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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
This Department is under the charge of the Commissioner of Agriculture.
The general design and duties of this Department are to acquire and diffuse among the people of the United States useful information on subjects connected with agriculture, and to procure, propagate, and distribute among the people new and valuable seeds and plants.
The Commissioner of Agriculture is not a member of the President's Cabinet, although at the head of a Department.
It is the duty of the Commissioner of Agriculture to procure and preserve all information concerning agriculture which he can obtain by means of books, correspondence, and by practical and scientific experiments, accurate records of which experiments shall be kept in his office, and by the collection of statistics, and any other appropriate means within his power; to collect new and valuable seeds and plants, which he shall test by cultivation, and propagate such as may be worthy of propagation, and shall distribute them among agriculturists. The purchase and distribution of seeds shall be confined to such seeds as are rare and uncommon to the country, or such as can be made more profitable by frequent changes from one part of our own country to another; and the purchase, propagation, and distribution of trees, plants, shrubs, vines, and cuttings shall be confined to such as are adapted to general cultivation, and to promote the general interests of horticulture and agriculture throughout the United States. He has charge of the investigation of
the diseases of swine, and infectious and contagious diseases to which all other classes of domesticated animals are subject; for which purpose the sum of $10,000 was appropriated by the act of June 21, 1879.
Also, of the investigation into the habits of the cotton-worm and other insects injurious to the cotton-plant and to agriculture, with a view of preventing their injuries, for which purpose the sum of $5000 was appropriated by the same act of Congress.
The following subordinate officers and employés are provided for the Department of Agriculture:
THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.
UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT. The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices.
The Chief Justice receives $10,500 a year, and the Associate Justices $10,000 a year each.
A Clerk and a Marshal are appointed by the Court.
The Clerk receives fees for the performance of the duties of his office; and, unlike other court clerks, there is no maximum fixed of the amount of fees to be retained by him.
The Marshal receives $3000 a year. A Reporter is appointed, whose salary is $2500 a year, and $1500 additional when he shall publish a second volume of the Supreme Court decisions.
The Supreme Court must hold one regular term a year, commencing on the second Monday in October, and such special terms as may be necessary.
JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME
Exclusive jurisdiction of all controversies of a civil nature where a State is a party, except between a State and its citizens, or between a State and citizens of other States, or aliens, in which latter cases it shall have original but not exclusive jurisdiction.
Exclusively of suits or proceedings against ambassadors, or other public ministers, or their domestic servants; and original but not exclusive jurisdiction of all suits brought by ambassadors or other public ministers, or in which a consul or vice-consul is a party.
It has power to issue writs of prohibition in the District Courts when proceeding as courts of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, and writs of mandamus in cases warranted by the principles and usages of law, to any United States courts, or to persons holding office under
UNITED STATES CIRCUIT COURTS.
The judicial districts of the United States are divided into nine circuits, as follows:
The first circuit includes the districts of Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine.
The second, Vermont, Connecticut, and New York.
The third, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware.
The fourth, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.
The fifth, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas.
The sixth, Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, and Tennessee.
The seventh, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin.
The eighth, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Arkansas.
The ninth, California, Oregon, and Nevada.
The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court are allotted among the circuits by an order of the Court.
For each circuit a circuit judge is appointed, with a salary of $6000 a year.
Circuit courts are held by the circuit justice or by the circuit judge of the circuit, or by the district judge sitting alone or by any two of the said judges sitting together.
The Chief Justice and each Justice of the Supreme Court must attend at least one term of the Circuit Court in each
district of the circuit to which he is allotted during every two years.
by law, and concurrent jurisdiction with the District Courts of crimes and offences
A clerk is appointed for each Circuit | cognizable therein. Court by the circuit judge.
JURISDICTION OF CIRCUIT COURTS.
First. Of all suits of a civil nature where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum of $500, and an alien is a party, or between citizens of different States.
Second. Of all suits in equity, of $500, and the United States are petitioners.
Third. Of all suits at common law by United States officers.
Fourth. Suits under import, internal revenue, and postal laws.
By an act to determine the jurisdiction of Circuit Courts of the United States, and for other purposes, approved March 3, 1875, it was provided:
That the Circuit Courts of the United States shall have original cognizance, concurrent with the courts of the several States, of all suits of a civil nature at common law or in equity, where the matter in dispute exceeds, exclusive of costs, the sum or value of $500, and arising under the Constitution or laws of the United States, or treaties made or which shall be made, under their authority, or in which the United States are plaintiffs or petitioners, or in which there shall be a controversy
Fifth. Suits for the enforcement of penalties as to laws regulating the carriage of passengers in merchant vessels. Sixth. Suits and proceedings for condemnation of property used for insurrec-between citizens of different States, or a tionary purposes.
Seventh. Suits arising under laws relating to the slave-trade.
controversy between citizens of the same State, claiming lands under grants of different States, or a controversy between citizens of a State and foreign states, citizens, or subjects, and shall have ex
Eighth. Suits on debenture, customs duties. Ninth. Suits under the patent or copy-clusive cognizance of all crimes and right laws.
Tenth. Suits by or against National banks.
Eleventh. Suits to enjoin the Comptroller of the Currency.
Twelfth. Suits for injuries on account of acts done under laws of the United States for protection or collection of the revenues, or to enforce the rights of citizens of the United States to vote in the several States.
Thirteenth. Suits to recover offices where the question arises out of the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Fourteenth. Suits for removal of officers holding contrary to the fourteenth amend
Fifteenth. Suits for penalties under laws to enforce the elective franchise.
Sixteenth. Suits to redress deprivation of rights secured by the Constitution and laws.
Seventeenth. Suits on account of injuries by conspirators in certain cases. Eighteenth. Suits against any person having knowledge of a conspiracy and neglects or refuses to prevent the same. Nineteenth. Suits against officers and owners of vessels.
Twentieth. Of all crimes and offences cognizable under authority of the United States, except where otherwise provided
offences cognizable under the authority of the United States, except as otherwise provided by law, and concurrent jurisdiction with the District Courts of the crimes and offences cognizable therein. But no person shall be arrested in one district for trial in another in any civil action before a Circuit or District Court. And no civil suit shall be brought before either of said courts against any person by any original process or proceeding in any other district than that whereof he is an inhabitant, or in which he shall be found at the time of serving such process, or commencing such proceeding, except as provided; nor shall any Circuit or District Court have cognizance of any suit founded on contract in favor of an assignee, unless a suit might have been prosecuted in such court to recover thereon if no assignment had been made, except in cases of promissory notes negotiable by the law merchant and bills of exchange. And the Circuit Courts shall also have appellate jurisdiction from the District Courts under the regulations and restrictions prescribed by law.
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTS.
The United States are divided into judicial districts.
The States of California, Connecticut,
Clerks receive $3500 a year each, made up of fees.
Fourth. Of all suits brought at common law by the United States.
Fifth. Of all suits in equity to enforce the lien of the United States upon any real estate for any internal revenue tax.
Sixth. Of all suits for the recovery of any forfeiture or damages for frauds against the United States.
Seventh. Of all causes of action arising under the postal laws.
Eighth. Of all causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; and of all seizures on land and on waters not within admiralty jurisdiction, and of all prizes.
Ninth. Of all proceedings for the condemnation of property taken as prize, except property used for insurrectionary purposes.
Tenth. Of all suits by the assignee of any debenture for drawback of duties. Eleventh. Of all suits on account of injuries by conspirators in certain cases.
Twelfth. Of all suits to redress deprivation of rights secured by the Constitution and laws.
Thirteenth. Of all suits to recover offices, except of electors of President and Vice-President, Representatives, or Delegate in Congress, or member of a State legislature.
Fourteenth. Of all suits for the removal from office of any person, except a member of Congress, or of a State legislature, contrary to the fourteenth amendment of the Constitution.
Fifteenth. Of all suits by or against National banks.
Sixteenth. Of all suits brought by any alien for a tort only in violation of the rights of nations, or of a treaty of the United States.
Seventeenth. Of all suits against con
In general the Court of Claims has jurisdiction of all claims founded upon any law of Congress, or upon any regulation of an Executive Department, or upon any contract, expressed or implied, with the Government of the United States, and all claims which may be referred to it by either House of Congress.
SUPREME COURT OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
This Court consists of a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices.
The Chief Justice receives annually $4500.
The Associate Justices receive annually, each $4000.
This Court possesses the same powers and exercises the same jurisdiction as the Circuit Courts of the United States.
Any one of the justices may hold a special term, with the same powers and
jurisdiction possessed and exercised by District Courts of the United States.
Any one of the justices may hold a criminal court for the trial of all crimes and offences arising within the District.
This Court has jurisdiction of actions, suits, etc., in equity and law arising under the copyright and patent laws; also of bankruptcy cases, and of divorces.
Original process is confined to inhabitants of the District of Columbia, or to persons found within it.
It has power to proceed in all common law and chancery causes.
It shall not hold original plea of any debt or damage in cases within the jurisdiction given to justices of the peace under $50.