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peers, and probibit the crown from making any new creations except to replace extinct families. On this question he was op. posed by Addison, but Steele bad the advantage in point of argument, and the bill was thrown out. In this coniroversy, Addison is said to have sneered at his friend under the pame of * Little Dicky. The allusion, bowever, has been misunderstood, as Lord Macaulay maintains; the matter is doubiful; but the friends had parted never to meet againy: Addisoit sunk into liis premature grave before any reconciliation took place. Next year, Sieele lonourably distinguished himself against the South-sea Scheme; he again ivok an active part in theatrical affairs, and wrote his comedy of the Conscious Lovers' (1722); but liis pecuniary difficulties increased, and lie retired to a seat in Wales, left him by his second wife, where he died on the 1st of September 1729. He was almost forgotten by liis contemporaries ; but posterity has done justice to liis talents anú virtues-10 bis overflowing kindness of heart, and the spontaucous graces and charm of liis writings.
As an essayist, Sieele is remarkable for the vivacity and ease of his composition. He tried all subjects; was a humorist, a satirist, a critic, and story-teller. His Inkle and Yarico, and other tales in the *Tatler' and 'Spectator,' are exquisite for their simple pathos. His pictures of life and society have the stamp of reality. They are often imperfectly finished, and present trival and incongruous details, but they abound in inimitable touches. His elevated conception of the female character has justly been remarked as distinguishing bim from most writers of his age. His gallantry to women was a pure and chivalrous devotion. Of one lady he said that to love her was & liberal education'--one of the most felicitous compliments ever paid. Steele had also great fertility of invention, both as respects incident and character. His personages are drawn with dramatic spirit, and with a liveliness and airy facility that blind the reader to bis defects of style. The Spectator Club, with its fine portraits of Sir Roger de Coverley, Sir Andrew Freeport, Will Honeycomb, &c., will ever remain a monument of the felicity of lvis fancy, and his power of seizing upon the shades and peculiarities of character. If Addison lieighteneil the humour and interest of the different scenes, to Steele belongs the merit of the original design, and the tirst conception of the actors.
The following extracts will shew something of Steele's manner, though not his versatility:
Love, Grief, and Death. The first sense of sorrow I ever knew was upon the death of my father, at which time I was not quite five years of age; but was rather amazed at what all the house meant, than possessed with a real understanding why nobody was willing to play with me. I remember I went into the room where his body lay, and my mother cat weeping alone by it. I had my battledoor in my hand, and fell a-beating the cofin, and calling · Pupa,' for I kuow not how I had some sligut idea that he was locked
up therc, My mother catched me in her arms, and transported beyond all patience cf the silent grief she was before in, she alınost smothered my in her embrace, and told mc, in a food of tears, papa could not hear me, and woulc play with me no Izore, for they were going to put him under ground, whence he would never come to u: acaia. Sore was a very beautiful woman, of a noble spirit, and there was a dig. nity in hcr gricf amidst all the wildness of her transport, which metliought struck me with an iustiuct of sorrow, which, before I was sensibio what it was to grieve, reiz d my vory soul, and las made pity thc weakness of iny heart cver since. The mind in irfar:cy is, methiuks, like the body in embryo, and receives impressions so forcible that they are as hard to be removed by reason as any mark with which a child is boru is to be taken away by any future application.
Agreeable Companions and Flatterers.
An old acquaintance who met me this morning seemed overjoyed to see me, and told me I looked as well as he had known me do these forty years; but, continued he, not quite the man you were when we visited together at Lacy Brightly's. Oh! Isaac, those days are over. Do you think there are any such fine creatures now livjug as we then conversed with ? He went on with a thousand incoherent circuinstances, which, in his imagination, must needs please inc; but they had the guite contrary effect. The flattery with which he began, in telling me liow well I wore was not disagreeable ; but liis indiscreet mention of a set of acquaintance we had Outiived, recalled ten thousand things to my memory, which made me reflect upon my present condition with regret. Blad he indeed been so kind as, after a long absenice, to felicitate ine upon an indolent and easy old age, and mentioned how much hic and I had to thank for, who at our time of day could walk firmly, cat heartily, ard converse cheerfully, he had kept up my pleasure in myself. But of all mankind, there are none so shocking as these injudicions civil people. They ordinarily begin upon solnething that they know must be a satisfactiou; but then, for fear of the imputation of Nattery, they follow it with the last thing in fhe world of which you would be reminded. It is this that perplexes civil persons. The reason that there is such a general outcry anong us against fiatterers, is, that there are so very few good ones. It is the nicest art in this life, and is a part of eloquence which does not want the preparation that is necessary to all other parts of it, that your audience should be your well-wishers; for pruise from an enemy is the most pleasing of all commendations.
It is generally to be observed, that the person most agreeable to a man for a constancy, is be that has no shining qualities, but is a certain degree above great iinperfections, whom he can live with as his inferior, and who will either overlook or not observe his little defects. Such an easy companion as this, either now and then throws ont a little flatterv. or lets a man silently flatter himself in his superiority to him. If you take notice, there is hardly a rich man in the world who has not such a led friend of small consideration, who is a darling for his insignificancy. It is a great case to have one in our own shape a species below us, and who, without being Histid in our service, is by nature of our retinue. These dependents are of excellent use on a rainy day, or when a inan has not a mind to dress, or to exclude sol.tude. when one las neither a mind to that nor to company. There are of this good-natured order who are so kind to divide themselves, and do these good oftices to many. Five or six of them visit a whole quarter of the town, and exclude the spl en, without fues, from the families they frequent. If they do not prescribe physic, they can be company when you take it. Very great benefactors to the rich, or those whom they call people at their ense, are you persons of 10 consequence. I have known soine of them, by the help of a litle cunring, make delicious flatterers. They know the course of the town, and the genarai characters of persons; by this means they will soinctimes tell the most agreeable falschoods imaginable. They will aequaint you that such one of a quite contrary party said, that though you were cogaged in airI rent interests, yet he had the greatest respect for your good sense and address. When one of these has a little cunning, he passes his time in the utmost satisfaction to himself and his friends; for his position is never to report or speak a displeasing thing to his frierd. As for letting him go on in an error, he kuows advice against lhem is the office of persons of greater talents and less discretion,
The Latiu word or a flatterer (assentator) implies no wore than a person that
them in this frierd. "Feuds; for his ring, he pass
barely consents; and indeed such a one, if a inan were able to purchase or maintain lim, cannot be bought too dear. Such a one never contradicts you, but gains upon you, not by a fulsome way of commending you in broad terms, but liking whatever you propose or utter; at the same time is ready to beg your pardon, and gainsay you If you chance to speak ill of yourself. An old lady is very seldom without such a companion as this, who can recite the names of all her lovers, and the matches refused by her in the days when she minded such vanities - as she is pieased to call them, though she so much approves the mention of them. It is to be noted, that a woman's flatterer 'is generally elder than herself, her years serving to recominend her patroness's age, and to add weight to her complaisance in all other particulars.
We gentlemen of small fortunes are extremely necessitous in this particular. I have indeed one who smokes with me often; but his parts are so low, that all the inceuse he does me is to fill his pipe with me, and to be out at just as many whiffs 18 I take. This is all the praise or absent that he is capable of, yet there are more hours when I would rather be in his company than that of the brightest man I know. It would be a hard matter to give an account of this inclination to be flattered; but if we go to the bottom of it, we shall find that the pleasure in it is something like that of receiving money which lay out. Every man thinks he has an estate of reputation, and is glad to see one that will bring any of it home to him; it is no matter how dirty a bag it is conveyed to him in, or by how clownish a messenger, so the money is good. All that we want to be pleused with flattery, is to believe that the man is sincere who mives it us. It is by this one accident that absurd creatures often outrun the most skilful in this art. Their want ot ability is here an advantage, and their bluntuess, as it is the seeming citect of sincerity, is the best cover to artifice.
It is, indeed, the greatest of injuries to flatter any but the unhappy, or such as are displeased with themselves for some infirmity. In this latter case we have a member of our clul, that, when Sir Jeffrey falls aleep, wakeng him with suoring. This makes Sir Jeffrey hold up for some moments the longer, to see there are men younger than himself among us, who are more lethargic than he is.
When flattery is practised upon any other consideration, it is the most ahject thing iu nature; pay, I cannot think of any character below the flatterer, except he that envies him. You meet with tellows prepared to be as mean as possible in their condescensions and expressions; but they want persons and talents to rise up to such a basences. As a coxcomb 18 a fool of parts, so a flatterer is a knave of parts.
The best of this order that I kuow is one who disguises it under a spirit of contradiction or reproof. He told an arrunt driveller the other day, that he did not care for being in company with him, because he heard he turned his absent friends into ridicnie. And upon Lady Autumn's disputing with him about something that happened at the Revolution, he replied with a very angry tone: Pray, madam, give me leave to know more of a thing in which I was actually coucerned, than you who were then in your nurse's arms.'
Quack Advertisements. It gives me much despair in the design of reforming the world by my speculations, when I find there always arise, from one generation to another, successive cheats and bubbles, as naturally as beasts of prey and those which are to be their food. There is hardly a inan in the world, one would think, so ignorant as not to know that the ordinary quack-doctors, who publish their abilities in little brown Lillets, distributed to all who pass by, are to a man impostors and murderers; yet such is the credulity of the vulgar, aud the impudence of these professors, that the affair still goes on), and new promises of what was never done before are made every day. What arravates the jest is, that even this promise has been made as long as the memory of inal can trace it, and yet nothing performed, and yet still prevails.
There is something accountably taking among the vulgar in those who como from a great way off. Iguorant people of quality, as many there are of euch, dote ex. cessively.this way; many instances of which every inan will suggest to himself, without my enumeration of them. The iguorants of lower order', who cannot, like the upper ones, be profuse of their money to those recommended by coming from distauce, are no less complaisant than the others for they veuture their lives lot the same adıniratica,
The doctor is dately come from his travels, and has practised both by sea and land, and therefore cures the green-sickness, Jong sea-voyages, and campaigns.' Both by sea and land! I will not answer for the distempers called sea-voyages, and campaigos,' but I daresay that of green-sickness might be as well taken care of if the
doctor stayed ashore. But the art of managing maukind is only to make them stare a little to keep up their astonishment; to let nothing be familiar to them, but ever to have something in their sleeve, in which they must think you are deeper than they are. There is au ingenious fellow, a barber, of my acquaintance, who, besides his broken fiddle and a dried sea-monster, has a twine-cord, strained with two nails at each end, over his window, and the words “rainy, dry, wet,' and so forth, written to denote the weather, according to the rising or falling of the cord. We very great scholars are not apt to wonder at this; but I observed a very honest fellow, a chance customer, who sat in the chair before me to be shaved, fix his eye upon this miracuJous performance during the operation upon his chin and face. When those and his head also were cleared of all incumbrances and excrescences, he looked at the fish, cleared. cumbru
CACE S then at the fiddle, still grubbing in his pockets, and casting his eye again at the
" twine, and the words writ on each side; then altered his mind as to farthings, and gave my friend a silver sixpence. The business, as I said, is to keep up the amazement; and if my friend had only the skeleton and kit, he must have been contenter with a less payment. There is a doctor in Mouse Alley, near Wapping, who sets up for curing cataracts upon the credit of having, as his bill sets forth, lost an eye in the emperor's service. His patients come in upon this, and he shews his muster-roll, which confirms that he was in his imperial majesty's troops; and he puts ont their eyes with great success. Who wouk believe that a man should be a doctor for the cure of bnrsten children, by declaring that his father and grandfather were born bursten? But Charles logoltson, next door to the Harp in Barbican, has made a pretty penny by that asseveration. The generality go upon their first conception, and think no further: all the rest is granted. They take it that there is something pucommon in you, and give you credit for the rest. You may be sure it is upon that I go, when, sometimes, let it be to the purpose or not, I keep a Latin sentence in my front; and I was not a little pleased when I observed one of my readers say, casting his eye on my twentieth paper, More Latin still? What a prodigious scholar is this man! But as I have here taken much liberty with this learned doctor, I must make up all I have said by repeating what he seems to be in earnest in, and honestly promise to those who will not receive him as a great man, to wit, That from eight to twelve, and from two till six, he attends for the good of the public to bleed for threepence.
Story-telling. I have often thought that a story-teller is boin, as well as a poet. It is, I think. certain that some men have such a peculiar cast of mind, that they see things in another light than men of grave dispositions. Men of a lively imagination and a mirthful temper will represent things to their hearers in the same manner as they themselves were affected with them; and whereas serious spirits might perhaps have been disgusted at the sight of some odd occurrences in life, yet the very same occmrrences shall please them in a well-told story, where the disagreeable parts of the mages are concealed, and those only which are pleasing exhibited to the fancy. Story-telling is therefore not an art, but what we call a kpack;' it doth not so much subsist upou wit as upon humour; and I will add, that it is not perfect without proper gesticulations of the body, which naturally attend such merry emotions of the mind. I know very well that a certain gravity of countenance sets sone stories olt to advantage, wbere the hearer is to be surprised in the end. But this is by no means a general rule; for it is frequently convenient to aid ard assist by clieerful jooks and whimsical agitations. I will go yet further, and affirm that the snccess of & story very often depends upon the make of the body, and the formation of the features, of him who relates it. I have been of this opinion cver since I criticised upon the chin of Dick Dewian. I very often had the weakness to repine at the prosperity of his conceite, which made him pass for a wit with the widow at the coffeehouse, and the ordinary mechanics that frequent it; rior could I myself forbear laughing at them most heartily, though pon examination I though most of their very flat and insipid. I found, after some time, that* thet merit of his wit was
founded upon the shaking a fat paunch, and the tossing up of a pair of rosy jowls. Poor Dick had a fit of sickness, which robbed him of his fat and his fame at once! and it was full three months before he regained his reputation, which rose in proportion to his floridity. He is now very jolly and ingenious, and hath a good constitution for wit.
Those who are thus adorned with the gifts of nature, are apt to show their part: with too much ostentation. I would therefore advise all the professors of this art never to tell stories but as they seein to grow out of the subject-matter of the couversation, or as they serve to illustrate or enliven it. Stories that are very common are generally irksome; but may be aptly introduced provided they be only hinted at, and meutioned by way of allusion. Those that are altogether uew, should never be ushered in without a short and pertineut character of the chief persons concerned, because, by that means, you may make the colupany acquainted with them; and it is a certain rule, that sight and trivial accounts of those who are familiar to us, ad minister more mirth than the brightest points of wit in unknown characters. A little circumstance in the complexion of dress of the inan you are talking of, sets his image before the hearer, if it be chosen aptly for the story. Thus, I remember Tom Lizard, after having made his sister's merry with an account of a formal old man's way of complimenring, owned very traukly that his story would not have been worth vue farthing, if he had made the hat of him whom he represented one inch narrower. Besides the marking distinct characters, and selecting pertinent circumstances, it is likewise necessary to leave oft in time, and end smartly; so that there is a kind of drama in the forming of a story; and the manner of conducting and pointing it is the same as in an epigram. It is a miserable thing, after one hath raised the expectation of the company by humorous characters and a pretty conceit, to pursue the matter too far. There is no retreating; and how poor is it for a story-teller to end bis relutiou by saying, “That's all!
Story of Unnion and Valentine. At the siege of Namur by the Allies, there were in the ranks of the company commauded by Captain Pincent, in Colonel Frederick Hamilton's regiment, oue Unnion, a corporal, and one Valentine, a private sentinel; there happened between these two meu a dispute about a 3atter of love, which, upon some aggravations grew to an irreconcilable hatred. Uunion being the officer of Valentine, took all opportunities even to strike his rival, and profess the spite and reverge which moved him to it. The sentinel bore it without resistance, but frequently said he would die to be revenged of that tyrant. They had spent whole months thus, one injuring, the other complaining; when in the midst of this rage towards each other, they were commanded upon the attack of the castle, where the corporal received a shot in the thigh, and fell; the French pressing on, and he, expecting to be trampled to death, calied out to his enemy: "Ah, Valentine, can you leave me here?' Valentine immediately ran back, and in the midst of a thick tire of the French, took the corporal non his back, and brought him tbrough all that dayger, as far as the abbiy of Salsine, where a cannon-ball took off his head: his body fell under his enemy whom he was carrying off. tinnion immediately forgot his wound, rose up, tearing his hair, and then threw himself upon the bleeding carcase, crying: "Ah, Valentine, was it for me, who have so barbarously used thee, that thou hast died? I will not live after thec! He was not by uy mans to be forced from the body, but was removed with it bleeding in his arms, and attended with tears by all their comrades who kuew their emmity, When lie was brought to a tent his wounds were dressed by force; but ihe next day, still calling upon Valentine, and lamenting his cruelties to bim, he died in the pangs of remorse and despair.
From the essays of Adilison we subjoin some extracts. We bare already spoken of the prose style of Addison, and Dr. Julinson's eulogium on it has almost passed into a proverb in the history of our literature. • Whoever wisiies,' says the critic and moralist, 'to attaill an Englislı style, familiar but not coarse, and elegant but not osten: tatious, must give his days and nights to the volumes of Addison.' There he will find a rich but chaste vein of humor and satire-lessons