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complete their corps, sought for recruits among the prisoners, and ventured to hold out to them the temptations of pay, liberr ty and pardon. Notwithstanding all these efforts and encouragements, gen. Delancey raised only 597 men.”—Mr. Courtland Skinner, who is acknowledged to possess considerable influence in Jerseys, was also appointed a brigadier general, and authorized to raise five battalions, to consist of 2500 privates.—The same ef. forts were made as for the raising of Delancey’s corps, but Skisner's number amounted only to 517.”* No sooner had gen. Howe taken the field, but the Jersey militia turned out in a very spirited manner, as though determined, in conjunction with the continentals, to harrass and oppose the royal army on their march through the country. The gen. came out as light as he could, leaving all his baggage, provisions, (except enough to subsist the troops two or three days at a time) boats and bridges at Brunswick; which, in the judgment of general Washington, forcibly contracted the idea of an expedition toward the Delaware. Every appearance coincided to confirm the opinion, that Howe intended in the first place a stroke at his army. The American general reasoned thus : “Had their design in the first instance been to cross the Delaware, they would probably have made a strict rapid march toward it, and not have halted, as they have done to awaken our attention, and give us time to make every preparation for obstructing themt.” Of the sudden retreat of the royal army. The general wrote on the 20th, “ The enemy decamped the night before last, and have returned to their former position. It appears to have been in consequence of a sudden resolution, as they had raised a chain of redoubts from Somerset to Brunswick. What may have determined them to change their plan is hard to tell. Whether alarmed at the animation among the people—disappointed in the movements they may havc expected us to make, thence concluding their design impracticable—or whether they may have an operation in view in some other quarter, the event must show.” Howe’s front extended to Somerset Court-house, about nine miles; his rear remained at Middle-Bush, half way between that and Brunswick. Washington was encamped upon his right flank (as he marched) at the distance of about five miles. . #. troops were so disposed under Sullivan and himself, as to have been capable of giving a pretty successful opposition. When the royal army retreated back to Brunswick, they burnt and destroyed the fariu houses upon the road. Their cruelties to the inhabitants were
* Sir William Howe's narrative, p. 49. - --> t General Washington's letter of June 17.
inexpressible, they ruined and defaced every public edifice, particularly those dedicated to the Deity. They removed their'baggage to Amboy, for which place they set out on the 22d. The evening before, several pieces of information, and a variety of circumstances, made it evident to the American general, that a move was in agitation, and it was the prevailing opinion that it would be the next morning. The general therefore detached three brigades under gen. Greene, to fall upon the rear and kept the main body paraded to support them, if necessary. A party «jf col. Morgans light-infantry attacked, and drove the Hessian Jpieket about sun-rise: The enerriy, upon the appearance of Wayne's brigade, and Morgan's regiment opposite Brunswick, Immediately crossed the bridge to the east side of the river, and threw themselves into redoubts. The Americans advanced briskly upon them, upon which they quitted the redoubts without making opposition, and retired by the Amboy road. In the pursuit, col. Morgan's riflemen exchanged several sharp fires with the enemy which did considerable execution. From intelligence through various channels, there was reason to believe, that their toss was considerable and fell chiefly on the grenadiers and light infantry, who formed their covering party. Gen. Howe arrived at New-York on-Sunday afternoon the whole of which day was Employed in removing the wounded soldiers trom the docks to the hospitals there, said to amount to some hundreds.* One off the American generals humorously wrote concerning Sir William Howe's returning to Brunswick by night—" Gen. Howe remained five days, and then sneaks off by night, and it is well he did 1—for had he went by day, we could have done nothing, but laave looked at him."
* Lieut, col. Palfrey, formerly an aid-de-camp to gen. Washington, a-nd'now pay-master-general, wrote to his friend," I was at Brunswick just after the enemy had left it. Never let the British troops upbraid the Americans with want of cleanliness, for such dog kennels as their huts were my eyes never beheld. Mr. Burton's house, where lord Cornwallis resided, stunk so I could not bear to enter it: The houses were torn to pieces, and the inr habitants as well as the soldiers have suffered greatly for \van$ of provisions.
•* [June'24.] Gen. Washington, upon the enemy's retreat to Amboy, with the advice of his general officers, moved the whole *rmy to Quibble-toWn, that he might be nearer to the royal forces, and mightact according to circumstances. The British general, &fter sending over from Amboy to Staten-Island, theheavy baggage and all the encumbrances of the army, ordered a number of the tioops to follow ; with an .intention of deceiving the A* A letter to gin. Washington, Remembrancer, Vol. V. p. 269. Vol. IU Cq roericans
mericans into an opinion, that they had nothing more to appr hend from that quarter. The troops returned the evening of the 25th, and the next morning, the general advanced unexpectedly with his whole army, in two columns, from Amboy. Gen. Wash: ington conjectured, that so sudden a movement, was designed ein ther to bring on a general engagement, upon terms disadvantageous to the Americans; or to cut off their parties, and lord Sir, ling's division, which had been sent down to support them; or to possess the heights and passes in the mountains on the left of the continental army. The two last were adjudged to be the first object of Howe's attention, as his march was rapid againt these partics, and indicated a strong disposition to gain the passes, Upon this gen. Washington judged it absolutely neccessary to move his force from the low ground to occupy the heights before the enemy, which was affected with much dispatch. The enemy fell in with some of the light parties, and a part of lord Stirling's division. His lordship was in no hurry to ietreat, but preferred engaging for a while, wherein he made a wrong choice for he had nearly been cut off, by the right column under food Cornwallis. He lost three field pieces, but the loss of men was trifling. The enemy's loss in the several skirmishes of the day, was thought to be more considerable than that of the Ameri: cans. The royal army continued the pursuit as far as Westfield; but the woods and intense heat of the weather prevented its ef; fect. When the American general had gained the passes, he detached a body of light troops to watch their motions, and afterward ordered Morgan's riflemen to join the service. The Bri, tish remained till the next day about three in the afternoon, and then returned to Rahway and the day, following to Amboy. On the 30th, at ten o’clock in the morning, the troops began to cross over to Staten-Island, and the rear guard passed at two in the afternoon, without the least appearance of an enemy. Thus they evacuated the Jerseys, to enter upon new conquests, in hope of reducing the United States to unconditional submission. Unless they can hold, when they have conquered, they will ne: yer accomplish the business assigned them by the British min: istry. - * * *- : Let us leave gen. Howe engaged in embarking his army floo Staten-Island, and preparing for some grand expedition o: wo may attend to the affairs of the northern department. . . ; Gen. Scuyler presented a memorial to congress explaining the expressions in his letter which had given them offence. They resolved, on the 8th of May, that the explanation was satisfactory, and that now they entertained the same favourable sentinueñts concerning him, which they entertained before that letter - - WąS.
Was received. This seems to have1 been designedly preparative fe'what followed a fortnight after, when it was resolved, "That Albany, Tyconderoga, Fort Stanwix and their dependencies, be henceforth considered as forming the northern department—■ that major-general Scuyler be directed forthwith to proceed to ftp northern department, to take the command there." It was said that he was the only single man who could keep the NewYork subjects united against the common enemy, and that his presence was absolutely necessary for their immediate succour and' service, as well as that of the United States, closely connected therewith. The New-England delegates, the president excepted, opposed his being directed to take the command, a§ it superseded general Gates, But they were obliged to yield to numbers, at a time when uffluckily some men were absent, who would otherwise have turned the scale. The choice of general Scayler caused great boasting, though there were only five states out of eleven in favor of the measure, and others were either against it, or could' not vote for want of the requisite number of delegates, or their being equally divided. There is what numbers deem a New-York party in congress, whose proceed* ings h-ave in some instances been mysterious. An absolute order for relinquishing the western lines andTyconderoga, was pushed-Tor before the choice of Scuyler, but did not prevail; however it was- resolved, that general Gates should be empowered to abandon Tyconderoga-at pleasure.
It was- incumbent on the states of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts in particular, and Connecticut, to furnish the troops neces* Sary for the defence of the northern posts; but a strange remissness prevailed, greatly from an expectation that Tyconderoga would not be attacked. The Massachusetts general court learning that this was the opinion of the commander in chief, neglected forwarding their quota of men. Reports (occasioned probably by the arts of the enemy) Were spread, that the troops in Canada were to join gen. Howe. Members of congress were deceived by them, so that gen. Gates, after he had taken the command, wrote that he had the strongest assurances from congress, that the king's troops were all ordered round, by the river St. Lawrence, to New-York, leaving only a'sufficient number to garrison their forts. Gates estimated, that for the defence of Ty and its dependencies, 11,100 continentals, beside the aid of the militia, would be wanted. Scuyler afterward estimated 'them at 10,000, but then he thought the lines at Mount Independence not one half so extensive as he found them. '' The British operations against tins department, were taken "but of the hands of Sir Gwy Garieton, and committed to the ~av J charge
charge of gen. Burgoyne. The force alotted to them, consisting of British and German troops, amounted to more than 7000 men, exclusive of the artillery corps. Of these the Germans, mostly Brunswickers, exceeded 3200. Arms and accoutrements were amply, provided to supply those royalists who were ex
ected to join the army as soon as it penetrated the frontiers of the United States. A powerful brass train of artillery was furnished, probably the finest, and the most excellent supplied as to officers and private men, that had ever been alotted to second the operations of any army not exceeding the present in number. Beside the regular forces, several tribes of Indians were induced to come into the field. It has been generally supposed, that Carleton's scruples upon the point of employing them, were by no means acceptable to ministry. They were considered as a principal number of the force destined to the prosecution of the northern war; and the governor of Canada was accordingly enjoined to use his utmost influence in bringing them forward in support of it. In the execution of the proposed operations, gen. Burgoyne was seconded by able and excellent officers, gen, Philips, of the artillery, generals Frazer, Powel and Hamilton; with the Brunswick generals Baron Reidesel and gen. Specht. The army was, in every respect, in the best condition; the troops were in the highest spirits, admirably disciplined, and uncommonly healthy. Colonel St. Leger was detached by way of Oswego, to make a diversion on the Mohawk river. He had 220 men, from the eighth and thirty-fourth regiments, Sir John Johnson's corps of New-Yorkers, lately raised, some Hannau chasseurs, a company of Canadians and a party of Indians, be, side the expectation of being joined by a much larger number. His force did not propably exceed 800 men. The main army, inder gen. Burgoyne, proceeded up Lake Champlain, landed, and encamped at no great distance o Crown-Point, where he met the Indians in congress, and afterward, in compliance with
their customs, gave them a war feast. He made a speechte then June 21.] calculated to excite their ardor in the common Sause, and at the same time to repress their barbarity. He ens joined it upon them, that they should only kill those who-ope posed them in arms; that old men, women, children and pri. soners, should be held sacred from the knife or hatchet, even in the heat of actual conflict; that they should only scalp those whom they had slain in fair opposition; but that under no pretence should they scalp the wounded, or even dying, much less kill persons in that condition. They were promised a compens sation for prisoners, but informed that they should be called to account for scalps. Four days before this speech, gon, Scuyies - - arrived