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bis majesty should be unwilling to agree to the 15thand 26th ai> tides, you are directed to consent, that the gaods and effects af the enemy on board the ships and vessels of either party, shall ba liable to seizure and confiscation. You will solicit the court of France for an immediate supply to twenty or thirty thousand muskets and bayonets, and a large supply of ammunition, and brass field-pieces to be sent under convoy by France. The Uru* ted States engage for the payment of the arms, artillery and am* munition, and to endemnify France for the expence of the con* voy. It is highly probable that France means not to let the United States sink in the present contest; but as the difficulty of obi taining true accounts of our condition, may cause an opinion to be entertained, that we are liable to support the war on our owl strength and resources longer in fact than we can do, it will be proper for you to press for the immediate and explicit declara* tion of France in our favor, upon a suggestion that a re-unioa with Great-Britain may be the consequence of a delay. Should Spain be disinclined to our cause, from an apprehension of dangen to her dominions in South-America, you are empowered to give the strongest assurances', that that crown will receive n» molestation from the United States in the possession of these teeritories."
"You will transmit to us, the most speedy and full inteHtgence of your progress in the business, and of any other trans*actions that it may import us to know. You are desired to get the best and earliest information that you possibly can, of any negociation that the court of London may be carrying on for obtaining foreign mercenaries to be sent against these states the next campaign : and if any such design is in agitation, you will endeavor to prevail with the court of France to exert its influence, in the most effectual manner, to prevent the execution of such designs. You are desired to obtain as early as possible,, a public acknowledgment of the independency of these states on the crown and parliament of Great-Britain by the court of France." . ... b
"In conducting this important business, the congress have the greatest confidence in your address, abilities, vigilence, and attaehment-to the interests of the United States, and wish you every success." •
Though it has not been already mentioned, yet as far back as July, the congress fefused to ratify the cartel settled between gen. Arnold and capt, Forster, at the Cedars. They declared gen. Arnold's agreement to be no more than a sponsion, subject to be ratified or annulled, at their discretion, he not being invested with powers for the disposal ofprisoners not in his possession,
Koroinderhis direction; and refuse to deliver the prisoners to be returned on their part, till the British commander inCanadadeiivered into their hands the authors and abettors of the murders committed on the American prisoners, and made indemnification, for the plunder at the Cedars, taken contrary to the faith of v the capitulation. Thus the hostages have been left in Canada -unredeemed. Capt. Sullivan has written to his bi other the general., from Montreal, Ajjgust the 14th, and expressed his surprise at hearing that congress, instead of redeeming him and the other hostages according to the eartel,had demanded capt. Forster to be delivered up; and declared in the mostsolernn manner,that not a man living could have used more-humanity thancapt.Forster did, after the surrender of the party to which he belonged. Such gentlemen of the army as speak of it at head-quarters, seem to wish the treaty had been ratified rather than disallowed -y and the commander in chief appears to be like minded.
£Oct. I.] GeneraL Mifflin was requested to resume the office of quarter-master-general, and it was resolved.that his rank and pay as a brigadier should be continued. "Congress determined upon borrowing five millions of continental dollars for the use of the United States, , and the faith of the states is pledged for the payment of principal and interest. To encourage gentlemen of abilities to engage as commission-officers in the battalions tp be raised, the pay, from the colonel to the ensign is to be increased. It has also been recommended to the respective states, to use their utmost endeavors, that all the officers to be appointed, be men .of honor and known abilities, without a particular regard to their having before been in the service. ■ [Oct. IT.] Mr. Duche having by letter informed the president that the state of hishealth (probably influenced by the bad aspect of the American cause) and his parochial duties were such as obliged him to decline the honor of continuing chaplain to congress, they resolved that the president return the thanks of the house, for the devout and acceptable manner in which he discharged his duty during the time he officiated; and that 150 dollars be presented to him as an acknowledgment of his services. In about a fortnight he expressed his obligations to congress, in # polite letter, and requested, as he accepted their appointment from motives perfectly disinterested, that the money voted him, might be applied to the relief of the widows and children of such of.the Pennsylvania officers as have fallen in the service of their country. Several French officers have been commissioned; the chevalier Matthias Alexis Roche de Fermoy, upon applying to be employed, was appointed a brigadier general. Dr. Franklin sailedibr France on the twenty-seventh, . - - ■
?•>■» " [Nov.
[Nov. 18.] Congress agreed upon the scheme of a lotterys by which they mean to raise a sum of money for defraying the expences of the next campaign. The recuiting service proving very unsuccessful, they resolved, [Nov. 21.] that each state be: at liberty to direct their recruiting officers to enlist their men, either for the war, or three years. The reduced state of the army, together with the successes and superiority of the enemy.* put congress upon ordering the president to write to the four New-England governments, and request them to use their utmost influence in raising their respective quotas, and to hasten, their marches with all possible diligence to the places of rendezvous. The Massachusetts assembly have ordered a fourth of the militia to be raised for the reinforcement of the army to the: southward, and proposed paying a bounty of 151. Sterling a man; to those of their state who will enlist for three years or during the war. This proposal however congress could not assent to; as it tended to excite an expectation of the same bounty in the rest of the troops. - [Dee 10.] The probability of the enemy's advancing to: Philadelphia, induced congress to direct gen. Putnam, who was stationed in the city, immediately to parade the several recruits and other continental troops in it, and to proceed without delay to make the proper defences for its security. The next day, they recommended to all the United States as soon as possible to appoint a day of fasting and humiliation. It is left to each state to issue out proclamations, fixing the day that appears most propeg within its own bounds. On the 12th, generals Putnam and Mifflin being casled to a conference, and having by strong arguments urged the necessity of the congress's retiring, it was therea upon resolved to adjourn to Baltimore in Maryland, to meet on the 20th inst. inasmuch as the movements of the enemy had rendered the neighbourhood of Philadelphia the seat of war.-Till congress should otherwise, order gen. Washington was to possess full power to direct all things relative to the department, and the operations of war. -- * It remains, that we take a survey of what has been doing to the northward, and under gen. Gates. - Toward the latter end of July, one lieutenant Whitcomb, a green mountain boy, who was out with a scouting party, was
guilty of a most base, and villainous action, from no other pria:
ciple, than a desire of plunder. He wanted a sword and a watch; and in order to supply himself shot general Gordon as he was riding unarmed from St. John’s toward Chamblee. The general died a few days after. This, as was natural, raised the resents ment of Sir Guy Carleton's army. It is a pity, that he could not . . . - have
liave been delivered up instantly to Sir Guy ^ but through the weakness of government and military discipline, he will escape ■deserved punishment. Colonel Beedle and major Butterheld, instead of being shot for their cowardly conduct in the business of the Cedars, are only cashiered, and rendered incapable of hearing any commission in the army of the United States. The jiew articles of war, agreed upon in September, will subject .men to deserved punishment for the future.': When general Arnold had reached Crown-Point with the army and the goods he had brought from Montr eal (which he was careful to keep with, all he could) persons soon followed with invoices, and claimed pay for them. Silks and other valuable articles were missing. General Arnold upon this brought col.' Hazens before a court-martial. He was tried on a charge^ that the packages had been pillaged, and the goods lost, through his lefusing to take care of them. The colonel was honorably acquitted; but such was the behavior of the general before the court, in challenging every man of them, and abusing them all, that they demanded of general Gates his being put under arrest; the msment the demand was made, general Gates thought himself obliged to act dictatorially, and to dissolve the court; that so theTJnited States might not be deprived of the services of one whom he viewed as an excellent officer, at an important period, when they were much wanted. The court however, did not dissolve till they had finished their other business, and given judgment; and had prepared the account of the trial, and put4| in the way to be forwarded to general Washington or the coa-i ^ gress. Gates had fixed.upon Arnold to command the American fleet to be opposed to the British, on Lake Champlain, and therefore would pay no attention to any charges brought against him. Colonel Brown complained of him, for accusing him of plundering the officers baggage taken at Sorel, contrary to- the articles of capitulation, and praying that he might be put under, arrest and brought to trial; but it was to no purpose. The command for which Arnold was destined, superseded all other considerations for the present.
The utmost efforts were made on the side of Canada by the British, for obtaining a superiority on the lake, and for the reduction of Tyconderoga and Mount Independence. A fleet .of above thirty fighting vessels, of different kinds and sizes, had been little less than created; though a few of the largest were re-constructions, having been first framed in Great-Britain, then taken to pieces and sent over. Add to this, tuatagondolaweighing thirty tons, with above four hundred batteaux, had been dragged up the rapids near Chamblee. The objects in view were answerable
to all these exertions. If the royal army under Sir Guy Carieton could have forced their way down to, and possessed thems selves of Albany before the severity of the winter set in, the northern states would have been exposed in their most defenceless parts, and have had the communication with the seuthera cut off, while one between generals Carleton and Howe would have been established; and thus Carleton's army would have had a principal share in the honor of bringing the war to a speedy conclusion. The Americans had not cqual advantages with the British for the construction of vessels. They labored under immense difficulties; and had to bring ship-builders, artillery, and most of the materials for a naval equipment from a great distance. But by an assiduity, perseverance and spirit, which did not fall short of what was employed against them, they had by the 18th of August, at Crown-Point, 1 sloop, 3 schooners and 5 gondolas, carrying 55 guns, twelve, nine, six and four pounders, beside 79 swivels, and 395 men; and completely fitted for action. With some or all of these, gen. Arnold sailed down the lake to reconnoitre and gain intelligence. He wrote to gen, Gates, “This morning [Sept. 16.] at one o’clock, Antonie Gerouse, (his real name was Girard) a Frenchman, whom I sent to St. John’s, returned, and gives the following account, viz. –that at Isle-auxNoix there are three thousand troops encamped, and forty pieces of cannon mounted on their lines—at St. John's three thousand n, one hundred and fifty batteaux, and he was told that two • hundred were at Chamblee—that two schooners are completed and manned, one mounting twelve, and the other fourteen brass twelve pounders—small vessels on the stocks to carry three guns each—one gondola taken from us, and three new ones built, these to mount three guns each—a number of flat-bottomed boats, to carry one gun each, and a floating battery with two masts, nearly done, to carry twenty-four eighteen pounders and two mortars. He imagines the whole will be completed in a fortnight. I think him placed as a spy on us; have sent him to you to be disposed of as you think proper. From the accounts of the two men who have viewed Isle-aux-Noix, the account of this Frenchman must be false, and a story formed for him by the English efficers.” The poor Frenchman was put in irons, and sent to Albany. The two men never went to the isle, but made up a story to screen their own baseness: a close and separate examination of them might have detected the imposition. When by their unremitting industry the British entered the lake about the time the Frenchman conjectured, the fleet consisted of the ship Inflexible, which had been re-constructed at St. John's, from