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Discount and interest, tables of, ii. 416-

421.
Dissolving the sap of timber, ii. 536.
Distance for planting, i. 406.

transplanting, i. 376.
Dodder, damage by, ii. 141.
Domesday Survey, i. 7.
Dominant or ruling kinds of trees, i. 333,

335, 337.
Dormouse, damage by, ii. 43.
Double-leaders, removal of, i. 381.
Double-notching, i. 389.
Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga), i. 196, 248.
Dragging implements, ii. 507.
Dragging of timber, ii. 507, 526.
Drainage, advantages of, i. 315.

before planting, i. 422.
of woodlands, i. 316-320 ; ii.

193.

subsoil, i. 319.
Draudt's method of selecting sample-

stems, ii. 306, 307.
Drift of Forests (1540), i. 16.
Drifting of timber, ii. 526, 527.
Drill-sowing, i. 368, 371.
Drought, damage by, ii. 207.

protection against, i. 380, 434 ;

ii. 208.
Dry distillation of wood, ii. 590-605.

in charcoal-kilns, ii. 590-

601.
in closed vessels, ii. 601-

Electro-chemical process for cellulose, ii.

583, 588.
Elm (Ulmus), i. 132.

Aphides or plant-lice of the, ii. 132.
Common English or Small-leaved (U.

campestris), i. 132, 474.
layering of, i. 386.
Mountain, Scots, or Wych (U. mon-

tana), i. 135.

natural reproduction of, i. 474.
!! planting of, i. 421.
Elm-bark Beetle, ii. 74.
Enclosure and fencing, ii. 4, 22-37.
Enclosure for deer, i. 6.
Enclosure of commons, Acts relating to,

i. 26.
Enclosure of Woods Act (1482), i. 15.
Encoppicement or enclosure, i. 18, 472.
Engines, portable and traction, ii. 575.
English law regarding timber, i. 58.
Epiphytic plants, damage by, ii. 139.
Erosion, protection of soil against, i. 78.
Erysiphaceæ, ii. 152.
Estate sawmills, ii. 564-579.
Estate work, creosoting and naphtha-

lining wood for, ii. 555.

560.

timber for, ji. 461.
Estimate of age of trees and timber-

crops, ii. 311-313.
cubic contents per acre, ii.

310.
Evaporation of soil moisture in wood-

lands, i. 76.
Evelyn's Sylra, i, 22, 25.
Evergreen hedges, pruning of, i. 501.
Exoascacere, ii. 148, 151-154.
Exoascus, ii. 151.
Exobasidium, ii. 180.
Exosporium, ii. 168.
Expansion of wood, ii. 440, 442.
Expenditure and receipts, estimates of,

ii. 380-382, 393.
Explanatory note to working-plan, ii.

366.
Exposure, influence of, i. 313.
Extent and condition of British wood.

lands, i. 43-59.
Extermination of beetles, ii. 65.

11 moths, ii. 66.
Extraction of timber, ii. 506-530.
Extraction of tree-stumps, ii. 474.
Eyre, justice in, i. 13.

of the forest, i. 8, 12.

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Faggotting, ii. 453.
Fagus (see “ Beech "), i. 106, 119.
Fall of timber, i. 352; ii. 267.
Fallen trees, raising of, i. 490.
Fallow.deer, damage by, ii. 20.
Falls of timber, annual and periodic (see

“Annual falls "), ii. 224, 229.
Falls, protective (or severances), ii, 265,

342.

605.
products of, ii. 591, 602-

604.
Drying of Oak-bark, ii. 493, 497.
Drying winds, protection against, i. 380;

ii. 209.
Drying wood artificially, ii. 533.
Dry-rot, ii. 187, 444.
Dry-stone dykes, ii. 32.
Dunes, planting of, i. 429-433; ii. 195.
Durability of timber, ii. 445, 450.

. impregnated timber, ii.

554.
Duramen, trees with perfect or imperfect,

ii. 430.
Durmast Oak, i. 107, 114.
Dye-stuffs, ii. 430.
Dykes or mounds, ii. 32.

Early frosts, damage by, ii. 203.
Earth-flea, ii. 102.
Earthwork timber-slides, ii. 522.
Ebermayer's investigations in sylvicul-

tural chemistry, i. 307.
Edinburgh University, Forestry course

at, i. 33, 66.
Education in Forestry, technical, i. 33-44,

59-66.
Elasticity of timber, ii. 446, 447.
Elateridı, ii. 57, 102.
Electricity, fire-proofing by, ii. 563.

impregnation by, ii.

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Falls, successive (or partial clearances),

i. 462, 463.
False Acacia (Robinia), i. 187,

Cypress (Cham.ecyparis), i. 279.
Hemlock (see “ Douglas Fir”), i.

248.
Farm live-stock, damage by, ii, 12-15.
Fascines, ii. 461.
Faustmann's formula for actuarial calcu-

lations, ii. 239, 241, 394.
“ Mirror Hypsometer,” ii.

294, 295.
Feeder-roads, ii. 518, 519.
Felling against wind, ii. 257.

-axes, ii. 467.
best season for, ii. 475.
-direction, the general, ii. 372.
in patches, i. 462, 465.
-machines, ii. 472.
of coppice, i. 461; ii. 476.
of timber, ii. 466, 477, 478.
-plan by area, ii. 356.
preparatory, i. 465.
seed-, i. 465.
-series, allocation of the various,

ii. 258, 341, 372.
trimming, and logging, cost of,

ii. 478.
with axe alone, ii. 467.

axe and saw, ij. 470.
bill or bill-hook, i. 461; ii.

466.
11 lever - appliances, ii. 466,

471-474.

saw alone, ii. 468.
Fellings, mode of carrying out, ii. 372.
Fence-gates, ii. 35.
Fence-steps, ii. 37.
Fences, i. 367, 493; ii. 22-37.

maintenance of, ii. 32.
Fencing enclosure, 2-37.
Fencing, corrimony, ii. 31.
Fen-country, Osiers in the, i. 418; ii. 485.
Fidonia piniaria, ii. 57, 111.
Field-book, ii. 344, 350.
Filling of blanks, i. 437.
Final yield or mature fall, ii. 222, 363.
Finches, damage by, ii. 50.
Fir, Common or Scots (see

Pine"), i. 198.
Fire, damage by and protection against,

ii. 7-11.
Fire-blast insect, ii. 134.
Fires in woodlands, ii. 7-11.
Fire-proofing by electricity, ii. 563.

1. impregnation, ii. 562.
1 superticial coatings, ii.

562.

of wood, ii, 560-563.
Firewood, measurement of, ii. 291.

Fixation of shifting sand, i. 429-433; ii.

195.
Fixing the annual fall, ii. 267-275, 281.

286, 358.
Flamache's preservative process, ii. 541.
Flexibility of timber, ii. 447, 448.
Flies, two-winged, ii. 58, 127.
Floating of timber, ii. 526-530.
Flow of sap in trees, i. 301.
Flumes or water-slides, ii, 524.
Fodder from woodlands, ii. 617.
Fomes, ii. 181, 183, 184.
Fomes annosus, ii. 147, 149, 182,

fomentarius, ii. 149, 183,

igniarius, ii. 149, 183.
Food of plants, i. 305.
Forest courts, i. 13.

land, valuation of, ii. 392.
laws, i. 8-22.
offences, i. 14 ; ii. 6.
officers proper to a, i. 11.

origin of term, i, 6.
Forest of Dean, commonage and rights of

user in the, ii. 5.
extent of the, i. 35.
formation of the, i. 7.
laws affecting the, i. 11,

23, 28, 29.
management of the, i. 24,

32, 35, 36, 61 ; ii. 367.
planting in the, i. 20,

23, 28, 199.
Forestry and agriculture, i. 3 ; ii. 391.

and arboriculture, i. 28, 30, 95.
exhibitions, i. 33.
Investigation method of select-

ing sample-stems, ii. 306, 307,

309.
national system of British, i.

sale of, ii. 291, 453.

splitting of, ii. 579.
Fissibility of wood, ii. 448.
Fitzherbert's Book of Husbandry, i. 16.

338.
Society, Irish, i. 32.
technical education in, i. 33-44,

59-66.

the four main branches of, i. 62.
Forked growth in trees, i. 357.
Form-factor, ii. 301.
Forms of woodland crops, i. 338.
Formulæ for calculating value of wood-

lands, ii. 385-389.
Formular methods of management, ii.

281-286.
Frame-saws, ii. 568.
Fraxinus (see “ Ash”), i. 127.
French forests, i. 44, 86,
Frost, damage by, i. 323 ; ii. 202.

protection against, i. 380, 434, 464;

ii. 192.
Frost-canker, ii. 207.
Frost-cracks or frost-shakes, ii. 206, 443.
Fuller beetle, ii. 99.
Fungi, ii. 141-187.

changes in generation of, ii. 145.
classification of the chief disease-

producing, ii. 148, 149.

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Fungi, description of the chief disease.

producing, ii. 150-187.
fructification of, ii. 143.

life-history of, ii. 141.
Fungous diseases, i. 381; ii. 141-187.

classification

of, ii.
146, 148.
prevention and exter-

mination of, ii. 146.

the chief, ii. 148, 149.
Furniture, timber for, ii. 461.
Furze, i. 422 ; ii. 137, 138.
Furze-hedges, i. 498.
Fusicladium, fungi of the genus, ii. 154.
Fusoma pini, ii. 154.
Future management, working-plan for,

ii. 367.
Future values, calculation of, ii. 386,

389.

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Grazing in woods and plantations, i. 30,

102; ii, 616.
Continental rules regarding, ii.

15.
Grease-banding with patent tar, ii. 66,

69.
Greatest profit in timber-crops, ii. 235.
Green wood, weight, &c., of, ii. 435-439.
Gregarious trees, i. 333.
Ground-fires, ii. 7.
Ground-game, damage by, ii. 20, 21.
Ground-vermin, birds in relation to, ii.

44.
protection against, ii.

44.
Groups, natural regeneration in, i. 462,

465.
Grouse, damage by, ii. 49.
Growing crops of wood, measurement

of, ii. 303, 308.
Growing crops of wood, valuation of, ii.

395.
Growing-stock, description of, ii. 344-351.

in a working-circle, valua-

tion of the, ii. 396.
or capital in wood, ii.

223, 224.
Growing timber, laws regarding felling

of, i. 58.
Growth in cubic contents, rate of, i. 328,

329, 451 ; ii. 313, 317.
girth, rate of, i. 329; ii, 297,

316.
height, rate of, i. 328; ii. 297,

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Gallic acid, ii. 487.
Gall-midges or gnats (Cecidomyida), ii.

58, 127, 128.
Gall-midge, the Beech, ii. 128.

the Larch, ii. 128.
the Large Osier, ii. 127.

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313.
Growth of plants, i. 303.

roots, i. 400.
Grubbing-axes, ii. 467.
Gryllido, ii. 58, 133.
Gryllus gryllotalpa (Gryllotalpa vulgaris),

ii. 58, 133.
Guards for trees, i. 493.
Gun-cotton, preparation of, ii. 581.
Gurteen-le-Poer system of management,

i. 97, 445.
Gymnosporangium, ii. 180.

the Small Osier, ii. 128.
Gall-wasps (Cynipida), ii. 58, 125-127.

of the Oak, ii. 126, 127.
Game, damage by, ii. 16-22.
Game-coverts, i. 417, 477.
Garden beetle, ii. 99.
Gean or Wild Cherry, i. 181.
General characteristics of timber-crops,

i. 333.
Geometra (Cheimatobia) brumata, ii. 57,

110.

(Fidonia) piniaria, ii. 57, 111.
Geometrido, ii. 57, 110.
German forests, i. 44, 82, 85.
Germination of seed, i. 300, 358, 369.
Gills or timber-carriages, ii. 507.
Gingko or Maidenhair tree (Gingko

biloba), i. 294.
Girdling trees, effects of, ii. 431.
Girth and superficies, tables of, ii. 402.
Girth, measurement of, ii. 298.

rate of growth of, ii. 297, 316.
Gluosporium nerrisequium, ii. 154.
Glycosides in bark, ii. 487.

sap, ii. 430.

Gnats or midges (see "Gall-midges "), ii.

58, 127.
Goat-moth, ii. 118.
Goats, damage by, ii. 12.
Göhler's revolving marking-hammer, ii.

479.
Gold-tail moth, ii. 109.
Gorse, i. 422 ; ii. 137, 138.
Gradient, influence of, i. 313.
Gradual clearance of parent trees, i.

465.
Grain of wood, ii. 432, 434.
Grape-mould fungus, ii. 168.

Hail, damage by, ii. 211, 215.
Half-balks, ii. 454.
Half-winged insects (Hemiptera), ii. 58,

128-133.
Haltica oleracea, ii. 102.
Handbills or billhooks, felling with, i.

461; ii. 466.
Hand-sawing, cost of, ii. 578.
Hand-saws, different kinds of, ii. 468.
Hardness of wood, ii, 432, 449.
Hardwoods, technical uses of, ii. 455.
Hares, protection against, i. 380 ; ii. 21.
Harvesting and sale of woodland pro-

duce, ii. 466-505.
Harvesting of bark, ii. 486-501.

timber and coppices, ii.

466-486.

Harvesting of tree-seeds, ii. 501-505.
Haskin's vulcanisation process, ii. 534.
Hawkeye machine, ii. 474.
Hawthorn or Quick (Cratagus), i. 182.

hedges, i. 494, 500.
Hazel (Corylus), i. 170, 171.
Hazel Weevil, ii. 95.
Heart-shakes, ii. 443.
Heartwood, i. 306.
Heartwood-trees, ii. 430.
Heat, damage by, ii. 207.

protection against, ii. 208.
Heather, ii. 137.

clearance of, i. 422; ii. 138.
Heating-power of charcoal, ii. 593.

wood, ii. 450, 593.
Heavy-oil (see “Creosote"), ii. 541, 603.
Hedera helix, ii. 139.
Hedge, simple trenched, i. 497.
Hedge-planting, i. 496.
Hedgerow timber, i. 501.
Hedges, i. 493-501.

evergreen, i. 501.

pruning and tending of, i. 499.
Height, measurement of, ii. 294.

rate of growth in, i. 328; ii. 297,

313.
Hemiptera, ii. 58, 128.
Hemlock (Tsuga), i. 196, 245.

Californian (T. Mertensiana),

i. 246.
Common or Canadian (T. cana-

densis), i. 246.
False (Pseudotsuga

“Douglas Fir”), i. 248.

Patton's (T. Pattoniana), i. 247.
Heyer's calliper, ii. 299.

cylindrical spade, i. 382.

method of management, ii. 284.
Highland and Agricultural Society of

Scotland, i. 32, 33.
High timber, high timber-crop, or high-

wood, i. 338, 346, 353; ii. 230.
Highwoods, felling in, ii. 477.

mixed, i. 347.
pure, i. 347.
regulation of fall in, ii. 360.

renewal of, i. 461-474.
Hill-sides and higher uplands, planting

on, i. 427.
Hippocastanec, i. 173.
History of Forestry and Arboriculture

in Britain, i. 4-42.
Hoar-frost, damage by, ii. 211, 215.
Holly or Holm (Ilex), i. 190.
Holm-oak, i. 107, 116.
Home-parks, Arboriculture in, i. 475.
Honey-fungus, ii. 147, 149, 185.
Honeysuckle, damage by, ii. 140.
Hop-beech (Ostrya), i. 170.
Hop-dog Moth or Beech Spinner, the

Pale, ii. 105.
Hope-poles, ii. 484.
Hops, damage by wild, ii. 140.

Horizontal band-saw, ii. 570.

frame-saw, ii. 570.

saws, ii. 568.
Hornbeam (Carpinus), i. 170, 171.
Hornet Clearwing-moth, ii. 121.
Horse-Chestnut (Æsculus), i. 173.

fungus, ii. 147, 148, 156.
Horses, damage by, ii, 12.
Hossfeld's hypsometer, ii. 295, 296.
House-building, timber for, ii. 457
Hugues' system of resin-tapping, ii. 610.
Human actions, protection against, ii.

3-11.
Humose soil, i. 310, 315.
Humulus, damage by, ii. 140.
Humus or vegetable mould, i. 310, 366 ;

ii. 226.
Hundeshagen's “rational method of

management, ii. 283.
Hunting-grounds, Royal Saxon, i. 6.
Hurdle-making, ii. 484.
Hydnum diversidens, ii. 185.
Hydro-cellulose, ii. 580.
Hydrostatic pressure, impregnation under,

ii. 550.
Hygienic influence of woodlands, i. 78.
Hylastes (see Hylesinus "), ii, 82.
Hylesinini, ii. 56, 74, 76.
Hylesinus crenatus, ii. 56, 76, 78.

fraxini, ii. 56, 76, 78.
oleiperda, ii. 56, 76, 79.
(Hylastes) ater, ii. 56, 83.
(Hylastes) palliatus, ii. 56, 82.
(Hylurgus) minor, ii. 56, 83.

(Hylurgus) piniperda, ii. 56, 79.
Hylobius abietis, ii. 56, 89.
Hylurgus (see Hylesinus "), ii. 79.
Hymenomycetes, ii. 149, 180-187.
Hymenoptera, ii. 58, 121-127.
Hypocreacea, ii. 148, 154-157.
Hypoderma strobicola, ii. 159.
Hypodermatacea, ii. 148, 159-162.
Hypsometer, Weise's telescope-, ii. 295,

296.
Hypsometers for height-measurement, ii.

294.
Hysterium (Lophodermium) pinastri, ii.

146, 148, 160.

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Ice, damage by, ii. 215.
Ichneumonidæ, ii. 62.
Ilex aquifolium, i. 190.
Ilicinex, i. 190.
Immersion, impregnation by, ii. 543, 556.
Importance of woodlands, national-econo-

mic, i. 67, 79-102.
Imports of timber, i. 45, 102.
Impregnation, comparative cost and re-

sults of, ii. 552-554.
for fire-proofing, ii. 562.
methods of, ii. 543-552.
statistics regarding results

of, ii. 553.
with antiseptics, ii. 540-560.

47.

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Improvement of Land Act (Scotland), 1893, Irish woodlands, crop-measurements in,
i. 57.

i. 52, 55.
Improvement of Land Act (United King-

statistical returns of, i.
dom), 1899, i. 57.
Income from woodlands, estimates of net, Iron fencing, ii. 23.
ii. 382, 398.

gates, ii. 36.
Income, net annual (German State forests), Ironpan, planting over, i. 426.
i. 85.

Iron retorts for dry distillation of wood,
Increased durability of impregnated ii. 601-605.
timber, ii. 542, 554.

Iron straining-posts, ii. 29.
Increment, or growth in cubic contents, Irrigation in woodlands, ii. 210,
i. 328, 329, 451 ; ii. 313, 317.

Ivy, damage by, ii. 139.
Increment accruing after free exposure,
i. 451.

Janker, the, ii. 509, 510.
Increment gauge (Pressler's borer), ii. Japanese Larch (L. leptolepis), i. 271; ii.
325, 347.

167.
Increment of timber-crops, estimate of, Jays, damage by, ii. 50.

present, past, and future, ii. 331. Judeich's system of management (Saxony),
Increment of timber-crops, measurement ii. 275-281.
of, ii. 313, 324, 325.

Juglandacer, i. 177.
Increment, normal, ii. 230.

Juglans regia (see “Walnut"), i. 177.
percentage of, ii. 244, 275, Juniper (Juniperus), i. 286.
327, 332.

Juniper, the Common, i. 193, 286.
quantitative and qualitative, Juniper, Virginian (J. virginiana), i. 286.
ii. 322, 323.

Justice in Eyre, i. 8, 12.
rate of, ii. 317.

Justice Seat, i. 13.
the current mean annual and Justices in Eyre abolished, i. 29.

periodic, ii. 318, 32), 347.
“Indicating percentage," Graner's table Kellner's process for cellulose, ii. 588.
of, ii. 246.

Kenebeck axe, ii. 467.
“ Indicating percentage,” Pressler's, ii. Kick-stamp machinery, ii. 579.
244, 347.

Kingston transplanting machine, i. 486.
Influence of situation on tree-growth, i. King's woods, i. 6.
312.

Knockboy Plantations, Ireland, i. 100.
Influence of woodlands, climatic and König's measuring-board, ii. 294.
physical, i. 67-79.

Kyan's preservative process, ii. 540, 543.
Injurious atmospheric influences, protec-
tion against, ii. 196-218.

Labour employed in woodlands, i. 85.
Injurious influences in soil and atmo Laburnum (Laburnum), i. 186.
sphere, ii. 188-218.

Lackey Moth, ii. 106.
Injurious insects, classification of, ii. 55. Lamellicorn Beetles, ii. 96-99.

extent of damage by, Lamp-black, preparation of, ii. 615.
ii. 59.

Land Improvement Acts (1893, 1899), i.
extermination of, ii. 64. 57.
natural checks to in Landes, planting of the, i. 86, 431 ; ii.
crease of, ii. 59.

195.
protection against, ii. Larceny as to trees and woodlands, i. 31 ;
44, 53-134.

ii. 3.
table of chief, ii. 56-58. Larch (Larix), i. 196, 266, 470.
Inland sand, fixation of, ii. 195.

Common (L. europæa), i. 266.
Insect attacks, prevention of, ii. 63.

Japanese (L. leptolepis), i. 271;
Insects injurious to woodlands, ii. 54-134.

ii. 167.
Insects, life-history of, ii. 53.

Kurile (L. curilensis), i. 272.
useful (predacious and parasitic),

Siberian (L, siberica), i. 272.
ii. 60-62.

Larch-bark, ii. 488, 499.
Interest and discount, tables of, ii. 416-

Bark-beetle, ii. 86.
421.

-canker, ii. 147, 148, 163.
Interest, rate of, ii. 240, 391.

Mining-moth, ii. 117.
Intermediate yield or returns from thin-

plantations in Scotland, i. 29, 268.
nings, i. 440, ii. 222, 363.

grazing in, ii. 616.
Ireland, Timber Preservation Act (1698)

resin-tapping, ii. 612.
for, i. 24.

-seed, collection of, ii. 502.
Irish Forestry Society, i. 32.

Late frosts, damage by, ii. 202.
Irish Land Act (1903), i. 42.

Law of the minimum, i. 303.

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