceptions of ho- thing, in the name of all the lands and nour, while the chief made it apparent that tenements contained in the deed; and it he gloried in the fidelity and happiness of may be made by words only, without the his vassals, they felt equal pride in supporto delivery of any thing, as if the feoffer upon ing his splendor, and in endeavouring to the land, or at the door of the house, says elevate his consequence beyond that of his to the feoffee, “I am content that you neighbour; but when the lord ceased to should enjoy this land according to the value the lives and property of his vassals, deed." This is a good livery to pass the and made 'both subservient to purposes of freehold. The livery within view, or the mere ambition and avarice, the feodal sys. livery in law, is when the feoffer is not actem began to tremble to its base; wardship tually on the land, or in the house, but instead of being as before mutually advan- being in sight of it, says to the feoffee, tageous, was then rendered the means of “ I give you yonder house, or land, go and filling the coffers of the lord, and the ward enter into the saine, and take possession of was sometimes ransomed to prevent worse it accordingly:" This livery in law cannot consequences : the result is obvions, the be given or received by an attorney, as vassals received their inheritance almost ex. livery in deed may; but only by the parhausted, and viewed the incidents as so ties themselves. A feoffment cannot be many lawless exactions, by which they made of a thing of which livery cannot be might be stripped of large sums in reliefs
, given, as of incorporeal inheritances
, such married to whom the lord pleased, purchase as rent, advowson, common, &c. Thougla the freedom of marrying, or lose his land it be an advowson, &c. in gross. A man if he did neither. The aid which had been may either give or receive livery in deed, given as a tribute of gratitude on the mar- by letter of attorney; for since a contract riage of the eldest daughter of the chief; is no more than the consent of a man's mind when his heir received the distinction of to a thing, where that consent or concur. knighthood; or when the lord was made
rence appears, it were most unreasonable to prisoner, was demanded as a tax on the oblige each person to be present at the most bivial pretences; nor were escheats execution of the contract, since it may as confined to real causes of forfeiture ; on the well be performed by any other person decontrary, every venial offence, entirely legated for that purpose, by the parties to out of contemplation in the original com- the contract. pact, was converted into a crime, and pro
FERÆ, in natural history, an order of uomced just reasons for seizure. In this quadrupeds, of which the distinguishing wretched situation, disheartened by op- characters are, fore-teeth conic, usually six pression, and unable to resist without virtue in each jaw; tusks longer ; grinders with ally resigning the whole of their property, conic projections ; feet with claws ; claws by that single act the vassals shrunk from subulate; food carcases and preying on the firm attitude they had assumed in bat- other animals : this order comprehends the tle, when fighting by the side of a generous following genera: chief into the inertness of slaves, who, burning with secret latred, often com
Phoca, mitted military errors purposely, equally
Didelphis, Sorex, involving their sovereigns and their own
Erinaceus, Talpa, safety; from this cause knights' service had
Viverra, its origin. See KNIGHT service.
Mustela, Ursus, FEOFFMENT, in law, may be defined
which see. to be the gift of any corporeal purditament FERÆ natura. Animals feræ naturæ, to another. He that so gives or enfeoffs is of a wild nature, are those in which a man called the feoffer; and the person enfeoffed hath not an absolute, but only a qualified is denominated the feoffee. But by the and limited property, which sometimes mere words of the deed the feoffinent is by subsists, and at other times doth not sub