sioners met at Aizgusta, in Georgia, in expectation of the Creeks

who did not attend till the 16th of May, and then amounted to 1 about 350, when a few presents were given them. They were } either satisfied, or stifled their resentments, from political prin.

ciples, so as to decline hostilities. But the Cherokees being disgusted, and abandoned to the full operation of the royal superintendant's influence, began their massacres at the very time Sir Peter Parker attacked the fort on Sullivan's-Island. The speedy departure of the fieet from the sea-coast, after his unsuccesstulattack, gave an opportunity for uniting the whole force of SouthCarolina against the invaders of the country. Though the British plan of a co-operation with the tories and Indians was for the present frustrated ; yet the probability that it would be again resumed, determined the popular leaders to make a vigorous expedition into the country of the Cherokees. A joint attack on their settlements over the mountains was agreed upon by the southern states. Col. Williamson of the district of Ninety-Six; was chosen by the government of South-Carolina to command their forces on this occasion. The sixth regular regiment, part of the third, and a large body of militia, were appointed to serve under him. About the same time, and on the sanje business, gen. Rutherford, with upward of 1900 men from North Carolina, crosses the Apalachian mountains. In their passage through the Indian country, the forces under col. Williamson were two. or three times briskly attacked, but finally repulsed the Indians. The Americans upon this occasion traversed their whole country, and laid waste their corn fields. Above 500 of the Cherokees were obliged for want of provisions, to take refuge with Mr. John Stuart, in West-Florida, where they were fed at the expence of the British government. The Indian settlements to the northward were at the same time invaded by a party of Virginia militia, commanded by col. Christee, and to the southward by the Georgia militia under colonel Jack. Dismal was the wilderness through which the Americans had to penetrate. Many were the dangers they were exposed to from dark thickets, and rugged.paths. They were frequently obliged to pass through narrow defiles, in which small parties might harass the bravest and most numerous army. They had to cross rivers, fordable only at one place, and overlooked by high banks, from whence an eneiny might attack with advantage, and, retreat with safety. They could have no accommodations, but a few plain necessaries carried on pack-horses. They, for the inost part, slept in open air, and experienced all the inconveniencies of a savage life. 1. None of all the expeditions before undertaken against the India ans had been so suecessful as this first effort of the new-born,


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.commonwealth. In less than three months, viz. from the 15th of July to the 11th of October, the business was completed, and the nation of the Cherokees so far subdued, as to be incapable of annoying the settlements. The whole loss of the Americans did not exceed fifty men. '

The means adopted by the British to crush the friends of con. gress, have been providentially over-ruled, so as to produce the contrary effect. Their exciting Indians to massacre the defence. -less frontier selilers, promoted the unanimity of the inhabitants, and invigorated their opposition to Great-Britain.“ Several who called theinselves tories in 1775, have become active whigs, and cheerfully taken up arms in the first instance against Indians, and in the second against Great-Britain, as the instigator of their barbarous devastations. Before this event, some well-meaning pecple could not see the justice of contending with their formerly protecting parent state ; but Indian cruelties, excited by ministerial artitices, soon extinguished all their predilection for the country of their forefathers*. . • The delegates of Maryland, assembled in full convention the 14th of August, have agreed upon the constitution and form of government for that state; to which they have 'prefixed a declaration of rights. The convention of the Delaware state, formerly stiled “ The government of the counties of Newcastle, Kent and Sussex upon Delaware,” after a declaration of rights Tesolved upon their constitution in September. When the deputations, from the committees of the several counties, met in Philadelphia, they agreed upon the number the general convention should consist of, the time they should meet, and the manner in which they should be elected. No person was excluded from voting : many however, as must have been expected, chose to exclude themselves, as they would not appear by voting to countenance the establishment of a new mode of government. The convention met the 15th of July, and continued by adjournincnts to the 28th of September, during which period the constitution was settled by a declaration of rights and a frame of government.

Great numbers in Pennsylvania are not satisficd with their constitution, apprehending that it possesses too great a proportion of democracy; and that the state is not sufficiently guarded a gainst either the evils which may result from the prevalency of a democratic party, or the dangerous influence of demagogues.

Mr. Samuel Adams has been thought, or known to have conand cerned himself so unduly in the business, as to have provoked

* Scc Doctor Ramsay's Hiftory, Vol. I. på 753-616).


some drop distant hints of an assassination. While the constitu-
tion was forming, a motion was made to add a second assembly
to the legislative body, under the name of a senate or councii.
It was urged by several menibers, some for the affirmative, and
some for the negative. Before the question was put, the opi-
pion of the president, Dr. Franklin, was requested. He rose
and said, that “Two assemblies appeared to him like a prac-
tice he had somewhere seen, of certain waggoners, who, when
about descending a steep hill, with a heavy load, if they had
four cattle, took off one pair from before, and chaining them
Co the hinder part of the waggon, drove them up hill; while the
pair before, and the weight of the load, overbalancing the
strength of those behind, drew them slowly and moderately
down the hill.” The simile drew the generality of the conven-
tion into an opinion, that the doctor was for a single assembly,
and it wrought accordingly. Some imagine however, that the
answer was designedly that of a Delphic cracle, to be taken ei-
ther way, as inclination might dictate the interpretation. “The
teal force of the simile was certainly misunderstood ; if there
is any similitude or any argument in it, it is clearly in favor of
two assemblies. The weight of the load itself would roll the
waggon on the oxen, and the cattle on one another, in one scene.
of destruction, if the forces were not divided and a balance
formed'; whereas by checking one power by another (as was
the wish of those who were for a second assembly) all descend
the hill in safety, and avoid the danger."*

We cannot quit Philadelphia without making mention of the acts of congress. It has been resolved to confiscate the property of the subjects of Great-Britain, taken on the high seas, or bea tween high and low water mark, but the inhabitants of the Ber. mudas, and Providence or Bahama Islands are excepted. Generál Washington has been einpowered to agree to the exchange of governor Skéén for Mr. Lovell, who was made close prisoner at Boston by order of general Howe; and to whose inflexible fidelity to his country, congress bore testimony the beginning of January. Mr. Lovell contrived to send out intelligence to the Americans, while investing Boston; and the reasonable suspicion of it, without positive proof might occasion his continea ment. Commodore Hopkins, has been censured for not paying a regard to the tenor of his instructions, which directed him to annoy the enemy's ships upon the coasts of the southern states; and his reasons for not going from Providence immediately to the Carolinas, have been declared by no means satisfactory, "To prevail on the foreign officers, if possible, to quit the royal ** Mr. Adams's Defence of the American Conftitutions, p. 106-108. Vol. II.


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army, congress have proposed, upon their choosing to become citizens of the states, to give to them and their heirs in absen lute dominion, unappropriated lands in the following propor tions: to a colonel, 1000 acres; to a lieutenant-colonel, 800; to a major, 600; to a captain, 400; to a lieutenant, 300; to an ensign, 200; and to every non-commissioned person, 100. They complied with general Howe's proposal of exchanging general Sullivan for general Prescot, and lord Stirling for gen. M'Donald, on the 4th of September.

[Sept. 16.] They resolved upon raising eighty-eight battalions to serve during the war, and agreed upon bounties to all who enlist during that term, unless sooner discharged. The enlistment is further encouraged by a proposal for granting lands; ceach non-commissioned officer and soldier is to have 100 acress a colonel 500; and the other officers in proportion. The congressional offer of lands, whether to foreigners or natives, is no present actual expence, as the event of the war must determine whose they will be ; but the proposal may counteract the effect of a similar measure adopted by the British government, which has engaged to grant large tracts of vacant lands, at the close of the troubles, to the highland emigrants, and other new troops raised in America, as a reward for their expected zeal and loyalty in the reduction of the country. It may also destroy the influence of intimations thrown out to the mercenaries, of their being to be rewarded in like manner. The appointment of all officers in the battalions, and filling up vacancies (except general officers) is left to the governments of the several states; every state has its respective quota assigned, which it is to furnish with arms, clothing and every necessary. The quotas will never be answerable in the numbers of men to the numbers of the battalions, so that the actual strength of the continental forces will be far short of the appearance.

[Sept. 26.] It being resolved to appoint three commissioners to the court of France, congress balloted, and elected Messrs. Franklin, Deane and Jefferson. Dr. Franklin, notwithstanding his great age, was unanimously elected. Dr. Rush sat next him when the choice was announced, and was the first in congratulating him; the reply was, “I am old and good for nothing, but as the shop keepers say of their fragments of cloth, you may have me for what you please.Mr. Deane was so little in the good graces of his own state, that it was the only one out of the thirteen that declined voting for him. He had been before appointed by the secret committee, commercial agent with Mr. Thomas Morris, and moveover political agent; and had arrived in France so long back as in June. This appointment was a natu


ral introduction to his being elected one of the commissioners Mr: Jefferson having declined through a present incapacity for going, Mr. Arthur Lee has been chosen in his room. ..

Congress may have been encouraged to this measure, by a letter of last June to Dr. Franklin, wherein his correspendent Writes, “. I have been at Versailles to see the ministers, and every thing wlaichapproachesthen. I have obtained among otherthings, under the name of Mr: de la Thuillerie; the undertaker of a manufactory of arms; that there shall be delivered to him immediately, from the kings arsenel, fifteen thousand muskets for the use of infantry, to be employed in-his-commerce, on condition that he replaces them in the run of a year. I hope youř brave soldiers will be pleased with them ; but you must caution not to trust to the ordinary muskets of commerce, which are called muskets for exportation, that are almost as dangerous to friends as to enemies.” But without such or any other direct encouragement, they must haveadopted the measure through the urgency of their affairs. The commissioners are to arin and fit for war any number of vessels notexceeding six, at the expence of the United States, to-war upon. British property, provided it will not be disagreeable to the court of France. There has been approved in congress a plan of a treaty with his most christian -majesty. :which has been delivered to the commissioners with instructions to the following purport :iYou are to use every means in your power for concluding a treaty conformable to the plan you have received. If you shall find that to be impracticable, you are hereby authorised to relax -the demands of the United States, and to enlarge the offers agreeable to the subsequent directions. The eighth article will probably be attended with some diffieulty. If you find his most christian majesty deterinined nosto agree to it, you are empowered to add to it as follows : “ That the United States will never be subject, or acknowledge allegiance, or obedience to the king, or crown, or parliament of Great Britain, nor grant to that nation any exelusive trade, or any advantages, or privileges in trade, more than to his inost christian-majesty, neither shall any treaty for terminating the present war between the king of Great-Britain and the United States, or any war which may be declared by the king of Great-Britain, against his most christian majesty, in consequence of this treaty, take effect until the expiration of six ca-lendar months after the negociation for that purpose shall have - been duly notified, in the former instance by the United States to

his most christian majesty, and in the other instance by his most uchristian majesty to the United States, to the end that both these -parties may be included in the peace if they think proper.” If

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