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Assart, i, 14.
As.size of Woodstock (1184), i, 8.
Atmosphere in woodlands, hygienic effect

of, i. 78.
Atmospheric humidity in woodlands, i.

72.
impurities, damage by, ii.

216.
temperature, influence of,

i. 312.
in woodlands,

i. 69.
Auction-sales of timber, ii. 480-484.
Austrian or Black Pine (P. austriaca), i.

198, 203.
Austrian method of management, ii. 281.

Pine resin-tapping, ii. 611.
Autobasidiomycetes, ii. 149, 180-187.
Average British crops of timber, i. 449.

Yield Tables (German), i. 403 ;

ii. 333, 407-415.
Axes, different kinds of, ii. 467.

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Aphis, the Beech, ii. 58, 132.

the Elm, ii. 58, 132.
the Larch, ii. 58, 131.
the Red Spruce-, ii. 58, 132.

the Spruce-gall, ii. 58, 130.
Apomecometer, ii. 296.
Appendices to Part V., Management and

Valuation, ii. 401-421.
Apterococcus fraxini, ii. 58, 132.
Aqueous precipitations, damage by, ii.

210.
in woodlands,

i. 72.
Araucaria or Puzzle-Monkey tree, i. 194.

excelsa (Norfolk Island Pine),

i. 195.

imbricata (Chili Pine), i. 194.
Araucarieæ, i. 193, 194.
Arboricultural societies, i. 32.

Society, Royal English, i.

32.
Royal Scottish, i.

32, 37.
Arboriculture, i. 28, 30, 95, 475-506.

first book on, i. 16.
in home-parks and orna-

mental woods, i. 475.

506.
Arborvitæ, the True (Thuja), i. 282.

the Chinese (Biota orientalis),

i. 284,
the Common (T. occidentalis),

i. 282.
the Decurrent - leaved (Libo-

cedrus), i. 285.

the Giant (T. gigantea), i. 283.
Area of plantable waste in United

Kingdom, i. 94.
woods and plantations in

United Kingdom, i. 43.
Aridity, damage by, ii. 192, 194.
Articles

roup, ii. 483.
Artificial drying of wood, ii. 533.

silk, preparation of, ii. 581.
production and regeneration of

woods and plantations, i. 355-

433, 458, 461, 462.
Ascomycetes, ii. 148, 151-154.
Ash or mineral substances in wood, ii.

430, 607.
Ash, the Common (Fraxinus excelsior), i.

127.
the Mountain- (Sorbus), i. 184.

natural regeneration of, i. 474.
"I planting of, i. 421.
Ash, other species of (White, Oregon, and

Green), i. 131.
Ash-bark Beetles, ii. 76-79.
Ash Coccus, the, ii. 58, 132.
Aspect, ii. 343.

influence of, i. 313.
Aspen or Trembling Poplar (P. tremula),

i. 149, 156.
Aspen-leaf Beetle, ii. 57, 102.

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Balks, ii. 454.
Balls of earth, planting with, i. 388.
Band-saws, ii. 568, 570.
Banks of streams, repairs to, ii. 461.
Barb-wire fences, ii. 29.
Bark-allowance in measuring timber, ii.

291, 348, 471.
Bark-beetles, Small, ii. 72-88.

True, ii. 74, 84-88.
Bark-bound trees, ii. 191.
Bark, drying of, ii. 487, 491, 497.
Bark for tanning, different kinds of, ii.

488.
Bark, harvesting of, ii. 486-501.

loss in, ii. 471.
Bark-mosses and Lichens, ii, 140, 191.
Bark-scorching, ii. 210.
Bark-stripping by deer, ii. 17-19.

of Oak, ii, 490-501.

tools, ii. 490, 496, 498.
Bark, substances contained in, ii. 487.

yield in, ii. 493, 499.
Barren sand dunes, planting of, i. 429-

433; ii. 195.
Basal area, table of, ii. 402.
Basidiomycetes, ii. 148, 170-180.
Basket-making, preparation of Osiers for,

ii. 484.
Bastard method of conversion, ii. 454.
Battens, ii. 454.
Bavarian drill-board, i. 369.
Beard-mosses, ii. 140, 191.
Beasts of the forest, i. 14.
Beech (Fagus sylvatica), i. 106, 119.
Beech Aphis, ii. 58, 132.
Beech Leaf-mining Weevil, ii. 94.
Beech, natural regeneration of, i. 467,

474 ; ii. 138.
Beech-Scale, the felted, ii. 58, 132.

-seedling fungus, i. 381 ; ii. 147,

148, 150.

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Beech-Spinner Moth, ii. 57, 105.

sylvicultural importance of, i. 351.
Beetles or Chafers, ii. 71-104.
Beetles, classification of, ii. 71.

destructive, ii. 56, 57, 72-104.
extermination of, ii. 65.

useful, ii. 60, 61.
Bethell's preservative process, ii. 540,

541, 544, 554.
Betula (see “ Birch"), i. 159, 160.
Betulacex, i. 159.
Billhooks, felling with, i. 461; ii. 466.
Bindweed, damage by, ii. 140.
Birch, Common or Silver (Betula alba), i.

160.
Paper (B. papyracea), i. 163.

Tall or Golden (B. lutea), i. 163.
Birch-bark, ii. 489, 500, 603.
Birch-oil, ii. 489, 603.
Birds, destructive, ii. 48, 49, 51.

increase of useful, ii. 64.
protection against destructive, i.

380; ii. 44-52.

useful, ii. 44-46, 51.
Black Arches Moth, ii. 66, 67, 107.
Black Pine resin-tapping, ii. 610, 611.
Blackthorn or Sloe (Prunus spinosa), i.

182.
Bladder-rusts or Blister-fungi, ii. 149,

170-180.
Blaeberry, clearance of, i. 422.
Blanks, filling of, i. 437.
Blight Insects or Scale, ii. 58, 132.
Blister-fungus, ii. 148, 163, 168.
Blueing of coniferous timber, ii. 159,

444.
Bluestone, impregnation with, ii. 540,

543, 546, 553, 554.
Blyth's thermo-carbolisation process, ii.

546, 554.
Board of Agriculture Act, 1889, i. 34.
Bombycidæ, ii. 57, 105-109.
Bombyx (Orgyia) antiqua, ii. 57, 108.

(Liparis, Porthesia) auriflua, ii.

57, 109.
(Liparis, Porthesia) chrysorrhea,

Bostrichus bidens (Tomicus bidentatus),

ii. 56, 85.
(Tomicus) chalcographus, ii.

56, 84.
(Xyleborus) dispar, ii. 56, 88.
(Xyloterus) lineatus, ii. 56,

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ii. 57, 106.
(Gastropacha, Clisiocampa) neus-

tria, ii. 57, 106.
(Orgyia, Dasychira) pudibunda,

ii. 57, 105.
(Liparis, Leucoma) salicis, ii.

57, 108.
Book of Survey (1565), Roger Taverner's,

i. 18.
Book-keeping on woodland estates, ii.

375-384.
Bordeaux mixture or Bouillie bordelaise,

ii. 161.
Bordered White Moth, or Pine Span-

worm, ii. 57, 111.
Bostrichini (Tomicini), ii. 56, 74, 84-88.
Bostrichus (Tomicus) acuminatus, ii. 56,

87.

87.
(Tomicus) laricis, ii. 56, 86.
stenographus (Tomicus sexden-

tatus), ii. 56, 85.
Botrytis cinerea, ii. 148, 168.
Boucherie's preservative process, ii. 540,

543, 550, 554.
Boulton's preservative process, ii. 547.
Boundary-marks, ii. 4, 254.
Bracken, clearance of, i. 422.

damage by, ii. 138.
Bracken-clock or Garden-chafer, ii. 98.
Brakes on rafts, ii. 529.
Brakes on timber-slides, ii. 525.
Branch-knots, ii. 442.
Branch-rot, ii. 444.
Branch-wood and brush-wood, propor.

tion of, ii. 431, 432.
Breaking-strain, resistance to, ii. 445.
Breasting-knife for hedging, i. 500,
Brewers' pitch, ii. 615.
Breymann's formula for percentage of in-

crement, ii. 329.
Bridge-building timber, ii. 457.
Briquette-making with sawdust, ii. 606.
British Forestry, national system of, i.

338.
British timber, market value of, i. 89;

ii. 462-465.
British timber, technical uses of, ii. 455-

461.
Broad-leaved trees, i. 105-192.
Broom, clearance of, i. 422.

damage by, ii, 139.
Brown Oak, i. 109; ii. 433.
Brown-tail Moth, ii. 106.
Brunchorstia pini, ii. 154.
Buchner's preservative process, ii. 551.
Buprestidæ, ii. 57, 100.
Buprestis (Agrilus) viridis, ii. 57, 101.
Burnett's preservative process, ii. 540,

543-545, 553-555.
Butterflies, ii. 104.

Cabinetmaking, timber for, ii. 461.
Cæoma, ii. 170.

laricis, ii. 147, 149, 171, 172.

pinitorqua, ii. 147, 148, 172.
Calcining of potashes, ii. 608.
Calcium-sulphite process for cellulose, ii.

583, 587.
Calliper measurement of timber, ii. 290.
Calyptospora Gæppertiana, ii. 149, 175.
Cambial Beetles, ii. 74, 76-84.
Cambium, i. 302, 306.
Canker of broad-leaved trees, ii. 147,

148, 154.
Canker of the Larch, ii. 147, 148, 163.

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Canker of the Silver Fir, ii. 147, 149,

174.

Pine, ii. 147, 149, 181.
of Spruce-bark, ii. 147, 148, 156.
Cankerous diseases, ii. 147, 149.
Canopy, normal density of, i. 336, 407,

443; ii. 346.
Capercaillie, damage by, ii. 49.
Capital in wood (see “Growing-stock"),

ii, 221, 223, 224.
Capital in wood, normal, ii. 224, 396.
Capital required in Forestry, ii. 390.
Capital value of woodlands, ii. 384, 388,

391, 394.
Carbolin, ii. 539.
Carbonisation of wood, ii, 590.
Cardot's notched seedling-pricker, i. 378,

380.
Cardot's seed-distributor, i. 370.
Carelessness in woodlands, ii. 7.
Carpentry, timber for, ii. 457.
Carpineæ, i. 170.
Carpinus, i. 171.

betulus, i. 171.
Carriages and carts for timber, ii. 507,

509.
Carting timber, cost of, ii. 510.
Cart-work, timber for, ii. 461.
Cash-book, ii. 375.
Castanea, i. 106, 124,

vulgaris, i. 124.
Casual (sporadic, selection) fellings, i.

462, 464 ; ii. 342.
Cattle, protection against, ii. 13.
Causes of decay in timber, ii. 451, 531.
Caustic soda process for cellulose, ii. 585.
Cecidomyia (Hormomyia) fagi, ii. 58, 128.

heterobia, ii. 58, 128.
Kellneri, ii. 128.
saliciperda, ii. 58, 128.

salicis, ii. 58, 127.
Cecidomyidæ, ii. 58, 127.
Cedar (Cedrus), i. 196, 272.

Columbian Red (Thuja gigantea),

i. 283.
Common Japan (Cryptomeria jap-

onica), i. 288.
Incense (Libocedrus), i. 285.
Indian or Deodar (Cedrus deodara),

i. 274.
Japan (Cryptomeria), i. 288.
Mount Atlas or Algerian (Cedrus

atlantica), i, 275.
of Lebanon (C. Libani), i. 273.

Red (Juniperus virginiana), i. 286.
Celluloid, ii. 581.
Cellulose, i. 84, 94 ; ii. 427, 579, 580.

bleaching of, ii. 589.
composition of, ii. 580.
out-turn in, ii. 589.

preparation of, ii. 583-589.
Cenangium, ii. 148, 169.

abietis, ii. 148, 169.
Cerambycide, ii. 57, 99, 125.

Cerambyx (Saperda) carcharias, ii. 57,

99.
populnea, ii. 57, ,

100.
Ceratostoma piliferum, ii. 159, 444.
Cercospora acerina, ii. 148, 154.

microsora, ii. 148, 154.
Chafer, Garden-, ii. 57, 98.

Summer-, ii. 57, 98.
Chafers or beetles, ii. 56, 57, 71-104.
Chain-lever for dragging, ii. 472.
Characteristics of British timber-trees, i.

321-338.
Charcoal-burning, ii. 589-601.

Continental method of,

ii. 595.
Charcoal, characteristics of good, ii. 591.

heating-power of, ii. 593.
Charcoal-kilns, ii. 594-601.

-making in furnaces and retorts,

ii. 601-605.

-pits, ii. 593.
Charring of timber, ii. 539.
Charta Foresta, i. 9, 11.
Chase, status of a, i. ll.
Cheimatobia brumata, ii. 57, 110.
Chemical composition of soil, i. 307.

wood, ii. 427.
Chemistry of agriculture and sylvicul-

ture, i. 303-320.
Chermes, ii. 58, 129.

abietis, ii. 58, 130.
coccineus, ii. 58, 132.
fagi, ii. 58, 132.
fraxini, ii. 58, 132.

laricis, ii. 58, 131.
Cherry, Wild, i. 181.
Chestnut, Horse- (Esculus), i. 173.

Sweet or Spanish (Castanea),

i. 106, 124.
Chili Pine (Araucaria imbricata), i. 194.
Chloride of barium, impregnation with,

ii. 541.
mercury, impregnation with,

ii. 540, 554.
sodium, impregnation with,

ii. 540.
zinc, impregnation with, ii.

540, 543, 545, 553, 554.
zinc and creosote, impregna-

tion with, ii. 545, 554.
Choice between artificial reproduction

and natural regeneration, i. 459.
Choice between sowing and planting, i.

355, 357.
Chromic acid, impregnation with, ii.

551, 552.
Chrysomela (Agalastica) alni, ii. 102.

(Lina) populi, ii. 57, 101.

tremulæ, ii, 57, 102.
Chrysomelidæ, ii. 57, 101.
Chrysomyxa, ii. 149, 178.

abietis, ii. 147, 149, 171,

178.

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Chrysomyxa rhododendri, ii. 179.
Circular rake, i. 398.
Circular saws, ii. 568, 576.

teeth of, ii. 576.
Classification of soil, i. 308 ; ii. 343.
Clay soil, i, 309, 315, 464 ; ii. 343.
Cleaning and weeding, i. 435, 436.
Cleaning of coppices and copses, i. 437.
Clearance, partial, i. 449, 463; ii. 363.

total, i. 462.
Clear-felling, i. 461, 462.
Clearwing-Moths, ii. 58, 121.
Clematis, damage by, ii. 140.
Clerus formicarius, ii. 60.
Click-beetle, the Striped, ii. 57, 103.
Click-beetles, ii. 57, 102.
Climate, influence of, i. 321.
Climatic and physical influence of wood.

lands, i. 67-79.
Clog-making, wood for, ii. 461, 484.
Close canopy, i. 336, 441 ; ii. 346.
Coach-building timber, ii. 461.
Coccidæ, ii. 58, 132.
Coccus of the Ash, ii. 58, 132.
Coccus (Chionaspis) salicis, ii. 58, 132.
Cockchafer or May-beetle, i. 57, 380 ;

ii. 96.
Cockchafer, Horse-Chestnut, ii. 57, 99.
Cognate sciences to Forestry, i. 62.
Coleophora laricella, ii. 57, 117.
Coleoptera or beetles, ii. 56, 60, 61, 71-

104.
injurious, ii. 56, 71-104.

useful, ii. 60, 61.
Coleosporiaceo, ii. 149, 171, 176.
Coleosporium, the genus, ii. 149, 171,

176.
Collins' axe, ii. 467.
Collodium, ii. 581.
Colophony, ii. 613, 615.
Colour of wood, ii. 432.
Commissioners of Woods and Forests, i,

29, 31.
Commissions on Woods and Forests,

Royal (1786, 1850), i. 27, 31.
Committee on Forestry, Departmental

(1902), Pref. ix ; i. 37-42, 90, 93.
Committee on Forestry, Parliamentary

(1885), i. 33.
Woods and Forests,

Parliamentary (1889),

i. 35.
Commonage, ii. 5.
Commons, Acts relating to enclosure of,

i, 26.
Compartments, demarcation and number-

ing of, ii. 251, 254.
size and breadth of, ii.

Compartments, subdivision of woodlands

into, ii. 248, 249, 340.
Compensation for Damage to Crops Act

(1905). See footnote,
Composition of soil, chemical, i. 307.

wood, chemical, ii. 427.
Compost (see “Humus "), i, 366.
Compound interest and discount, tables

of, ii. 416-421.
Condition of British woodlands, i. 43-59.
Conditions for timber-sales, ii, 483,
Configuration of ground, influence of, i.

313.
Conflagrations, ii. 7.
Congested districts of Ireland, planting

in, i. 100.
Coniferous or needle-leaved trees (Con-

iferee), i. 193-295,
Conifer plantations, remarks regarding,

i. 51, 97.
Conifer timber, technical uses of, ii. 456.
Continental Europe, forests of, i. 44, 83.
Continental methods of planting, i. 395,

396, 409.
sowing, i. 358,

371, 396.
Control-books, ii. 373.
Conversion of Coppice and Copse into

Highwood, i. 353; ii. 364.
Conversion of timber (see “Sawmills”),

ii. 564-579.

cost of, ii, 578.
Conveyance by railway, ii. 511.

of timber, ii. 506-530.
Convolvulus, damage by, ii. 140.
Cooperage timber, ii. 461.
Copper vitriol, impregnation with, ii.

540, 543, 546, 553, 554.
Coppice, i. 48, 59, 338 ; ii. 231, 358.
Coppice with Standards (see " Copse-

woods”), i. 338.
Coppice, conversion of, i. 353; ii. 364.

regulation of annual fall in, ii.

358.
sale of, ii, 484.

weeding of, i. 436.
Coppices, cutting of, i. 461; ii. 476.

formation of, i, 339, 417.

Oak, i, 113.
Coppice-stools, trimming of, i. 461.
Copse, Continental, i, 342.

regulation of annual fall in, ii.

358.
Copse-standards, felling of, ii. 476.

selection of, i. 344, 359.
Copsewoods, i. 49, 59, 338, 342, 344,

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252, 253.

353, 459; ii. 232, 358.
Coral-spot disease, ii. 147, 148, 156.
Cord of wood, ii, 291, 454.

1 This Act, dealing with damage by sparks from railway engines, was passed on
4th August 1905, but does not come into operation till January 1908 ; and in no
single case can more than £100 be awarded as damages (see vol. i. pp. 41, 57, and
vol. ii. p. 8).

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Cutting of coppice, i. 461; ii. 466.
Cuttings (sets, slips), planting of, i. 387.
Cylindrical saws, ii. 568, 570.

spade, Heyer's, i. 382.
Cynipida, ii. 58, 125.
Cynips (Dryophanta) querci, ii. 58, 126.
Cypress (Cupressus), i. 276.

Common or Italian (C. semper-

virens), i. 276.
Deciduous or Swamp (Taxodium

distichum), i. 292.
False (Chamacyparis), i. 279.
Large-coned (C. macrocarpa), i.

278.
Lawson's (Ch. Lawsoniana), i.

279.
Nootka Sound or Alaska (Ch.

nutkaensis), i. 280.
Obtuse - leaved or Japan (Ch.

obtusa), i. 281.

Corrimony fencing, ii. 31.
Corrosive sublimate, impregnation with,

ii. 540, 554.
Corylus, i. 170.
Corylus avellana (Hazel), i. 171.
Cossidue, ii. 58, 118.
Cossus ligni perda, ii. 58, 118.
Cost of planting, i. 95, 99, 400-403, 416.

sowing, i. 400-403.

wire-fencing, ii. 28.
Covered drains in parks, i. 481.
Cracking of wood, ii. 440.
Cratagus Oxyacantha (Hawthorn), i. 182.
Creosote, impregnation with, ii. 540, 541,

543, 545, 553, 554.
preparation of, ii. 603.

preservative action of, ii. 542.
Creosote salts or naphthaline, ii. 560.
Creosoting by immersion, ii. 556.

by injection under pressure,

ii. 558.
British methods of, ii. 555-

559.
Crickets, damage by, i. 380 ; ii. 133.
Cronartiaceæ, ii. 149, 171, 177.
Cronartium, the genus, ii. 147, 149, 177.
Cronartium ribicolum, ii. 178.
Crops of wood, density of, ii. 346.

measurement of whole, ii.

303.
Crops or growing-stock, description of,

ii. 344-348.
Crossbills, damage by, ii. 51.
Crown forests and woodlands, i, 27, 31,

32, 35, 36 ; ii. 5.
Crown of trees, shape of, i. 326.
Cross-cutting machine, ii. 470.

saws, ii, 568, 576.
Crushing, resistance to, ii. 445, 446.
Cryptococcus fagi, ii. 58, 132.
Cryptomeria, the Elegant (C. elegans), i.

289.
Cryptomyces maximus, ii. 163.
Cryptorynchus lapathi, ii. 56, 95.
Cubic contents of crop, estimate of, ii.

347.
logs, tables of, ii. 402-

406.
timber, measurement

of, ii. 290.
per acre, estimate of, ii.

Dahl's process for cellulose, ii. 585.
Daily-labour book, ii. 376.
Damage from railway-engine sparks (see

also Compensation for Damage to

Crops Act, 1905 "), i. 41, 57; ii. 8.
Darroch's naphthalining process, ii. 559.
Dasycypha calycina, ii. 163.
Dead-oil (see “Creosote”), ii. 541.
Deals, ii. 454.
Dean, forest of (see "Forest of Dean'),

i. 7.
Decay in wounds and holes, prevention

of, i. 454, 493.
Decay of timber, ii. 451, 531.
Deer, damage by, ii. 17-20.
Deer-forests, i. 7 ; ii. 17.
Deer-parks, i. 6.
Deer Removal Act (1851), i. 31.
Defects in timber, ii. 442.
Dendrometers, ii. 294, 296.
Density and weight of wood, ii. 435.
Density of timber-crops, i. 336, 407, 443,

449 ; ii. 346.
Deor-frid, i. 6.
Dependent or subordinate kinds of trees,

i. 333, 335, 337.
Depth of planting, i. 396.
Dessication of wood, ii. 435, 440, 533.
Dew, ii. 211, 444.
Diagram, the planter's, i. 411.
Diameter (see “Girth"), measurement of,

ii. 298.
and superficies, tables of, ii.

310.
Cultural operations, cost of, i. 401-403.
Cupressina, i. 193, 276.
Cup-shakes, ii. 443.
Cupulifera, i. 106.
Curculionidæ or snouted weevils, ii. 56,

89-95.
Cuscuta or dodder, damage by, ii. 141.
Custom of the trade in selling sawn tim-

ber, ii. 454.
Customary measurement of timber, ii.

289, 511.
Customs measurement of timber, ii. 290.

402.
Dibbling of acorns, i. 19, 21, 357, 373,

401.
Die-square measurement of timber, ii.

290.
Different classes of woodland crops, i.

338.
Diptera, ii. 58, 127.
Disafforestation, i. 9.
Discomycetes, ii. 148, 162-170.

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