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entirely repulsed. —As soon as they had recovered their
breath and order, they renewed the attack, with the same ea* gerness as before ;—and were encountered with the same determined resolution. Though they suffered severely in these two attacks, they again rallied, and returned to the charge the third time. The affair was now soon decided. They were totally ..broken, and obliged to retire in the utmost confusion, leaving their dead and wounded in the.power of the victors. Gen.-Meadows was wounded in the beginning of the action, but would [not quit the field, nor have the assistance of the surgeons, till the matter was decided. The French while employing their troops by land, attempted, a diversion by sea, which had so little effect as to deserve no further notice. Their loss was four hun.dred killed upon the spot,"five hundred desperately wounded, so as to be incapable of service, and six hundred more slightly wounded : the whole amounting to a number considerably superior to those whom they had encountered. ■ Count d'Estaing continued ten days longer on the island without making further attempts, and then relinquished a contest which had only manifested the courage of the French, without yielding any profit. He embarked his troops on the night of the ..twenty-eighth, and on the following day abandoned the island to its destiny. He was not out of sight, when the chevalier de Micaud, with the principal inhabitants, offered to capitulate and had favorable conditions granted them, which were signed on the 30th. Admiral Byron arrived off St. Lucie the 6 th of January.
. When the late law in favor of the English Roman Catholics .was passed, a design was formed of extending it to Scotland, which was violently opposed. The opposition originated in Glasgow, the inhabitants of which are almost all on trie side of administration in the American contest.* The general indignation against the design showed itself in the different riots that happened at Edinburgh and Glasgow in February. In the metropolis, an attack was made [Feb. 3.] upon a new house, in which the principal popish clergyman or bishop, with four other families of the same persuasion dwelt, and in which a room was laid out for a chapel, about 34 feet long. The house was set on fire and the flames continued until noon of the following day,— The inhabitants with difficulty escaped alive. During the demolition of this " main pillar of popery," as it was called, a detachment from the main body of the people resorted to the pld chapel. The house containing it was inhabited by several famiK3S (agreeable to custom, and the nature of many buildings.«i ? Dr. John Erfltine's Considerations on the Spirit of Popery.p. 31.' Vou If. H 3 that
that city) whose property and effects, as well as the inside of the house and chapel, were totally destroyed, together with a consis derable library belonging to the popish bishop. The rioters af. terward directed their violence against the papists in other parts of the town, and totally destroyed the stock in trade and effects of two or three tradesmen of that profession. One or two ladies of fashion of that communion were obliged to take refuge in the castle. They at length concluded upon the punishment or destruction of these gentlemen, of whatever rank or religion, who had been supposed to favor the design of obtaining a relaxation of the laws against papists. Their first fury was pointed against Dr. Robertson the celebrated historian, and to that of Mr. Crosbie, an eminent advocate. The mob found the houses of these gemtiemen so well armed, and guarded with so determined a resolution by their numerous friends, that they proceeded not to extremities, but retired without any further outrage than the breaking of some windows. The magistrates did not exert themselves for the suppression of the riots, till the last day of the week. The conduct of the magistrates in Glasgow was widely different. The populace made their first and principal attack [Feb. 9, upon Mr. Bagnal, an English papist from Staffordshire, who had for several years established and conducted a considerable manufactory of stone-ware. They burnt his house, totally destroyed all the works for carrying on his business, and obliged him and his family to fly to the fields for their lives. But the measures pursued by the magistrates and principal inhabitants soon restored order and security. Mr. Bagnal was also speedily acquainted, that he should be reimbursed for every part of his losses to the utmost farthing. Toward the end of march the citizens of Edinburgh agreed to make full restitution to the sufferers in that city. Through this religious combustion, and the circumstances attending it, administration have lost that strong hold of the temper and disposition of the people in Scotland, which perhaps nothing else could have loosened. The British cruisers seized and carried into port the Dutcl vessels bound for France, when laden with either naval stores or supposed French property. The merchants, owners and insurers, complained to their high mightinesses, by whose order a memorial was presented to the British court which was far from having the desired effect. The answer proposed the purchasing of the naval stores, the paying of the frieght, and the indemnifying the proprietors; but expressed a determination to prevent, as much as possible, all naval and military stores being transported into the French ports, accompanied however with an assurance, that all possible regard for the rights of their high mightinesses should be exercised, and that the stipulations and spirit of the treaties between the king and their high mighti: messes, would be adhered to in the strongest manner as far as it should be practicable—of which the British court would be judges. The merchants of Dort, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, not being satisfied with the answer, petitioned their high mightinesses for redress against the British treatment of their flag, and the widlerces, committed against their property. The States General concluded upon such measures as should meet the wishes of the petitioners, and determined upon an augmentation of the fleet for their protection. Sir Joseph Yorke, after that, on the 22d of last November, proposed in a memorial by his sovereign's order a conference with their high mightinesses upon what was most proper to be done respecting the articles of complaint. The States General declined the offer, and insisted upon the literal and strict observance of the treaty between them and Great-Britain. The French king had in a regulation of the preceding July, concerning the navagation of neutral vessels, reserved to himself the power of revoking the advantages granted by the first article, in case the belligerent powers should not grant the like within the space of six months. The like not being granted on the part of Bri-tain the king ordered such revocation, with respect to the subjects of the Tutch republic; but excepted the cities of Amsterdam and Haerlem, because of their patriotic exertions to persuade the republic to procure from the court of London the security of unlimited liberty to their flag. This measure was considered by that court, as designed to cause the republic to quarrel with GreatBritain, and occasioned the presentment [April 9..] of a memoorial by Sir Joseph Yorke, in the name of his sovereign, to the -States General; in which the literal and strict observance of the treaty insisted upon by them is pronounced incompatible with the security of Britain, and contrary to the spirit and stipulations of all the former treaties between the two nations. His majesty also declares in it, that he cannot depart from the necessity -jie is under of excluding the transportation of naval stores to the ports of France and particularly timber, even if they are esCorted by men of war; but flatters himself, that he shall never be obliged to take other measures toward the republic, than those which friendship, and good harmony may dictate. - I he capture of the Dutch vessels occasioned a great dearth of -navál stores at Brest, so that the repair of count d’Orvilliers’ *#eet has been exceedingly hindred. The Ville de Paris, which --offered much in the engigement with admiral Keppel, will not * c ready for sea, much before thc time for the siect’s sailing. Till * - - - - . . - • * > . - - * * April
April there was not a mast fit for her in all Brest.* A number of store ships however got in from Holland, so that about the be: ginning of the year, several small squadrons were prepared and slipped out from different ports nearly at the same time : one under Mr. de Grasse for Martinico, to reinforce count d’Estaing. Another under the marquis de Vaudreuil, with a land force, sailed for Africa, and has taken the British forts, settlements, factories and property, at Senegal and other parts of that coast. [1778.] The English East-India company, foreseeing actual, hostilities, resolved, very soon after the delivery of the Frenchrescript, on a bold and decisive measure, for the final reduction. of the French power in India, and conducted the business with. unusual secrecy. Their instructions were happily conveyed with uncommon expedition, and preparations were immediately made: for besieging Pondicherry. Gen. Munro invested the fortress. closely on the 21st of last August, with an army of 10,500 men, including 1500 Europeans. But before this had taken place. there was a warm engagement between Sir Edward Vernon, with a small squadron, and monsieur Tronjolly commanding the like:in which the French were so roughly handled, that to escape a. second action they abandoned the garrison, to their fate on the: day Pondicherry was invested. The garrison amounted to nears 3000 men, of which 900 were Europeans. They were commanded by Mr. de Bellecombe, who disputed every point of his ground, and persevering to the last extremity in a determined and noble defence, held out to the 16th of October, An honorable capitulation was allowed in testimony of the garrison's gallantry, and every requisition that did not interfere with the public benefit was agreed to. The factories at Chandemagor, Ya-2 man, and Karical, with the settlement at Masulipatam, had been. reduced before the capitulation. - [May 1, 1779.] The New-York, Quebec and Newfoundland fleets, to the number of 300, under the convoy of admiral Arbuthnot, sailed from Spithead; the admiral, with a squadron. & o of war and a number of transports, is bound to NewQTK.
... * Advocate M'I—'s Political Memoirs,
L E T T E -R. XVI.
t . .■ ••" . • - ■ \li
Roxbunj, August 5, 1119
THE disasters which followed the-American arms, after the landing the British in Georgia, roused the South-Carolinians vigorously to oppose the extension of their conquests. By an almost unanimous voice they chose John Rutledge, esq. their governor-; and to him and his council was delegated, by the legislature, power "to do every thing that appeared to him and them necessary for the public good." In execution of this trust a body of militia were assembled, stationed at Orangeburgh, nearthe centre of the state, and kept in constant readiness to march whithersoever the public service required. The governor senfcordcrs to gen. Williamson, and' directed him to push parties into Georgia, and destroy all the cattle, horses, provisions arid carriages they should meet with in that state. [April 16.] Gen. Lincoln, in a letter, remarked upon the order, as affecting alike tiifc innocent and guilty, the aged and infirm, &c. and concluded' with saying—" As nothing but a conviction that it is an indispensibie duty, would have led me to the disagreeable task of making the above remarks, so I shall avoid at present any -other, however my own feelings may have been hurt." Theorder, if-at all needful, should have gone from the continental general, whom congress had empowered to-corhmand in that department. Hein a letter of the preceding day, wrote to the president of congress, "We have lately exchanged some prisoners, those who have come out are in a most miserable condition, few of them fit for service. Their treatment on board the prison ships, and the measures adopted to oblige them to renounce their allegiance to the United States, and engage them in the British service,' have "been cruel andun justifiable, many enlisted with them—ma-' ny are dead—and others in a weak, dying state."
[April 19.] A council of war was held at the general's headquarters at Black-swamp, when it was agreed—" That as the number of militia in camp, with those at gen. Williamson's camp, and 500 promised from Orangeburgh, and 700 from North-Carolina now in the state, amounted to 5000 men , they would collect the remainder near to Augusta (after leaving 1000 here and at Purysburgh) and cross the Savannah, take swine strong ground in Georgia, prevent the enemy's receiving supplies from the back parts of the country, circumscribe them within narrow limits, and prevent their juuclioh with the unfriendly, and