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sioners met at Augusta, in Georgia, in expectation of the Creeks, who did not attend till the 16th of May, and then amounted to about 350, when a few presents were given them. They were either satisfied, or stifled their resentments, from political principles, so as to decline hostilities. But the Cherolcees being disgusted, and abandoned to the full operation of the royal superintendant's influence, began their massacres at the very time Sir Peter Parker attacked the fort on Sullivan's-Island. The speedy departure of the fleet from the sea-coast, after his* unsuccessful attack, gave an opportunity for uniting the whole force of SouthCarolina against the invaders of the country. Though the British plan of a co-operation with the tories and Indians was for the present frustrated ; yet the probability that it would be again resumed, determined the popular leaders to make a vigorous expedition into the country of. the Cherokees. A joint attack cm their settlements over the mountains was agreed upon by the southern states. Col. Williamson of the district of Ninety-Six; was chosen by the government of, South-Carolina to command their forces on this occasion. The sixth regular regiment, part of the third, and a large body of militia, were appointed to serve under him. About the same time, and on the same business, geru. Rutherford, with upward of 1900 men from North-Carolina, crosses the Apalachian mountains. In their passsge-thrwugh the Indian country, the forces under col. Williamson were two or three times briskly attacked, but finally repulsed the Indians. The Americans upon this occasion traversed their whole country, and laid waste their corn fields. Above 500 of the Cherokees were obliged for want of provisions, to take refuge with Mr. John Stuart, in West-Florida, where they were: fed at the expence.of the British government. The Indian settlements to the northward were at the same time invaded by a party of Virginia militia, commanded by col. Christee, and to the southward by the Georgia militia under colonel Jack. Dismal was the wilderness* through which the Americans had to penetrate. Many were the dangers they> were exposed to from dark thickets, and rugged paths. They were frequently obliged to pass through narrow defiles, in which small parties might harass the bravest and most numerous army. They had to cross rivers, fordable only atone place, and overlooked by high banks, from whence an enemy might attack with advantage, and. retreat with safety. They could have no accommodations, but a few plain necessaries carlied on pack-horses. They, for the most part, slept in open air, and experienced all the inconveniencies of a savage life. •. . J None of all the expeditions before undertaken against the Indians had been so successful as this first effort of the new-born. "common
commonwealth. In 1&ss than three months, viz. from the 15th of July to the 11th of October, the business was completed, and the nation of the Cherokees so far subdued, as to be incapable of annoying the settlements. The whole loss of the Americans did not exceed fifty men. . . . . . The means adopted by the British to crush the friends of congress, have been providentially over-ruled, so as to produce the contrary effect. Their exciting Indians to massacre the defenceless frontier settlers, promoted the unanimity of the inhabitants, and invigorated their opposition to Great-Britain. Several who called themselves tories in 1775, have become active whigs, and cheerfully taken up arms in the first instance against Indians, and in the second against Great-Britain, as the instigator of their barbarous devastations. Before this event, some well-meaning people could not see the justice of contending with their formerly protecting parent state; but Indian cruelties, excited by ministerial artifices, soon extinguished all their predilection for the country of their forefathers”. - o The delegates of Maryland, assembled in full convention the 14th of August, have agreed upon the constitution and form of government for that state; to which they have prefixed a dec ration of rights. The convention of the Delaware state, formerly stiled “ The government of the counties of Newcastle, Kent and Sussex upon Delaware,” after a declaration of rights resolved upon their constitution in September. When the deputations, from the committees of the several counties, met in Philadelphia, they agreed upon the number the general convention should consist of, the time they should meet, and the manner in which they should be elected. No person was excluded from voting: many however, as must have been expected, chose to exclude themselves, as they would not appearby voting to countenance the establishment of a new mode of government. The convention met the 15th of July, and continued by adjournments to the 28th of September, during which period the constitution was settled by a declaration of rights and a frame of government. . Great numbers in Pennsylvania are not satisfied with their constitution, apprehending that it possesses too great a proportion of democracy; and that the state is not sufficiently guarded against either the evils which may result from the prevalency of a democratic party, or the dangerous influence of demagogues. Mr. Samuel Adams has been thought, or known to have con
J cerned himself so unduly in the business, as to have provoked
some drop distant hints of an assassination. While the constitution was forming, a motion was made to add a second assembly to the legislative body, under the name of a senate or council. It was urged by several members, some for the affirmative, and some for the negative. Before the question was put, the opinion of the president, Dr. Franklin, was requested. He rose and said, that “Two assemblies appeared to him like a practice he had somewhere seen, of certain waggoners, who, when about descending a steep hill, with a heavy load, if they had four cattle, took off one pair from before, and chaining them to the hinder part of the waggon, drove them up hill; while the air before, and the weight of the load, overbalancing the strength of those behind, drew them .# and moderately down the hill.” The simile drew the generality of the convention into an opinion, that the doctor was for a single assembly, and it wrought accordingly. Some imagine however, that the answer was designedly that of a Delphic oracle, to be taken either way, as inclination might dictate the interpretation. “The real force of the simile was certainly misunderstood; if there is any similitude or any argument in it, it is clearly in favor of two assemblies. The weight of the load itself would roll the waggon on the oxen, and the cattle on one another, in one scene. of destruction, if the forces were not divided and a balance formed; whereas by checking one power by another (as was the wish of those who were for a second assembly) all descend the hill in safety, and avoid the danger.” - We cannot quit Philadelphia without making mention of the acts of congress. It has been resolved to confiscate the property of the subjects of Great-Britain, taken on the high seas, or between high and low water mark, but the inhabitants of the Bermudas, and Providence or Bahama Islands are excepted. General Washington has been empowered to agree to the exchange of governor Skeen for Mr. Lovell, who was made close prisonor at Boston by order of general Howe; and to whose inflexible fidelity to his country, congress bore testimony the beginning of January. Mr. Lovell contrived to send out intelligence to ... the Americans, while investing Boston; and the reasonable suspicion of it, without positive proof might occasion his confinement. Commodore Hopkins, has been censured for not paying , a regard to the tenor of his instructions, which directed him to annoy the enemy’s ships upon the coasts of the southern states; and his reasons for not going from Providence immediately to the Carolinas, have been declared by no means satisfactory. To prevail on the foreign officers, if possible, to quit the royal * Mr. Adams's Defence of the American conflitutions, P 126-ro8. Vol. II. S army,
army, congress hare proposed; upon tlicir choosing to become citizens of the states, to give to them and their heirs in absoilute dominion, unappropriated lands in the following propor* tions: to a colonel, 1000 acres; to a lieutenant-colonel, 800; to a major, 600; to a captain, 400; to a lieutenant, 30o; to an ensign, 200; and to every non-commissioned person, lOGt They complied with general -Howe's proposal of exchanging general Sullivan for general Prescot, and lord Stirling for gen. M'Donald, on the 4th of September.
[Sept. 16.] They resolved upon raising eighty-eight battalions to serve during the war, and agreed upon bounties toaH who enlist during that term, unless sooner discharged. The enlistment is further encouraged by-a proposal for granting lands; 'each non-commiss'.oncd officer and soldier is to have l^Oacress a colonel 500; and the other officers in proportion. The congressional offer of lands, whether to foreigners or natives, is ne present actual expence, asthe event of the war must determine whose they will be; but the proposal may counteract the effect of a similar measure adopted by the British government, which has engaged to grant large tracts of vacant lands, at the close of the troubles, to the highland emigrants, and other new troops raised in America, as a reward for their expected zeal and loyalty in the reduction of the country. It may also destroy the influence of intimations thrown out to the mercenaries, of thenbeing to be rewarded in like manner. The appointment of all officers in the battalions, and filling up vacancies (except general officers) is left to the governments of the several states; every state has its respective quota assigned, which it is to furnish with arms, clothing and every necessary. The quotas will never be answerable in the numbers of men to the numbers of the battalions, so that the actual strength of the continental forces will be far short of the appearance. * v
[Sept. 26*] It being resolved to appoint three commissioners to the court of France, congress balloted, and elected Messrs. Franklin, Deane and Jefferson. Dr. Franklin, notwithstanding his great age, was unanimously elected. Dr. Rush sat next him when the choice was announced, and was the first in congratulating him; the reply was, "I am old and good for nothing, but as the shop keepers say of their fragments of cloth, you mayhave me for what you please." Mr. Deane was so little in the good graces of his own state, that it was the only one out of the thirteen that declined voting for him. He had been before appointed by the secret committee, commercial agent with Mr. Thomas Morris, and moveover political agent; and had arrived in France so long back as in June. This appointment was a natural introduction to his being elected one of the commissioners, Mr. Jefferson having declined through a present incapacity for going, Mr. Arthur Lee has been chosen in his room. Congress may have been encouraged to this measure, by a letter of last June to Dr. Franklin, wherein his correspendent writes, “I have been at Versailles to see the ministers, and every thing which approachesthem. I have obtained among other things, under the name of Mr. de la Thuillerie, the undertaker of a manufactory of arms, that there shall be delivered to him immediately, from the kings arsene!, fifteen thousand muskets for the use of infantry, to be employed in his commerce, on condition that he replaces them in the run of a year. I hope your brave soldiers will be pleased with them ; but you must caution not to trust to the ordinary muskets of centnerce, which are called muskets for exportation, that are almost as dangerous to £riends as to enemies.” But without such or any other direct sencouragement, they must have adopted the measure through the urgency of their affairs. The commissioners are to arm and fit for war any number of vessels not exceeding six, at the expence of the United States, to war upon. British property, provided it will not be disagreeable to the court of France. There has been approved in congress a plan of a treaty with his most christian -majesty, which has been delivered to the commissioners with instructions to the following purport : - - . . . . : “You are to use every means in-your power for concluding a treaty conformable to the plan you have received. If you shall find that to be impracticable, you are hereby authorised to relax the demands of the United States, and to enlarge the offers agreeable to the subsequent directions. The eighth article will probably 'be attended with some difficulty. If you find his most christian majesty determined not to agree to it, you are empowered to add to it as follows: “That the United States will never be subject, or acknowledge allegiance, or obedience to the king, or crown, or parliament of Great-Britain, nor grant to that nation any exelusive trade, or any advantages, or privileges in trade, more than to his most christian majesty, neither shall any treaty for terminating the present war between the king of Great-Britain and the United States, or any war which may be declared by the king of Great-Britain, against his most christian majesty, in con‘sequence of this treaty, take effect until the expiration of six ca-lendar months after the negociation for that purpose shall have been duly notified, in the former instance by the United States to this most christian majesty, and in the other instance by his most ochristian majesty to the United States, to the end that both these parties may be included in the peace if they think. power. lf * I 11S